1. 英语动词有三种语气, 陈述语气, 祈 使语气和虚拟语气。 2. 定义:用来表示说的话不是事实, 或者 是不可能发生的情况, 而是一种愿望,
3. 在条件句中的应用 条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条 件句,一类为
非真实条件句。非真 实条件句表示的是假设的或实际 可能性不大的情况, 故采用虚拟语 气。
1). 真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气, 假设的情 况可能发生, 其中 if 是如果的意思。
非真实条件句用语虚拟语气, 假设 的情况不可能发生, 或者可能性很 小, 其中if 是“要是、如果”的意 思。即:“要是……就好了”; “如
1. If I had enough money, I would
travel around the world.
2. If I were you, I would give AIDS
patient a hug.
3. If I had taken your advice, I
wouldn’t have made a mistake.
4. If he had been there, it wouldn’t
have happened. 与过去事实相反
5. If it should rain tomorrow, they
wouldn’t go for an outing.
6. I think we could do it, if we planed it properly and could borrow the tools. 7. If we were to have three days off, we would enjoy a very happy life. 与将来事实相反
3) The meaning of the sentence of
If he had come yesterday, I should/ would have told him about it. 含义: He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.
If he had not been ill and missed many
classes, he would have made greater
含义: He was ill and missed many
lessons, so he did not make greater
条件 If 从句的谓语形 从句 式 主句的谓语形式 would/could/should/ might +V (原) would/could/should/ might+have+p.p.
V. + ed (were) had done
1.V.+ ed. would/could/should 未来 2. should+ V.(原) /might +V. (原) 3. were to do
1. wish 现在: 过去时（were） 的宾语 从句
未来: would/could/might +V. should
1. I wish I were a bird. (现在)
2. I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake. (过去) 3. We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us. (将来)
I wish I were as tall as you.
He wished he hadn’t said that.
I wish it would rain tomorrow.
2) wish to do 表达法 wish sb. / sth. to do
I wish to see the manager.
= I want to see the manager.
I wish the manager to be informed at
= I want the manager to be informed
2. would rather that
I would rather you paid me now. I would rather you had gone, too. Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.
3. as if /though + Clause
现在： 过去时 过去： 过去完成时
She loves the baby as if it were her
It seems that it were spring.
I remember the whole thing as if it
had happened yesterday.
They talked as if they had been
friends for years.
He looks as if he were drunk.
4. It’s (about/high) time +that
It’s high time that you went.
你该走了。 It’s high time that you were going.
It’s high time that you should go.
It’s time that we went to bed.
It’s time that we should go to
5. 表示要求,命令,建议的虚拟语气。 宾语从句中常见动词: 一个坚持, 两个命令,
2). order, command
3). advise, suggest, propose, recommend
4). demand, desire， require, request,
+ 动词原形, 或者将should省略。
We suggested that Tom have a rest.
He insisted that I (should) be present.
The king ordered that the prisoners be
killed the next day.
They requested that we (should) send them to work there.
I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
He insisted that he (should) be sent there.
注意: 如suggest, insist不表示“建议” 或“坚持要某人做某事时”, 即它们用 于其本意“暗示、表明”、“坚持认 为”时,宾语从句用陈述语气。
1. The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey ____ (obey) the rules. 2. He insisted that she was ___ (be)seriously be sent (send) to ill and that ______
hospitals at once.
have (have) a 3. He suggested that we ____
meeting at once.
4. His pale face suggested that he was ___
以上动词相应的名词构成的名词性从句 包括主语从句, 表语从句和同位语也要
order, advice, suggestion, proposal,
demand, request, desire
It’s suggested that the plan be carried out. My demand is that she should come to see me once a week. All of us are for the advice that the
chemical factory should be closed down.
6. without和but for 构成虚拟。but for要不是 Without sunlight, people’s life would be different from today. But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work. Without your help, I would have failed. But for water, it would be impossible to live in the desert.
7. If only …要是就好了 If only I knew his name! If only we had followed your advice! If only I could see him again! 要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了! If only our parents could live with us! 要是我没错过火车就好了！ If only I hadn’t missed the train!
8. It’s necessary/strange/natural/ important/pity/no wonder/impossible + that---Clause 从句中的动词要用虚拟, 即 (should)+动词原形
It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language. It is strange that she refuse to come to the party. It’s necessary that we should study hard.
9. 某些简单句的固定句型: Heaven help him! God bless you! May you succeed! Long live the People’s Republic of China!
10. need “不必做”和“本不该做” didn’t need to do 表示: 过去不必做
needn’t have done 表示: 过去不必做
John went to the station with the car to
meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk
John went to the station with the car to
meet Mary, so she needn't have walked
There was plenty of time. She ____.
A. mustn’t have hurried
B. couldn’t have hurried
C. must not hurry
D. needn't have hurried
答案D。needn’t have done. 意为“本不
必”, 即已经做了某事,而实际上不必要。 mustn’t have done 用法不正确, 对过
couldn’t have done, “不可能已经”。 must not do 不可以 (用于一般现在时)
三. 虚拟语气假设条件句型注意点: 1. 假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与 主句所假设的谓语动词不一致, 叫做 错综条件虚拟语气。主句和从句的谓
If the weather had been finer, the
crops would be growing still better.
If you had followed the teacher’s
advice, you wouldn’t be in the
2. 假设条件虚拟倒装。 条件从句中有 should, were, had三个助动词可以把if 省略,并将这三个词提至句首。 If I were you, I would give it up. Were I you, I would give it up. If it were not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. Were it not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties.
If I had had time, I would have run round that lake again. Had I had time, I would have run round that lake again. If there should be a flood, what should we do? Should there be a flood, what should we do?
3. 谓语动词以should + have done 的形式 出现的时候,表示过去应该做而没有做 的事情, 从而表示一种责备的语气。 e.g. 1) You should have finished your homework yesterday. 2) You should have come here five minutes earlier. 3) He should have told me about it earlier.
去时态一律用 were, 不用was, 即在从
If I were you, I would go to look for him.
If he were here, everything would be all
典型例题 _____ to do the work, I should do it
some other day.
A. If were I B. I were
C. Were I
D. Was I
答案C. 注意: 在虚拟条件状语从句中,
的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do, 而不能说 Weren’t I to do.
1. You ___ to the meeting yesterday. What
was the reason for your absence?
A. had come B. came
C. would have come
D. should have come
2. “ Have you visited the Science Museum?”
“ No, but I really wish I ___.”
A. had B. did C. have D. will
3. Here is some money in case you ___ it. A. needs B. need C. needed D. will need 4. He demanded that the classroom ___ at once. A. should clean B. clean C. should have been cleaned D. be cleaned
5. But for your carelessness, we ___.
A. should have succeeded
B. had succeeded
C. would have succeeded
6. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _____. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 7. Jane’s face suggested that she _____ ill, and her parents suggested that she _____ a medical examination. A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was; has
8. The two strangers talked as if they _____ friends for years. A. should be B. would be C. have been D. had been 9. I wish I _____ the meeting last week. A. could attend B. attended C. have attended D. could have attended
10. My suggestion is that we ____ the sports met. A. would put off B. should put off C. putted off D. be put off 11. It is necessary that our drinking water _____ cleaner. A. should be made B. is made C. would be made D. was made
12. Don’t come this afternoon. I’d rather you _____ tomorrow. A. come B. to come C. came D. will come 13. The old professor gave orders that the experiment _____ before 6. A. was finished B. will finish C. be finished D. shall be finished
II. 根据括号内的提示将下列句子补充 完整。 1. Had I not seen it with my own eyes, I ____________________ wouldn’t have believed it (都不会相信的). 2. If I should be free tomorrow, I would go with you (会和你一起去). __________________ 3. If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now (现在一切都好了). __________________
4. Had Mark been in charge, it ______________________ wouldn’t have happened (就不会发生 了). 5. Looking round the town, he felt as though he _________________________ had been away for many years (已经离开了好多年).
III. 用括号内所给词的适当形式填空。 1. If I had _________ known (know) more about giving first aid, I _______________ could have helped (help) them when the accident happened. 2. If I ______ were (be) a man, I ___________ would run (run) for president. 3. —Do you think the thief entered through the side door? —No, if he _______ wouldn’t had had (have), he _________ have broken ____________(not break) the window of the living room.
4. I would rather you __________ had stayed (stay) at home last night. would stop (stop) 5. I wish that the rain __________ immediately. 6. They talked as if they _________ had been (be) good friends for many years.