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(Flexible Manufacturing Systems)AMT-FMS


Chapter 2
Automated Manufacturing

Flexible Manufacturing Systems 柔性制造系统
by Ma ping Guangdong University of Technology

2.3 Flexible Manufacturing

Co

ntent
2.3 Flexible Manufacturing 2.3.1 Overview Flexibility Concept Flexible Automation FMS Definition Manufacturing System Features 2.3.2 History of FMS 2.3.3 FMS components 2.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of FMSs implementation. Question

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2.3.1 Overview

Flexibility concept
Stage 1

Manual manufacturing

Integration

Stage 4

Stage 2 Mechanization

Automation Stage 3

The development of manufacturing
FMS is the development of manufacturing during stage 3 and 4 .

Today flexibility means to produce reasonably priced customized products of high quality that can be quickly delivered to customers.
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2.3.1 Overview

Flexible Automation
? Ability to adapt to engineering changes in parts ? Increase in number of similar parts produced on the system ? Ability to accommodate routing changes ? Ability to rapidly change production set up

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2.3.1 Overview

FMS Definition
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is an individual machine or group of machines served by an automated materials handling system that is computer controlled and has a tool handling capability.
FMS is a ―reprogrammable‖ manufacturing system capable of producing a variety of products automatically.

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2.3.1 Overview

FMS Definition
?In flexible manufacturing, the automated machine (lather, mill, drill, etc) and the automated material handling system share instantaneous communication via a computer network. ?Flexible manufacturing involves integration of automated production processes.

?This is integration on a small scale.

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2.3.1 Overview

FMS Definition
By definition, a FMS can process a variety of workpieces, using tooling and fixturing made available at the right machine, at the right time, and the right sequence.

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2.3.1 Overview What do we need to create flexible manufacturing systems? FMS Components
?Flexible Machineries: CNC systems ?Flexible routing: Products can be produced in alternative routs

?Flexible processing : Ability to absorb different product mixes in the same facility
?Product flexibility (mix-changes): Ability to change new set of products with economically justifiable cost

?Production flexibility: Producing range of products without major capital investment
?Expansion flexibility: Does not imply heavy equipment investment. Changing the structure of existing facility with small additions – For example Automated Guided Vehicle can be rerouted easier than conveyers.
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2.3.1 Overview

Manufacturing System Features

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2.3.1 Overview
Manufacturing System Features —
Transfer Line
?Machines dedicated to handle one or two product types
?Maximum utilization and high production rates ?Direct labor involvement is minimal ?Low unit cost of production

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2.3.1 Overview
Manufacturing System Features –
CNC Machines
? High level of flexibility.
? Any job can be processed within the range of CNC machinery ? Low utilization and low production rate ? Unit cost is much higher

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2.3.1 Overview
Manufacturing System Features –
FMS
? True mid-volume mid-variety manufacturing systems ? Consists:
– – – – – Series of flexible machineries Automated material handling systems Automated tool changer Coordinate measuring machines Part washers

? All the equipments are controlled by a central controller ? Permits both sequential and random routing of a wide variety of parts
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2.3.1 Overview
Manufacturing System Features –
FMS To settle tradeoffs between production rats and flexibility. Most manufacturing situations require medium production rates to produce medium volumes with enough flexibility to quickly reconfigure for change of product.

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2.3.2 History of FMS

History of FMS
?FMS first was proposed in England in mid- 1960’s ( “System 24”) System 24
?Flexible manufacturing remained an academic concept in 1960s and 1970s ?Flexible manufacturing became a viable in the late 1970s and early 1980s, because of the emergence of sophisticated computer control technology ?Automation is main purpose. FMSs were very large and complex in beginning ?Currently the trend of FMS is toward small version (FMC).
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2.3.2 History of FMS

History of FMS
“System 24” operated 24 hours a day ?It was Developed by Molins, Ltd. ?It was doomed from the outset because automation, integration and computer control technology had not yet been developed to the point to properly support the system. ?It was a development ahead of its time. History of FMS

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2.3.3 FMS Components
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Types of FMS Layouts Major components Machine tools Control system Materials handling system Human operators

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Four types of FMS Layouts

1、Progressive Layout
? Best for producing a variety of parts

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2.3.3 FMS Components
2、Closed Loop Layout:
? ? ? Parts can skip stations for flexibility Used for large part sizes Best for long process times

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2.3.3 FMS Components
3、Ladder Layout:
? Parts can be sent to any machine in any sequence ? Parts not limited to particular part families

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2.3.3 FMS Components
4、Open Field Layout:
? Most complex FMS layout ? Includes several support stations

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2.3.3 FMS Components
A FMS has four major components :
? Process equipment : ? Machine tools , assembly stations, inspection station and robots, ? Control System (Computer controlled system) ? Storage and distribution of parts programs ? Workflow control and monitoring ? Production control ? System/tool control/monitoring ? Automated material handling ? robots, conveyors,RGV, AGV and AS/RS ? Human operators (critical roles)

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Machine tools
? The type of machine tools in a FMS depends on the setting of the system to be used. ? A FMS uses automated or manually operated machine tools as other manufacturing system. ? Currently, machine tools in most FMSs are CNC machine tools or machining centers.

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Control system
The control area with the computer running the FMS control system is the center to control and monitor all activities.
Control functions for a FMS include: 1. storage and distribution of part programs 2. work flow control and monitoring 3. production control 4. system / tool control / monitoring

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Control system
Important control tasks:
Regulating the flow of workpieces from station to

station.
Monitoring the locations of workpieces within the system . Continually collect, store data that can be output in the form of performance reports periodically.

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Materials handling system
The automated materials handling system is controlled by computers.

Basic functions:
? Move material from one workstation to another needed workstation. ? Place material “on hold” waiting status. ? Unload and load workpieces. ? Must be capable of accepting workpieces mounted on pallets and moving them from workstation to workstation as needed. ? Must also be able to place workpieces “ on hold” as they wait to be processed at a given workstation.
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2.3.3 FMS Components
Materials handling system
? Automated guided vehicles (AGV) ?Follow predefined paths under computer control ? Automated Conveyors ? Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS & RS) Automated warehouses to store work in process inventory Unnecessary and wasteful if JIT is used

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Human operators
? The amount of human labor is much less than
a manually operated manufacturing

? However, humans still play a vital role in the
operation of FMSs.

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2.3.3 FMS Components
Human operators
Human tasks include :
?Equipment troubleshooting, maintenance and repair; ?Tool changing and setup; ?Loading and unloading the system; ?Data input; ?Changing of parts programs; ?Development of programs.

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2.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of FMSs implementation
FMS Goals
? Reduction in manufacturing cost by lowering direct labor cost and minimizing scrap, re-work, and material wastage. ? Less skilled labor required. ? Reduction in work-in-process inventory by eliminating the need for batch processing. ? Reduction in production lead time permitting manufacturers to respond more quickly to the variability of market demand. ? Better process control resulting in consistent quality.

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2.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of FMSs implementation
Advantages:
? Faster, lower- cost changes from one part to another which will improve capital utilization ? Lower direct labor cost, due to the reduction in number of workers ? Reduced inventory, due to the planning and programming precision ? Consistent and better quality, due to the automated control ? Lower cost/unit of output, due to the greater productivity using the same number of workers ? Savings from the indirect labor, from reduced errors, rework, repairs and rejects

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2.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of FMSs implementation
Disadvantages:
? Limited ability to adapt to changes in product or product mix (ex. machines are of limited capacity and the tooling necessary for products, even of the same family, is not always feasible in a given FMS) ? Expensive, costing millions of dollars ? Technological problems of exact component positioning and precise timing necessary to process a component ? Sophisticated manufacturing systems

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2.3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of FMSs implementation
Benefits of FMS
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? To reduce set up and queue times Improve efficiency Reduce time for product completion Utilize human workers better Improve product routing Produce a variety of Items under one roof Improve product quality Serve a variety of vendors simultaneously Produce more product more quickly

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Thank you for your attention!

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