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英语语法定语从句总复习


英语语法定语从句总复习 定义:用来说明主句中某一名词或代词(有时也可说明整个主句或主句中一部分)而起定语作用的句子叫作定语从句。 一、关系带词引导的定语从句 1. 关系代词用来指代先行词是人或物的名词或代词 句子成分 用于限制从句或非限制性从句 只用于限制性从句

代替人

代替物

代替人或物



Who

which

主语 宾语

Whom Whose (=of whom)

which Whose (=of which)

that that

例1:This is the detective who came from London. 例2:The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy. 2.关系代词的用法 (1) 如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none 等不定代词,关系代词一般只 用 that,不用 which。例如: All the people that are burst into tears.(所有人都迸出眼泪。) (2) 如果先行词被形容词最高级以及 first, last, any, only, few, most, no, some, very 等词修饰,关系代词常用 that, 不用 which, who,或 whom。 (3) 非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。 There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whom、are well educated. (4) which 还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句 中,which 可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情况下意思是与 and this 相似,并可以指人。例如: He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy. (5) that 可指人或物,在从句中作表语,(指人作主语时多用 who)仅用于限制性定语从句中。 (6) which 可作表语,既可指人,以可指物。指人时,一般指从事某种职业或是有某种特征.品性或才能的人。Which 引导 的定语从句可以是限制性的,也可以是非限制性的。 (7) 如果作先作词的集体名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用 which;若是指集体中的各个成员,则用 who。 (8) 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用 that。 (9) 如果先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody,关系代词应该用 who 或 whom, 不用 which。 例如:Is there anyone here who will go with you?(在这的所有人中谁和你一起去?) 3.“介词+关系代词“是一个普遍使用的结构 (1) “介词+关系代词“可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。“介词+关系代词“结构中的介词可以 是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without 等,关系代词只可用 whom 或 which,不可用 that 。 (2) from where 为“介词+关系副词“结构,但也可以引导定语从句。例如: We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town.. (3) 像 listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of 等固定短语动词,在定语从句中一般不宜将 介词与动词分开。例如:This is the boy whom she has taken care of. (这是她曾今照顾的孩子。) 二、关系副词引导的定语从句 1.关系副词也可以引导定语从句 关系副词在从句中分别表示时间.地点或原因。关系副词 when 在从句中充当时间状语,where 充当地点状语,why 充当原因 状语。 2. that 可引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因 That 有时可以代替关系副词 when, where 或者 why 引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因,在 that 引导的这种定语从句中, that 也可以省去。 三、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1.二者差异比较 限制定语从句紧跟先行词,引导词同先行词之间一般不加逗号,仅修饰先行词,可以由关系代词.关系副词或 that 来引导。 非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明,用逗号与主句隔开,既可修饰先行词,又可修饰整个主句,不可用 that 引导。 2.关系代词和关系副词的选择依据 (1) 弄清代替先行词的关系词在从句中作什么成分,作状语的应选用关系副词,作主语.宾语或表语的可选用关系代词。 3. 先行词与定语从句隔离 定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后,但定语从句与先行词之间有时也会插入别的成分,构成先行词与定语从句的隔离。例如: This is the article written by him that Is poke to you about.. 四、As 在定语从句中的用法 1. 引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

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(1)as 多与 such 或 the same 连用,可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。 (2)as 也可单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句,作用相当于 which。例如: The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see. (3)the same? that 与 the same ?as 在意思上是不同的。 2.As 引导的非限制性定语从句的位置 as 引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活,可以位于主句前面.中间或后面,一般用逗号与主句隔开,但 which 所引导的非限 制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。例如:As is expected, the England team won the football match.

五、英语定语从句专项练习 单项填空 1.I think you’re got to the point_______ a change is needed, otherwise you’ll fail. A. when B. that C. where D. which

2.The hours _______ the children spend in their one-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people. A. when B. that C. in which D. on which

3.Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes________ people were eaten by the tiger. A. that B. by which C. which D. in which

4.There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that

5.______ is often the case,we have worked out the production plan. A. Which B. When C. What D. As

6.______ is reported in the newspaper,talks between the two countries are making progress. A.It B.As C.That D.What

7.There are many people_________ only on-line activity is sending and receiving e-mails. A.who B.that C.which D.whose D.whose ? 8.EBay,Amazon and Wal ? Mart are popular websites_______people can sell goods to each other.? A.where B.which C.when

9.On his 10th birthday.Marty manages to escape from the zoo and gets onto the subway, _____he believes that he can go to the wild.? A.which B.from what ? C.through which D./;with which ? D.that ?

10.I hope________the little _____I have been able to do has been of some use.? A.that;that B./;by which B.to which ? ? C.what;what

11.The farmers use wood to build a house______to store grains all the year around. A.with which C.which D.in which

12.This was a film_________ Spielberg used real actors instead of toys. A.which B.when C.in which D.which ? D.there

13.The thought of going home to his family was allkept him happy while he was working abroad.? A.that B.what C.those

14.A container weighs more after air is put in_____proves that air has weight. A.as B.it C.that D.which

15.—Can you tell me where Peter lives?? —Over there.The two storey house, _____there is a garden.? A.near it B.from which ? C.in front of it D.in front of which ? D.when ?

16.Miss Green took up the story at the point______the thief had just made off with the jewels.? A.where B.which C.as

17.—Why does she always ask you for help? —There is no one else_______ ,is there?

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A.who to turn to to turn

B.she can turn to

C.for whom to turn

D.for her

18.The year before last,part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods,from _____effects the people are still suffering. A.that B.whose C.those D.what 19.Nowadays teenagers like to go to fast food restaurants, ___ as the name suggests,eating doesn’t take much time. A.who B.where C.which D.what 20.Later I want to return home but couldn’t find a company ________I could use_____I had learnt. A.where;that B.where;what C.when;what D.that;that

21. Government reports,legal papers and most business letters are the main situations ________ English is used. A.when B.that C.how D.where

22.We hope the measures to control house prices,__________ are taken by the government,will succeed. A.as B.when C.since D.after

23.The boy the teachers considered _______ failed in the final exam, surprised them very much. A.to be the best;which C.to have been studying well;it B.as the best student;that D.such as a good student;which

24.The president,together with his bodyguards, _______ to the nuclear station _______ there was an accident 20 minutes ago. A.have come;which C.has come;where B.came;in which D.come;in which

25.Is there a gas station around____________________ I can get some petrol? A.which C.where B.what D.that

26.There was_________ time________ I hated to go to school. A.a;that C.the;that B.a;when D.the;when

27.It was in the very house _______ was built with stones _______ he spent his childhood. A.that;that C.which;that B.that;where D.which;where

28.These wild flowers are so special I would do ______I_______ them. A.what;can save C.what;can to save B.all what;can to save D.everything;can save

29.I shall never forget those years _______I lived in the country with farmers,________has a great effect on my life. A.that;which C.which;that B. which ? B.when;which D.when;who D. whose ?
3.答案:D 解析:由四个选项知该空格应填入定语从句 的引导词,此句意义为:people were eaten by the tiger in the scene,所以先行词 scene 应该与介词 in 搭配。

30.Just like a voyage at sea,our life journey, _______ days are limited,is full of difficulties.? A. that C. it
英语定语从句专项练习卷参考答案 1.答案:C 解析:where 在此处引导定语从句。 2.答案:B 解析:本题考查定语从句。that 引导的定语 从句又在从句中作 spend 的宾语。

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4.答案:A 解析:关系副词 where 引导定语从句,修饰 trousers,并在定语从句中作地点状语。全句意思为:在 她擦手的裤子上留下了污迹。 5.答案:D 解析:从句意看,本题考查定语从句的用法,故首先排除 C 项。 由于 when 在定语从句中只能作时间状语, 而题干中 的定语从句缺主语, 因而排除 B 项; 与 which 引导非限 as 制性定语从句时,which 引导的定语从句只能放在主句之 后,而 as 引导的定语从句可放在主句之前,也可放在主 句之后,其中 as 表示“正如??那样”。 is often the as case 为固定词组,意为“这是常用的事;正如常见的情 形”。全句意思为“正如平常一样,我们已经制订出了工 作计划”。最佳答案 D。 6.答案:B 解析:由题干的结构及内容看,逗号之前, 应为非限制性定语从句,故选 B 项。全句意思为:“正如 报纸上报道的那样,两国之间的谈判取得了进展。”若选 A 项,此句应为:It is reported in the newspaper that talks between the two...若选 D 项,此句应为:What is reported in the newspaper is that talks between the two... 7.答案:D 解析:whose 谁的,“有许多人,他们的上网 活动只是发送和接收电子邮件。” 8.答案:A ?解析:考查定语从句。where 引导的定语从 句,在从句中作状语。 9.答案:C ?解析:考查定语从句。through 为介词提前, 构成 go to the wild through...。 10.答案:A ?解析:句子成分分析。第一个 that 引导宾 语从句,第二个 that 引导定语从句,修饰 the little。 11.答案:D ?解析:考查定语从句和省略。句中省略了 they want;in which 引导定语从句在从句中作地点状语。 12.答案:C 解析:“在这部电影中”斯皮尔伯格用了真 实的演员而不是玩具,故用 in which 引导定语从句。 13.答案:A ? 解析:考查定语从句。all 为先行词,关系代词用 that。 14.答案:D ?解析:考查非限制性定语从句; which 引 导非限制性定语从句指代前面整句话的意义。 15. 答案: ?解析: D 考查非限制性定语从句。 front of in which“?在???的前面”。 16.答案:A ?解析:考查定语从句。where 引导定语从 句修饰先行词 at the point。 17.答案:B 解析:考查定语从句及省略。完整形式为: There is no one else (that/who)she can turn to;turn to sb.求助于某人。

18.答案:B 解析:题意是“前年,东南亚部分地区遭遇 了洪水灾害,至今人们还在受此影响”。由题中的逗号可 以判定出句子的后半部分是一个非限制性定语从句,先行 词是 floods。 从句子的结构可看出, 定语从句中只缺少定 语,也就是说,先行词在从句中充当定语,所以引导词要 用 whose。 19.答案:B 解析:本题考查定语从句;where 引导定语 从句,又在从句中作地点状语。 20.答案:B 解析: where 引导定语从句,what 引导宾语 从句。“在公司里我可以用到我所学的知识”。 21.答案:D 解析:where 引导定语从句,在从句中作状 语,相当于 in which。 22.答案:A 解析:as 引导非限制性定语从句,表示“正 如”,并在定语从句中作主语。 23.答案:A 解析:后半句为非限制性定语从句,which 指代前一分句的内容 consider sb to be。 24.答案:C 解析:含有 together with 的介词短语只对 主语起补充说明作用, 对谓语动词不产生任何影响。 where 引导定语从句,where 在从句中作状语。 25.答案:C 解析:本题考查定语从句。关系副词在定语 从句中作地点状语。本句中 around 作定语修饰 a gas station。 26. 答案: 解析: B 本题考查冠词和定语从句的用法。 time 作“次数”解时,后接关系代词 that 引导的定语从句, 即:This/It is the first/second...time that+从句; time 作“一段时光(时期)”解时,其前用不定冠词,其 后接关系副词 when 引导的定语从句, 构成: There was/is a time when...。故选 B。全句意思为:有这么一段时间, 我不想去上学。 27.答案:A 解析:第二空是强调句型,强调的是状语 in the very house。house 后是定语从句,从句缺少主语, 用 that 或 which 引导;由于 house 前有 the very 修饰, 故只能用 that 引导。 28.答案:C 解析:在 sb.do what one can to do 结构 中 what one can 是宾语从句,what 后不可再使用关系代 词;在 sb.do everything/all(that)one can to do 中, that one can 是定语从句,该从句中只能使用关系代词 that, everything/all that 等于 what; 在以上结构中 can 后省略了动词 do,动词不定式作目的状语。故选 C。 29.答案:B 解析:第一个定语从句缺时间状语,因此第 一空应该使用关系副词 when;第二个定语从句缺主语,关 系代词指代前面整句话,因此用 which 引导非限制性定语 从句。

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