虚拟语气是动词的一种特殊形式， 用来表示所说的话只是一种主观愿 望、假设、建议或请求等，不可能 成为事实或实现的可能性极小的情 况。
一、虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中 (1) 表示与现在事实相反的假设, 条件 状语从句中的谓语动词用“过去式 (be 动词的过去式用were)”, 而主句中 的谓语动词“would / shou
ld/ could / might + 动词原形”。 e.g. If I were a boy, I would join the army.
What would you do if you won the
If I won the
lottery, I would…
If I had a lot of money, I would buy a villa.
If I had a lot of money now, I would travel around the world.
If I had a lot of money, I would go shopping.
a. If they _____ were (be) here, they __________ would take (take) your advice. b. If the world-war burst _____ (burst) out again, what _____________ would happen (happen)
to our people on earth?
c. If the policeman ________ were not (be not) in that room, it ________ could be (be) very dangerous. d. If I _____ were (be) in your position, I
_________ would ask (ask) for teacher’s help.
(2) 与过去的事实相反 从句的谓语用had ＋ 过去分词, 构成 If I (we, you, he, they)＋had＋过去分词的 形式； 主句的谓语用should(第一人称)/would (第二、三人称) / could / might have ＋ 动词过去分词。
If he __________ had driven more carefully, he _________________ would not have had the car accident yesterday.
If I __________ had learnt how to swim,
I __________________ would not have been trapped in this island.
a. If Tom ________ had been (be) more careful in
the exam, he ________________ would have passed (pass) it already. b. If you _______ had got (get) up earlier, you ________________ would have caught (catch) the first train.
从句的谓语用If I (we, you, he, they) ＋ 动词过去式或 were to do 或should do
/would (第二、三人称) /could/ might ＋
If you succeeded, everything would be all right. If you should succeed, everything would be all right. If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
a. If there _________ should be (be) no natural resource any more, we should ___________ make (make) use of nuclear power. b. What ____________ would happen (happen) if you ____________ should get up (get up) too late tomorrow?
c. If Robots were ______________ to control (control) the world some day, here _________ would be (be) no friendship.
1省略 if 的条件从句
当从句中有 were, had 或 should 时，可省 略if ，而把它们放在句首。 1. If I were you, I would go at once. Were I you, I would go at once. 2. If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. Had you come a few minutes earlier… 3. If it should snow tomorrow, I would stay at home. Should it snow tomorrow…
What would have happened, _____ as far as the river bank
A. Bob had walked farther
B. if Bob should walk farthe
C. had Bob walked farther
D. if Bob walked farther
? 1. should have done 本应该干某事（而 事实上没干） ? 2. must have done 一定干过某事（对 过去事实的推测） ? 3. needn’t have done 本没必要干某事 （而事实上却干了）
? Harry is feeling uncomfortable. He must have drunk too much at the party last night. (2013辽宁) 哈里不舒服。他昨晚在聚会上肯定喝多了。 Jack described his father，who _____ a brave boy many years ago, as a strong-willed man. A. would be C. must be D B. would have been D. must have been
? We should have studied last night, but we went to the concert instead. ? 昨晚我们本应该学习，但却去听音乐会了 ? I was really anxious about you. You shouldn’t have left home without a word. ? 我真为你担心，你不该不说一声就离开家。
? As you worked late yesterday, you needn’t have come this morning. ? 你昨晚工作到很晚，今天早上你原本可以不来。
? 1. – We have prepared all kinds of food for the picnic. -- you mean we ___ have brought anything with us. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shan’t D. needn’t D
二、虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法 1. 在动词wish后的宾语从句中, 表示与 现在或过去的事实相反, 或对将来的 主观愿望, 从句通常省略连词that。 1) 表示对现在情况的虚拟: 从句动词用 过去式或过去进行式 (be动词一般用 were) 。
I wish I were as tall as you.
I wish every day were my birthday.
(2) 表示对过去情况的虚拟: 从句动
词常用“had＋过去分词”。 I wish/wished I hadn’t eaten so much watermelon.
The party was terrible, I wish
I had never gone to it.
(3) 表示对将来的主观愿望: 从句动词形 式为 “ would＋动词原形”。
注意: 主句的主语与从句的主语不能相 同, 因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作 能否实现，取决于从句主语的态度或意 愿(非动物名词除外)。 e.g. 但愿你立刻来。 I wish you would come soon.
I wish it would rain tomorrow.
2. 表示要求，命令，建议的虚拟语气。 常见动词： 一个坚持，两个命令， 三个建议，四个要求。即: 1. insist 2. order, command 3. advise, suggest, propose 4. demand, require, request, desire
这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟语 气。即从句中的动词使用should + 动词 原形，或者将should省略。 e.g. 我们建议汤姆去休息一下。 We suggested that Tom (should) have a rest. 他坚决要求我到场。
He insisted that I (should) be present.
e.g. 国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。 The king ordered that the prisoners (should) be killed the next day. 他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。
They requested that we (should) send them to work there.
以上动词相应的名词构成的名词性从 句包括主语从句，表语从句和同位语从句 也要使用虚拟语气。从句中的动词形式一 样。即：(should)＋v. order, advice, suggestion, proposal, demand, request, desire
e.g. It’s suggested that the plan be carried out. My demand is that she should come to see me once a week. All of us are for the advice that the chemical factory should be closed down.
insist / suggest 不接虚拟的用法
e.g. She insisted that she was right. 她坚持认为自己是对的。（坚持事实） His uncle insists that he should not stay in the hotel. 他的叔叔坚持要求他不要待在旅馆里。
e.g. The look on his face suggested that he was unhappy. I suggested that the teachers’ wages (should) be increased.
过去时 3. It’s (about/high) time + (that)… should +v. (should不可省略)
你该走了。 It’s time that you went. It’s time that you should go. 我们该去睡觉了。 It’s time that we went to bed. It’s time that we should go to bed.
as if/as though
由as if (as though)或even though (even though) 引导的状语从句表示比较或方 式时, 从句谓语形式为动词的过去式 (be 用were) 或 “had＋过去分词”。
He behaves as if he owned the house.
(But he doesn’t own it or probably doesn’t own it or we don’t know whether he owns it or not.)
She talks about Rome as though she had been there herself.
他那样对待我, 好像我是陌生人似的。 He treats me as if I were a stranger. Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem. 注意: 如果表示的事情可能会发生, 那 么方式状语从句中的谓语动词可用陈 述语气。
without (but for) + 名词 otherwise
主语 +should/would(could/might) + 动词原形 主语 + should/would… + have + 过去分词
(1) But for his help, I could not have finished it so early. 例 (2) Without electricity, there would be no 句 modern industry. (3) She was ill. Otherwise she would have been present at the meeting.
Without your help, we ____ such rapid progress. A.couldn’t make B.wouldn’t make C.will not have made D.wouldn’t have made
I went by plane. Otherwise It ____ much longer time.
A.could take B.would take C.will have taken D.would have taken