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状语从句课件


副词性从句(状语从句)语法讲与练

All Rights Reserved. 杭州外国语学校高三英语组 2007.1 Leo

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从句分三类: 名词性从句,形容词性从句,副词性从句。 副词性从句就是状语从句,家庭成员最多。 高考状语从句考查重点 1 从属连词的选择; 2 同类状语从句中连词的辨析。


状语从句在主从复合句中作状语修饰主句中的 动词,形容词或副词,按意义可分为
时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、行为 方式、比较、让步 等九种状语从句。一般位于 句首或者句末,位于句首,用逗号和主句格开。

引导状语从句的关联词是从属连词

状语类别
时间

从属连词
when, whenever, as, while, before, after, till (until), since, ever since, once, as soon as, soon after, the moment, the minute, immediately等,each time, every time, last time, by the time no sooner…than, hardly…when where, wherever because, as, since, considering that, now that so that, in order that, for fear that, in case so that, so…that, such… that, that, with the result that if, unless, as (so) long as, as (far) as, in case, suppose that, on condition that as… as, not as (so)… as, than though, although, even if, even though, as, however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whoever, whether…or, no matter

地点 原因 目的 结果/程度 条件 比较 让步

一、时间状语从句

考点(1)when, as, while 引导时间状语从句 When既可引导持续动作,又可引导短暂动作。它表示主 句动作和从句动作同时发生,或从句动作在主句动作之前。
When I was a boy, I used to go to the seashore on Sundays.(同时) When the lesson was over, we began our writing.(从句动作在前)

while指“在某一时间里”,“在… 期间”,从句动作必 须是持续性;也强调主句和从句动作的同时发生,往往侧 重主从句动作的对比。
While he was in London, he studied music.

as常和when, while通用,但侧重主句和从句的动作同时 发生,说明两种正在发展和变化的情况。
He hurried home, looking behind as he went. I saw your sister as she was getting on the bus yesterday. He sang as he walked.

______ he left school at fourteen, he began to train as an engineer. A. While B. Since C. When C. Then ______ the day went on, the weather got worse. A .With B. Since C. While D. As 当when, as, while表示“在…一段时间里”,主从句的动 作同时发生时,可以换用。如: While (When或As) we were discussing, Mr. Smith came in.

When 和while 引导时间状语从句时,若主句的主语和从 句的主语一致的时候,可以用when/while+现在分词表示。

____ a young man, he went to France for French.
A. When B. While C. As D. Since

*when 可表示“如果”。如:
Don’t be afraid of asking for help_____ it is needed. A. Unless B. since C. although D. when when和while还可以是并列连词,意思分别是“就在这 时”,“然而”。如: He was about to tell me the secret____ someone patted him on the shoulder. A. as B. until C. while D. when I do every single bit of housework____ my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then. A. since B. while C. when D. as Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park ____she was bitten on the leg by a lion. A. when B. while C. since D. before

考点2 表示时间的词组引导状从 as soon as, no sooner…than…,hardly (barely, scarcely) …when…等用法都表示主从动作相继发生。 hardly和no sooner放在句首,从句要倒装。 例:Hardly had she sat down when the telephone rang. Immediately, instantly,the moment,the instant, the minute, the second,the day (the + 瞬时名词/段时 名词) 等 表示时间概念的词也可引导时间状从。 例: I went to see him immediately I heard from him. by the time, each time, every time, any time, last

--- Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? --- Yes, I gave it to her ______ I saw her. A. for the moment moment D. while B. the moment C. at the

考点3 until/ till 主句谓语动词是持续动词,“直到…为止”。如: I worked till (until) he came back. not…until…: “直到…才”,主句谓语动词必须是短暂性 的 如: She won’t go to bed till/until he returns home. not…until结构若在强调句中成为被强调的部分,须将 not 和until连在一起并前移,如果not until在句首,主句倒

A good storyteller must be able to hold his listeners’ curiosity _____ he reaches the end of the story. A. when B. unless C. after D. until We were told that we should follow the main road ___we reached the central railway station. A. whenever B. until C. while D. wherever Not until all the fish died in the river ___ how serious the pollution was. A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. realized the villagers D. didn’t the villagers realize

考点4 before

*如果before引导的从句位于主句之后,词义非常灵活,
注意下列句子中的before的词义: 1.Before I could get in a word, the tailor had measured me.(还没来得及…就) 2.We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired.(还没…就) 3.We had sailed 4 days before we saw land.(…才…) 4.Please write it down before you forget it.(趁还没…就)

Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up ____ I could answer the phone. A. as B. since C. until D. before He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation ___ it got worse. A. until B. when C. before D. as Scientists say it may be five or six years____ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients. A. since B. after C. before D. when It was evening _____ we reached the little town of Winchester. A. that B. until C. since D. before

重要考点
几个极易混淆的时间状语从句: It was +时间点+when…(当的时候时间是) It was 5 am when we arrived at the village. It was/will be+时间段+before…(没过…就/过了…才) It was/will be two weeks before we met/meet again. It is /has been +时间段+since…(自从…以来有…) It is/has been 3 years since we last met. 突破点:一看be动词的时态,二看时间段还是时间点。 注意:在“It is /has been +时间段+since…”句型中,从句 的动词必须是短暂性的,如果是延续性的动词,时间要从 从句的动作结束时算起。如: It is 3 years since I smoked.( 我戒烟有三年了)

注意: 时间状语从句中谓语动词不能用任何一种将来 时,只能用现在时和过去时表示将来时。

二、地点状语从句
where/wherever 引导,要注意 where there 连用的某些情 况下,使得地点从句更像是一个条件句。 例如: Where there is a will, there is a way.

The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai. A. when B. whenever C. where D. wherever She found her calculator _____ she lost it. A. where B. when C. in which D. that

考点 地点状语从句和定语从句的区别: ①定语从句前有一个表示地点的名词作先行词;而地点状 语从句无此特征。 ②地点状语从句可位于句首,而定语从句不可。 I found the pen where I had left it. I found the pen in the desk where I had left it.

考点1:because, as, since, for引导原因状从的区别。 because 表示的原因因果关系很强, as 和 since表示已知的 或比较明显的原因,译为“由于”“既然”,since 比 as 更正式,as 从句有时候可以倒装。 1. 在强调句中强调原因状语从句,只能用because引导, 不可用as或 since,如: It was because he was ill that he didn’t go with us. 2. because可以引导表语从句,而 as, since不可以,这时状 语一 般都是it, this, that 如:It’s because he is too lazy. 3. Tired as he was, he went to bed early. (倒装表示原因) as 也可以引导让步状语从句,具体意义由上下文表明。 4. *for也有“因为”之意,是并列连词,语气较强。常用 来补充说明原因或用来表示推断的依据,前面常带逗号。 如: It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.

三、原因状语从句:

Parents should take seriously their children’s requests for sunglasses ____ eye protection is necessary in sunny weather. A. because B. though C. unless D. if

考点2 Now that(既然), seeing that, considering that 等也可以引导原因状语从句。 ___________you have finished your homework, you may go home now.

A. When that

B. In that

C. From that

D. Now

四、条件状语从句: 由 if, unless, so/as long as (只要), so/as far as, in case (that) (万一), supposing that, providing/ provided that等引导: If plastics and rubber are burned, they give off poisonous gases. Unless you work hard, you will fail, You can go out, as long as (so long as ) you promise to be back before eleven. In case I forget, please remind me about that. As far as I can tell , the whole thing should cost about $500. 注意:条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时态不可用将来

时,只能用现在时态或过去时态表示将来时。

1) John may phone tonight. I don’t want to go out ____ he phones. A. as long as B. in order that C. in case D. so that 3) The men will have to wait all day ____ the doctor works faster. A. if B. unless C. whether D. that 4) ____you call me to say you’re not coming, I’ll see you at the theatre. A. Though B. Whether C. until D. Unless 5) You will succeed in the end______ you don’t give up halfway. A. even if B. as though C. as long as D. unless

6) ____ I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it. A. Even though B. Unless C. As long as D. While 7) --- How far apart do they live? --- ____ I know, they live in the same neighborhood. A. As long as B. As far as C. As well as D. As often as 8) ____ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger. A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if

五 让步状语从句: 由though, although, as (虽然尽管), even if, even though, wh-ever, no matter-wh, whether引导. 1) Though he is old, yet he is active. 2) Although most of the people agreed, some were not willing to accepted. 3) Proud as the nobles are, he is afraid to see me. We wouldn’t lose heart even if we should fail ten times. 4) Whenever (=no matter when) you call on me, you are always welcome. 5) Wherever (no matter where) you work, you can always find time to study. 6) Take the one you like best, whichever (no matter which) it is.

7) No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks I’m wrong. 8) Whether he comes or not, we’ll discuss the problem this afternoon. 注意:

(1)让步状语从句在句中的位置可放前也可放后,有 时还可以插在主句中间,前置时,强调主句内容,后置时 强调从句内容。

(2)though与although同义,用法基本一样,前者通俗, 口语化;后者较正式,多放于句首,不能与but连用,但 可以与yet, still等连用,用来加强语气。Though ( Although ) he was tired, yet (still) he went on working.

考点1 as引导让步状语从句倒装,作为从句表语的形容词 或者名词位于从句主语之前。此外还有however也要倒 装。 although 不可以倒装,though可倒可不倒,不倒多 ________, he doesn’t study well. A. As he is clever B. He is as clever C. Clever as he is D. As clever he is You should report any incident, _______ serious or minor it is. A. however B. whatever C. whoever D. whichever

考点2 whether 引导状从 和 or 连用

1) ____, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John. A. As long as I have traveled B. Now that I have traveled to much C. Much as I have traveled D. As I gave traveled to much 2) Mr. Hall understands that ____ math has always been easy for him, it is not easy for the students. A. unless B. since C. although D. when 3) --- Dad, I’ve finished my assignment. --- Good, and _____ you play or watch TV, you mustn’t disturb me. A. whenever B. whether C. whatever D. no matter 4) You can eat food free in my restaurant____ you like. A. whenever B. wherever C. whatever D. however

5) _____, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week. A.However the story is amusing B. No matter amusing the story is C. However amusing the story is D. No matter how the story is amusing 6) You should try to get a good night’s sleep____ much work you have to do. A. however B. no matter C. although D. whatever

六 方式状语从句:
由连词:as(象…一样), as if, as though引导 The teacher told the students to do as he did. Leave it as it is.

He heard a noise, as if someone was breathing. I saw the man looking about him as if he wished to impress upon his mind everything.
as if和as though意义和用法大致一样,引导的从句多用虚 拟语气,但也可用陈述语气。 He treats me as if I were his own son.

七 目的状语从句 通常由that, so that, in order that, so…that, in case(以 防、免得)for fear that(以防,以免)等引导 He got up early in order that he could catch the early bus. She married him so that she might tend and comfort him. I explained again in case he should misunderstand me. 注意: 目的状语从句中谓语动词常含有may (might), can (could) should, will等情态动词。

I hid the knife under the bed __________ he found it. A. if B. so that C. for fear that D. in order that

1) John shut everybody out of the kitchen _____ he could prepare his grand surprise for the party. A. which B. when C. so that D. as if 2) Roses need special care_____ they can live through winter. A. because B. so that C. even f D. as 3) Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report ___ her boss could read it first next morning. A. so that B. in order to C. before D. so as

八 结果状语从句:

由that, so that, so…that, such…that, with the result that 引导: It was very cold, ______ the river froze. so that
that The book is ___ written ______ it gives a quite wrong so idea of the facts. There were ____ many people (=such a lot of people) in the so room _____ we could not get in. that such that He made ______ an excellent speech ____ every one admired him. 注意so 在主句中修饰形容词或者副词,such 在主句中修饰名词

考点1 so…that 和 such…that 在一定条件下可以互相 换。 Such修饰带有形容词的单数可数名词时,可以用 so…that 来代替such…that,这时不定冠词在形容词之后;当such 修饰不可数名词和复数名词时,不能用so…that来代替 such…that,但可以用so many, so much, so few, so little等 so good a film 短语 It’s such a good film that I’ve seen it twice. = It is ________________ that I’ve seen it twice. (so) I’ve so few chances that I can enjoy myself. 考点2 so that表示目的还是表示结果?有时看逗号。结

考点3 若表示强调,可以将so或者such移到句首,主句 用 部分倒装。 So badly was he ill that he was taken to the hospital.

九、比较状语从句: 由连词as…as, not so(as) …as, than等引导: I hope it was as good as the one you lent me. Actually the ocean floor are almost as irregular as the exposed land area. He can’t run so fast as she. No one can be more fit for his office than he is. 考点1:“the+比较级(接从句),the+比较级(接主句),这 一句型也归在比较状语从句内。如: The more you study, the more you know. The harder we work, the happier we feel.

As far as I am concerned, education is about learning and the more you learn, _____ . A. the more for life are you equipped B. the more equipped for life you are C. the more life you are equipped for D. you are equipped the more for life

考点2 比较状从常用as或than引导时,有一些成分被省 略, 有时候要用that 来代替比较对象,否则要产生歧义 John plays football _______, if not better than, David. A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as The weather of Nanjing in summer is as hot as ______ Wuhan. A. 不填 B. those of C. that of D. in 考点3 as … as, not so(as)… as 否定句中可以用 “so” 第二个as 才是引导状从的从属连词 The horse is getting old and can not run ____ it

考点4 有比较级概念不用than从句 Elder, former, latter等形容词,形式是比较级,但 不用于than从句。He is the elder of the two. 考点5 than 从句表示最高级 than+ any other + 单数, than + all the other + 复数, than + any…else等; 否定词 + than 引导状从也可表示最高级,如 I have never seen a ______ interesting movie. A. most B. more C. better D. no more 考点6 than 后面人称代词主格宾格有时候意思不同。 She draws better than I (me) 相同。 -- Your wife seems to like her dog very much. --Yes, she likes the dog more than _____. A. I B. me C. her D. she

考点7 几种指明客观差异,并作出主观选择的比较句型 Better +(主语)+ 形容词(或副词,名,不定式 等)…+ than +被比对象 Better to light one candle than to curse the darkness. 主语+ would rather + 动词原形… +than + 动词原形 They would rather die as free men than live as slaves. 主语+谓语+rather than + 动词原形 I decided to write rather than telephone. 主语+ would sooner + 动词原形…+ than + 动词原 形 I would sooner die than do such a thing. Sooner than + 动词原形…, 主句主语+ would + 动原 Sooner than do such work, I would die.

考点8 more than 和 more…than的不同含义 more than + 名词 不止,不仅仅是 more than + 形容词、动词 很,非常 more than + 数词 超出,多余 more than + (that) 从句 远非,超过…. more/less…than 与其说,倒不如说 如果有形容词用 原级 请翻译一下几句话 Hibernation is more than sleep. The tower is more than 100 meters high. I have more than enough. The beauty of Xihu is more than I can describe. It is more blue than green.

考点9 比较状语从句表示倍数,可以用as 和 than来表 示。三种句型: 1)A…+倍数+比较级+than B 如:This building is twice taller than that one. 2)A…+倍数+as原级as+B 如:This building is three times as tall as that one. 3)A…+倍数+the size(height, weight, length etc.) +of B 如:This building is three times the size of that one. (2) 句型变式: 倍数+more+名词+than *倍数+as many/much +名词+as Americans eat more than twice as many vegetables per person today as they did in 1910.

With the help of the German experts, the factory produced _______ cars in 1993 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many as twice C. as twice as many D. twice as many It is reported that the United States uses _______________ the whole of Europe. A. Twice energy more than B. Twice energy as much as C. Twice as much energy as D. More than twice energy

考点101 用法灵活的as, when, while 引导的状语从句 1. as可以引导时间、原因、让步、比较和方式等5种状语 从句。 2. when可以引导时间、条件和原因等3种状语从句。 How can we explain it to you when(=if) you won't listen. It was foolish of you to take a taxi when you could easily walk there in 5 minutes 3. while可以引导时间、让步、条件和原因等4种状语从 句。 While(=Though) I like the color of the hat, I don’t like its shape. While(=As long as) there is life there is hope. --I’m going to the post office. –While(=Since) you are there, can you get me some stamps?

考点102 状语从句的省略 当时间、条件、让步、方式和比较状语从句的主语 与主句一致或为it 或there且谓语动词含be动词时, 从句中的主语和谓语可以一起省去。例如: Don’t speak until spoken to.( 省you are) I have no money. If any, I will lend you some. ( 省 there is) Though cold, he still wore a shirt. ( 省it was) Some flowers shut up at night as if to sleep. ( 省 they were) If necessary, ring me up. (省 it is)

状语从句的变化 Since,before,after引导状从有时可变为短语; 原因 状从如果主语一致,可以略为分词短语、介词短语 或者独立结构。 They did not meet again after graduating from school. (after they graduated) Having finished middle school, she entered Zheda.(After she finished ) Being the eldest, Bill looks after his little sisters.(As he is) With her help, I could do the experiment better. (If I had her help) Though_______ to stop, he kept on working. A. was told B. told C. being told D. he told

考点103
状语从句与定语从句的转换 1)Make marks where you have questions.(地点状 语从句) →Make marks at the places where you have questions.(定语从句) 2)It is such an advanced theory that few people understand it.(结果状语从句) →It is such an advanced theory as few people understand.(定语从句) 请仔细分析下面这句话的where-I am glad to know that you will visit where i am living!

Thank you for reading!


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