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外研社高中英语必修1-8课文原文(翻译)


必修一
Module 1 My First Day at Senior High My name is Li Kang. I live in Shijiazhuang, a city not far from Beijing. It is the capital city of Hebei Province. Today is my first day at Senio

r High school and I’m writing down my thoughts about it. My new school is very good and I can see why. The teachers are very enthusiastic and friendly and the classrooms are amazing. Every room has a computer with a special screen, almost as big as a cinema screen. The teachers write on the computer, and their words appear on the screen behind them. The screens also show photographs, text and information from websites. They’re brilliant! The English class is really interesting. The teacher is a very enthusiastic woman called Ms Shen. We’re using a new textbook and Ms Shen’s method of teaching is nothing like the teachers at my Junior High school. She thinks that reading comprehension is important, but we speak a lot in class, too. And we have fun. I don’t think I will be bored in Ms Shen’s class! Today we introduced ourselves to each other. We did this in groups. Some students were embarrassed at first but everyone was very friendly and it was really nice. Ms Shen gave us instructions and then we worked by ourselves. Ms Shen wants to help us improve our spelling and handwriting. We do this in a fun way, with spelling games and other activities. I like her attitude very much, and the behaviour of the other students shows that they like her, too. There are sixty-five students in my class — more than my previous class in Junior High. Forty-nine of them are girls. In other words, there are three times as many girls as boys. They say that girls are usually more hard-working than boys, but in this class, everyone is hard-working. For our homework tonight, we have to write a description of the street where we live. I’m looking forward to doing it! My After-school Activities .As the students of modern times, we have colorful school life. Everyday, we learn plenty of knowledge on different subjects in class. And our school organizes many extracurricular activities in order to help us put what we have learned into practice. After class, we take part in various activities, like playing football, basketball, badminton, etc. They are good for our health. Besides, we are able to join in the lectures organized by literature association, music group, art group, where you can enjoy famous works, learn to play instruments or draw pictures. Also, there are chances for us to use computers in the laboratory and talk with some foreign teachers about anything we are interested in at the English corner. Now, most of us may operate computers freely and have a good command of spoken English. In addition to the after-class activities mentioned here, there are still many others such as sports meeting, debate, social investigation, etc. All those activities make our school life attractive and interesting. We will take advantages of the experience in the future.

Moudle 2
My New Teachers They say that first impressions are very important. My first impression of Mrs. Li was that she was nervous and shy. 人们常说第一印象很重要。李老师给我留下的第一印象是既紧张又胆 怯。 I think perhaps she was, as it was her first lesson with us. But now, after two weeks, the class really likes working with her. 我想,可能她就是这样,因为这是她给我们上的第一节课。但 是, 过了两周了, 全班学生真的喜欢上她的课。 She's kind and patient, and she explains English grammar so clearly that even I can understand it! 她非常和蔼,又有耐心,英语语法解释得如 此清楚,连我都能够明白! She avoids making you feel stupid! I've always hated making mistakes or pronouncing a word incorrectly when I speak English, 她避免让人感到愚笨! 讲英语 时,我总是憎恶出错或者是憎恶发音不正确, but Mrs. Li just smiles, so that you don't feel completely stupid! 但是, 李老师只是笑一笑, 因此, 你不会感到完全愚笨! I think maybe she goes a bit too slowly for the faster students, but for me it's wonderful! I feel I'm going to make progress with her. 我想可能对于好学生来说她的课进行得有点慢, 但对我来说, 真是太棒了! 我觉得我跟着她学习肯定将取得进步。 I'd guess that Mrs. Chen is almost sixty. She's very strict—we don't dare to say a word unless she asks us to. She's also very serious and doesn't smile much. 我猜想陈老师几乎快 60 岁了。 她很严格――――除非她让我们讲话, 我们一句话也 不敢说。 她还很严肃, 很少微笑。When she asks you to do something, you do it immediately! 当 她要求你做某事时,你就马上去做! There are a few students in our class who keep coming to class late but they're always on time for Mrs. Chen's lessons! 陈老师的课, 我们班几位不断迟到 的学生,总是准时上陈老师的课。 Some of our class don't ike her, but most of us really appreciate her because her teaching is so well organised and clear. And a few students even admit liking her! 我们班有的同学不喜欢她,但大多数同学都很欣赏她,因为她的课讲得很清楚、 教学组织得又好。一些学生甚至承认喜欢她! During scientific experiments, she explains exactly what is happening and as a result my work is improving. 在做科学实验时,她对发生的 现象解释得很准确,因此,我在实验方面在取得进步。 Physics will never be my favourite lesson, but I think that I’ll do well in the exam with Mrs Chen teaching me. 物理绝对不是我最 喜欢的科目, 但我想由陈老师教我, 我会考出好成绩。 Mr. Wu’s only been teaching us for two weeks and he’s already very popular. I think this is because he really enjoys teaching Chinese literature ---吴老师仅仅教过我们两个礼拜,他已经很受欢迎了。我想这是因为他的确喜欢教 中国文学 he loves it, in fact! He’s got so much energy, this is one class you do not fall asleep in! He’s about 28, I think, and is rather good-looking. 实际上,他喜爱中国文学!他精力是那样充 沛,上他的课,你不会想睡觉(不会感到困倦) !我想他大约 28 岁,长得很帅。 He talks loudly and fast, and waves his hands about a lot when he gets excited. He’s really amusing and tells jokes when he thinks we’re getting bored. 他讲话语速快、声音洪亮,当讲到兴奋的时候, 不时挥手。他上课真很有趣,当他认为我们疲倦的时候,就给我们讲笑话。 Even things like compositions and summaries are fun with Mr. Wu. I respect him a lot. 即使是象作文和总结这样 的事情,吴老师也搞得很有趣。我很尊敬他。

Module 3
My First Ride on a Train 我的首次火车之旅 My name is Alice Thompson. I come from Sydney, Australia and I’m 18 years old. 我是爱丽 丝· 汤普森。我来自澳大利亚的悉尼,今年18岁。 Recently I had my first ride on a long-distance train. And what a ride! A friend and I traveled on the famous Ghan train. 近来我进行了首次远程 火车之旅。 真是太棒了! 我和一位朋友乘坐的是有名的阿富汗火车。 We got on in Sydney and we got off in Alice Springs, right in the middle of Australia, more than four thousand kilometers away. 我们在悉尼上车, 在澳大利亚中部的艾丽普林斯下车,行程四千多公里。 We spent two days and nights on the train. 整个旅程花费了我们两天两夜。 The train was wonderful and the food was great. We ate great meals cooked by experts! 坐火车很舒服而且车上的食物也很可 口。 我们吃的美味饭菜是烹饪大师们做的。 For the first few hundred kilometres of the journey, the scenery was very colourful. 在旅程开始的几百公里, 风景优美。 There were fields and the soil was dark red. 有成片的田野,那里的土壤是深红色。 After that, it was desert. The sun shone, there was no wind and there were no clouds in the sky. 接着是沙漠。艳阳高照,没有风而且晴空 万里。 Suddenly, it looked like a place from another time. We saw abandoned farms which were built more than a hundred years ago. 可是接着,时空像是突然发生了转变。映入眼帘的是建造 于一百多年前一些废弃的农庄。 The train was comfortable and the people were nice. 火车很舒 服而且车上的人也都很友好。 During the day, I sat and looked out of the window, and sometimes talked to other passengers. 白天,我坐着看窗外,有时和别的旅客说说话。 I read books and listened to my Chinese cassettes (I'm studying Chinese at school). 我看书, 听着汉语 录音带(我在学校学汉语)。 One night,at about midnight, I watched the night sky for about an hour. The stars shone like diamonds. 一天晚上, 大约是在半夜,差不多有整整一个小时我都在 注视着夜晚的天空。 星星像钻石一样眨着眼。Why is the train called the Ghan? A long time ago, Australians needed a way to travel to the middle of the country. 为什么火车叫阿富汗号?很久 以前,澳大利亚人到国家中部地区有很长一段路程。 They tried riding horses, but the horses didn't like the hot weather and sand. 他们试着骑马,但那些马不喜欢炎热的天气和沙漠。 A hundred and fifty years ago, they brought some camels from Afghanistan. Ghan is short for Afghanistan. 一百五十年前, 他们从阿富汗带入了一些骆驼。 Ghan 是阿富汗的缩写。 Camels were much better than horses for travelling a long distance. 作长途旅行,骆驼比马匹强多了。 For many years, trained camels carried food and other supplies, and returned with wool and other products. 多年来, 经过训练的骆驼驮运食物及其他用品, 返回时还带着羊毛和其他产品。 The Afghans and their camels did this until the 1920s. 直到二十世纪二十年代,阿富汗人和他们 的骆驼还在做着这样的工作。 Then the government built a new railway line, so they didn't need the camels any more. 那时政府建了一条新的铁路线,所以阿富汗人不再需要骆驼了 In 1925,they passed a law which allowed people to shoot the animals if they were a problem. 在 1925年, 他们通过了法律,如果它们引发问题,允许人们射杀骆驼。 In 1935, the police in a town shot 153 camels in one day. 在1935年,一个城镇的警察仅一天就射杀153头骆驼。

Moudle 4
a social survey –my neighbourhood 一. A lively city It's great to see you again, John. 约翰, 很高兴又见到你了。 It's great to see you! It's been six years since we last saw each other, you know. 见到你真是太好了!要知道,我们 6 年 没见面了。 And this is the first time I've visitedyour hometown. Yes, I'm so glad you could come. 而且这是第一次来到你的家乡。是的,你能来,我真是很高兴 你知道,我去过中国很多地 方,也游览过一些美丽的城市,但这是我到过的最吸引人的地方之一。 You know, I've seen quite a lot of China and I've visited some beautiful cities, but this is one of the most attractive places I've been to. It's so lively, and everyone seems so friendly. Yes, it's one of the most interesting cities on the coast,everyone says so. 它生机勃勃,人们看上去都那么友好。是的, 大家都说这是最富有的沿海城市之一。I feel very fortunate living here. And I love living by the seaside. You live in the northwest of Xiamen, is that right?Yes, that's right. 生活在这里我感到很 荣幸。我喜欢在海边生活。你住的地方是在厦门的西北面,对吗?是的。 What's the climate like?Pretty hot and wet in the summer, but it can be quite cold in the winter. 这里气候怎么样?夏 天相当热, 相当潮湿, 可是冬天可能很冷。 Sounds OK to me. There are a lot of tourists around. Don't they bother you? 对我不成问题。这里到处都有游客。他们对你们有干扰吗? Yes, they can be a nuisance in the summer because there are so many of them. 是的,游客太多了,夏天有 时候会有点讨厌。 Oh, look at that huge apartment block!Yes, they've just completed it. 哎哟, 看看那栋高大的公寓楼!是啊,刚刚完工的。 The rent for an apartment there is very high. I believe you! This area's so modern! 租一套那儿的公寓要不少钱呢。这我相信!这是一个很现 代化的地方啊! Yes, this is the business district. They've put up a lot of high-rise buildings recently. And there are some great shopping malls. 对,这是商业区。最近他们建造了许多摩天 大厦, 也有一些大商场。 See, we're just passing one now. My wife's just bought a beautiful dress from one of the shops there. 瞧,我们正好经过一个商厦呢。我太太刚从那边的一家买了件衣 服,好漂亮。 Maybe I could buy a few presents there. I'll take you there tomorrow. Now we're leaving the business district and approaching the harbour. 也许我可以去那买些礼物。明天我带 你去那吧。现在我们要离开商业区去港口。 We're entering the western district, the most interesting part of the city. It's got some really pretty parks ... 我们即将进入西区, 也就是这个城 市最有趣的地区。那有一些非常漂亮的公园...... It seems lovely. Is that Gulangyu Island, just across the water? Yes, it is. It's a gorgeous island with some really interesting architecture. 看上去 很不错。水那边是鼓浪屿海岛吗?是的。那是个很迷人的海岛,岛上有一些非常有意思的建 筑。 So they tell me. Do you think we could stop and walk around for a while? Yes, I was just going to do that. We can park over there. 他们也是这么跟我说的。 你觉得我们可以停下来逗留 一会儿吗?可以啊,我正想那么做呢。我们可以在那边停车。 A friend's told me about a nice little fish restaurant near here. Shall we go there for lunch? That sounds great. I'm starving! 有朋 友跟我说起过这附近有一家很不错的渔家小饭馆, 我们去那吃午餐怎么样?听起来不错。 我 快饿死了!

Moudle 5
a lesson in a Lab Passage A 很难想象没有金属的世界。 It is hard to think of a world without metals. 不同的金属有不同的用处,比如说,钢材用于制 造汽车, 铁用于制造电子设备。 Different metals have different uses, for example, steel is used in cars, and iron is used in electrical equipment. 当我们使用金属的时候,知道它们和不同物质的 反应是很重要的,例如水和氧气。 When we use metals, it is important to know how they react with different substances, for example, water and oxygen. 金属和这些物质的反应是有顺序的。

Moudle 6
因特网是世界上的信息最大储存源,它可以通过电脑来访问。The Internet is the biggest source of information in the world, and it's accessible through a computer. 它含有数以百万计的数据。 It consists of millions of pages of data. 1969 年,美国的一个防御组织 DARPA 发明了一种通 过电话把多台电脑进行连接的方式。 In 1969, DARPA, a U.S. defence organisation, developed a way for all their computers to "talk" to each other through the telephone. 他们创建了一个叫做 DARPANET 的电脑网络。 They created a network of computers called DARPANET. 在 15 年 间,只有美国军方可以利用这种交流系统。 For fifteen years, only the U.S. army could use this system of communication. 1984 年,美国的国家科学基金会发明了 NSFNET 网。 Then in 1984, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) started the NSFNET network. 它使得大学也 可以利用这种系统。 It then became possible for universities to use the system as well. NSFNET 就以内部网络或―因特网‖而闻名。 NSFNET became known as the Inter-Network, or "Internet". 万维网是一个网络系统,它允许电脑用户通过因特网来访问众多网站上的信息。 The World Wide Web (the web) is a computer network that allows computer users to access information from millions of websites via the Internet. 目前,大约百分之八十的网络用语都是英语,但这一比率 正在下降。 At the moment, about 80 percent of web traffic is in English, but this percentage is going down. 到 2020 年时,较多的用语可能会是汉语。 By 2020, much web traffic could be in Chinese. 全球信息网是于 1991 年由一个英国的科学家蒂姆.贝尔纳斯-李创建的。 The World Wide Web was invented in 1991 by an English scientist, Tim Berners-Lee. 读大学时,贝尔 纳斯-李用一台废旧电视机制成了他的第一台电脑! Berners-Lee built his first computer while he was at university using an old television! 1989 年,当他在瑞士工作时,他提出了创建万维网 的想法。 He came up with the idea of the World Wide Web in 1989 while he was working in Switzerland. 蒂 姆 . 贝 尔 纳 斯 -李 使 得 每 一 个 人 而 不 仅 仅 是 大 学 或 军 队 来 使用 因 特 网 。 Berners-Lee made it possible for everyone to use the Internet, not just universities and the army. 他设计了第一个―网页浏览器‖,它使得计算机用户可以访问其他电脑的文件。 He designed the first "web browser", which allowed computer users to access documents from other computers. 从那时起,网站日益增多,因特网也日益普及。在五年内,因特网用户就从 60 万户增加到 4000 万户。 From that moment on, the web and the Internet grew. Within five years, the number of Internet users rose from 600 000 to 40 million. 因特网已经使得千万人成为百万富翁,但是, 蒂姆.贝尔纳斯-李却不是其中的一个。 The Internet has created thousands of millionaires, but Berners-Lee is not one of them. 世界上的任何人都可以用他的万维网进入因特网。 Everyone in the world can access the Internet using his World Wide Web system. 如今他还是一名位于波 士顿的麻省理工大学里的讲师。 He now works as a lecturer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston.

必修二
Module 1 Zhou Kai (1) Our Body and Healthy Habits Our Body and Healthy Habits When Zhou Kai’s mother saw him heading towards the front door without a jacket on, she eyed him anxiously. 当周凯的母亲 看见他没穿夹克就朝着前门走时,她担心地盯着他。 ―Zhou Kai, where are you going?‖ she asked. ―To the park. I’m gong to play football,‖ said Zhou Kai. 问道―周凯,你去准备去哪里?‖ 周凯说,―去公园。我要去踢足球。 ―But it’s raining! You’ll catch a bad cold,‖ said his mother. ―No, I won’t. I’ll be fine,‖ said Zhou Kai, as he opened the door. 母亲接着说,―但是快下雨了! 你会感冒的。―不会的, 我不会有事的。‖周凯一边开门一边回答说。 ―Zhou Kai, you’ll get ill. You know you will. You can at least go and get your jacket.‖ ―OK, OK‖ Zhou Kai went and did as he was told. ―周凯, 那样你会生病的。 我了解你会的。 至少你要去的话, 得穿上你的夹克。 ―好, 好。‖周凯去做了母亲要他做的。 Zhou Kai (2) My mother has always made sure we eat very healthily, and fresh fruit and vegetables are a very important part of our diet. 我母亲一直以来都 重视饮食健康,新鲜的水果和蔬菜是我们膳食很重要的一部分。 We live near the sea and we have fish about four times a week. We don’t eat much fat or sugar. 我住在靠海的地方,所以一 周差不多吃四次鱼。 我们吃的含脂肪或含糖的东西不多。 A lot of my school friends eat sweets every day but I’m lucky because I don’t have a sweet tooth ---- 我在学校的朋友中许多都是每 天吃糖果, 但是我很幸运, 因为我不会喜欢吃甜食——我情愿多吃一份好的水果。 I’d rather eat a nice piece of fruit. And I’m not too heavy, so I never have to diet, or anything like that. 我不 是很重,所以我从不减肥,或者做其它类似的事情。 I’m quite healthy. I very rarely get colds, although, unusually for me, I had a bad cold and a bit of a fever last week. 我相当健康。我很少 感冒,尽管通常我是如此,上周我患了严重的感冒并且有点发烧。 But that’s because I was stupid enough to play football in the rain. I don’t often get things like flu either. 那是因为我太愚 蠢了,在雨中踢足球。我通常也不会得流感。 Last winter almost all my class mates got flu ----but I didn’t. I think I don’t get these things because I take a lot of exercise and am very fit. 去 年冬天,我同学几乎都得了流感--但是我没有。我认为这都是因为我经常锻炼,我很健康。 Two years ago I broke my arm playing football. The injury was quite painful and I couldn’t move my arm for month ----I hated that. 两年前我在踢足球的时候折断了我的手臂。伤口非常疼痛, 以致我一个月都不能移动我的手臂--我很厌恶那样。 So as you can see from what I’ve said, I’m a normal kind of person. But there’s one thing I really love ---- I’m crazy about football. 因此 从我所说的话你能看出来,我是一个正常的人。但是有一件事我真的非常喜爱--我对足球很 着迷。 , I’m captain of the class team at school and I’m also a member of the Senior High team. 我是我们班足球队的队长,我也是高中队的队员。 Because of this, I make sure that I have a good diet, and as I’ve said, this isn’t a problem because my mother feeds us so well. 正因为这 样,我必须保证我有健康的饮食,正如我所说,这不是问题因为我母亲把我们照顾得很好。

Module 2
Article 1 No Drugs No Drugs My name is Adam Rouse. I'm 19 years old and I used to be a drug addict. I first started using drugs when I was 15. 我的名字叫亚当.罗斯。我今年十九岁了,我过去曾是一个吸毒上瘾者。 我第一次使用毒品是十五岁的时候。 I bought cannabis from a man in the street. I continued to buy cannabis from the same man for about six months. 我在街上的一个男人那里买了大麻。大

概六个月的时间我都持续从同一个男人那里买大麻。 One day, he offered me some crack cocaine. 一天,他卖给我了一些快克可卡因。 Article 2 Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug. Some drug users inject cocaine, others smoke it. 可卡因是一种极其容易让人上瘾的毒品。 有些 吸毒者注射可卡因,有些人吸食可卡因。 Both ways are dangerous. Users who inject the drug are also in more danger if they share needles with other users. 两种方式都是很危险的。注射毒 品的人如果和其他人共用注射针的话,就更危险了。 Read parts 1-6 and decide which article they belong to. 读 1——6 部分,判定它们分别属于哪一篇文章。 Crack cocaine is the most addictive form of cocaine. Users become addicted to crack cocaine much more easily if they smoke it. 快克可卡因是可卡因中最容易上瘾的一种。吸毒者抽快克可卡因的话,更容易对 它上瘾。 Smoking allows cocaine to reach the brain very quickly. 因为,抽烟会把可卡因很快 地运输到大脑。 When I went back to the man again, I wanted more crack cocaine. But he asked me for a lot of money. 当我再次回到那个男人那里时,我想多要些快克可卡因。但是他开了 很高的价。 I didn't have enough money so he didn't give me any drugs. I was in terrible pain. 我 钱不够,所以他就没有卖给我。我当时非常的痛苦。 next day, I broke into a house and stole a television and a video recorder. I took them to the drug dealer. 第二天,我闯进一间房子,偷了 一台电视机和一个录音机。我把它们拿到贩毒者那里。 He told me to take them to a shop in a nearby street. The man in the shop gave me some money. 他让我把东西拿到附近的商店。商店 的人给我一些钱。 I took the money to the drug dealer and he gave me some more crack cocaine. 我拿着钱到了贩毒者那里, 他给了我一些快克可卡因。 Using cocaine increases the user's heart rate and blood pressure. As a result, cocaine users sometimes have heart attacks. 吸食可卡因加 快了吸食者的心率、 增高了血压。 结果, 可卡因吸食者有时就会心脏病发作。 Smoking crack cocaine also causes anti-social behaviour. 抽快克可卡因会导致反社会行为。 By this time, I was addicted to crack cocaine. If I didn't have any drugs, I was in terrible pain. 到这时候, 我对快 克可卡因已经上瘾了。 如果我不吸毒的话, 就会感到非常的痛苦。And I had to steal something every day to pay for the drugs. One day, the police took me to the police station. 所以我每天不 得不偷东西来支付买毒品的钱。一天,警察把我抓到了警察局。 The next day, a doctor came to see me. He told me that I could die if I didn't stop taking crack cocaine, so I took his advice and stopped immediately. 第二天,一位医生来看望我。他告诉我说如果我不停止吸食快克可卡 因的话我就会死, 所以我听取了他的意见, 于是立即停止了。 Now I work in a centre for drug addicts, helping others to stop taking drugs. 现在我在一个戒毒中心工作, 帮助他人停止吸食毒 品。 Read the articles again and decide if these sentences are true (T) or false (F). 再读一遍这篇 文章,判断下面的句子的正误。 Cocaine can be smoked and also injected. 可卡因可被吸食也 可被注射。 People who inject cocaine are in more danger if they share needles. 注射毒品的人如 果和其他人共用注射针的话,就更危险了。 Cocaine makes your heart go more slowly. 可卡 因会使你的心脏跳得更慢。 Smoking crack cocaine can change people's behavior. 吸食快克可 卡因能改变人们的行为。 By this time, I was addicted to crack cocaine. If I didn’t have any drugs, I was in terrible pain. And I had to steal something every day to pay for the drugs. One day, the police took me to the police station. The next day, a doctor came to see me. HE told me that I could die if I didn’t stop taking crack cocaine, so I took his advice and stopped immediately. Now I work in a centre for drug addicts, helping others to stop taking drugs.

Module3 Music Music
Read the passage quickly and choose the best title. 快速阅读这篇文章,选出最恰当的题目。 Three Great Austrian Composers 三位伟大的奥地利作曲家 Three Great Composers of the Eighteenth Century 三位十八世纪伟大的作曲家 Three Great Child Composers 三位伟大的儿

童作曲家 Haydn 海顿 Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809) was an Austrian composer and is known as "the father of the symphony". 约瑟夫.海顿(1732-1809)是奥地利作曲家,著称为―交响乐之 父‖ 。Other composers had written symphonies before Haydn, but he changed the symphony into a long piece for a large orchestra. 之前也有作曲家写过交响乐, 但是他为一个大型管弦乐队把 一首交响乐变成了一首长的管弦乐。 He was born in a village in Austria, the son of a peasant. He had a beautiful singing voice. 他出生于奥地利的一个乡村,是个农民的儿子。他有一副好 嗓子。 After studying music in Vienna, Haydn went to work at the court of a prince in eastern Austria, where he became director of music. 在维也纳学成音乐后,海顿去奥地利东部王子的 宫廷工作,在那里他做的是音乐指挥仪。 Having worked there for 30 years, Haydn moved to London, where he was very successful. 在那里工作了三十年后,他搬到了伦敦,在那里他取 得了很大成功。 Mozart 莫扎特 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791) was a composer, possibly the greatest musical genius of all time. 沃尔夫冈?阿马多伊斯?莫扎特(1756-1791)是 一位作曲家,几乎是那个时代最伟大的音乐天才。 He only lived 35 years and he composed more than 600 pieces of music. 他只活了 35 年,谱了 600 多首曲子。 Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria. His father Leopold was a musician and orchestra conductor. Wolfgang had musical talent from a very early age. 莫扎特出生于奥地利的萨尔茨保。他的父亲利奥波德是 一位音乐家和管弦乐指挥。沃尔夫冈从小就有音乐天赋。 He learned to play the harpsichord when he was four, he started composing music when he was five, 四岁的时候学习弹大键琴,五 岁的时候开始谱曲, and when he was six, he played the harpsichord in a concert for the Empress of Austria. 六岁的时候,他就在音乐厅里为奥地利女皇弹奏大键琴。 Beethoven 贝 多芬 By the time he was 14, Mozart had composed many pieces for the harpsichord, piano and violin, as well as for orchestras. 十四岁的时候,莫扎特已经为大键琴,钢琴,小提琴以及管 弦乐队谱写了很多曲子。 While he was still a teenager, Mozart was already a big star and toured Europe giving concerts. 还是青少年的时候,莫扎特就已经是一位大明星,到欧洲各地旅游, 举行音乐会。 Haydn met Mozart in 1781 and was very impressed with him. "He is the greatest composer the world has known," he said. 海顿 1781 年的时候遇见了莫扎特, 对他印象非常深 刻。 他说, ―他是有史以来最伟大的作曲家‖ The two were friends until Mozart's death in 1791.。 直到 1791 年莫扎特去世, 他们两个都是朋友。 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) was born in Bonn, Germany. 路德维格.凡.贝多芬 (1770-1827) 出生于德国的波恩。 He showed musical talent when he was very young, and learned to play the violin and piano from his father, who was a singer. 在他年幼的时候就显示出了音乐才能。 他向他作为歌手的父亲学习拉小提琴和弹钢 琴。 Mozart met Beethoven and was impressed by him. "He will give something wonderful to the world," he said. 莫扎特遇见了贝多芬并对他印象深刻。他说, ―他将给这个世界一些不一样 的东西。 : Beethoven met Haydn in 1791, but was not impressed by the older man. 莫扎特在 1791 年遇见了海顿,但并没有对这个老人印象深刻。 After they had known each other for many years, Beethoven said, "He is a good composer, but he has taught me nothing." 他们认识了 很多年后 , 贝多芬这样说, ―他是一位出色的作曲家, 但是他没有教会我什么。 ‖ However, it was Haydn who encouraged Beethoven to move to Vienna. 然而, 是海顿鼓励贝多芬搬到了维 也纳去的。 Beethoven became very popular in the Austrian capital and stayed there for the rest of his life. 贝多芬开始在奥地利首都出名, 在那里度过了余生。 As he grew older, he began to go deaf. He became completely deaf during the last years of his life, but he continued composing. 随 着年龄的增长, 他开始变得耳聋。 在他余生的最后几年, 他变得全聋了, 但是他都坚持作曲。 Adversity successfully overcome is the highest glory. 成功地克服困难是最大的光荣。 MODULE 4 Fine Arts-Western Chinese and Pop Arts A.

This is a painting by the Spanish artist, Pablo Picasso, considered to be the greatest western artist of the twentieth century. 这是一幅西班牙艺术家巴勃罗?毕加索的画,他被认为是二十世纪最 伟大的西方艺术家。 Picasso and another painter, George Braque, started Cubism, one of the most important of all modern art movements. 毕加索和另外一名画家乔治.布朗克创立了所有 现代艺术运动最重要之一的立体派。 Cubist artists painted objects and people, with different aspects of the object or person showing at the same time. 立体主义艺术家用反映同一时间的人 或物的不同面来画人和物。 B This painting by contemporary American artist Roy Lichtenstein (1923 - 1997) is a world famous example of pop art. 这幅由当代美国艺术家罗伊.李奇登斯坦 ( (1923-1997)所作的画是世界闻名的流行艺术的典范。 Pop art (from the word "popular") was an important modern art movement that aimed to show ordinary twentieth-century city life. 流行音乐(来源于"popular"这个单词)是旨在展现平常的二十世纪城市生活的重要的现代艺 术运动。 For example, it shows things such as soup cans and advertisements. 例如, 它展现了像 汤罐和广告这样的东西。C Qi Baishi (1863-1957), one of the China's greatest painters, followed the traditional Chinese style of painting. 齐白石(1863-1957) ,中国最伟大的画家之一,遵 循着传统的中国画风格。 Chinese painting is known for its brush drawings in black inks and natural colours. 中国画因用黑色墨汁和自然颜色的毛笔画出名。 Qi Baishi observed the world of nature very carefully, and his paintings are special because of this. 齐白石非常仔细地观察了 自然世界,他的画也因此而独特。 D Xu Beihong (1895-1953) was one of China's best-known twentieth-century artists. 徐悲鸿 (1895-1953) 是二十世纪闻名于世的中国艺术家之一 Like Qi Baishi, Xu painted in the traditional Chinese style. Both painters have a beautiful brush line. 像齐 白石一样,徐悲鸿也用传统的中国风格作画。两位作家都有很完美的笔锋。 Xu Beihong believed that artists should show reality, but not just imitate it. Instead, a picture should try to show the "life" of its subject. 徐悲鸿认为艺术家应该反映现实,而不只是模仿它的样子。相 反,一幅画应当试图展现物体的生命力。 He is most famous for his lively paintings of horses. 他最为人称道的是他画的栩栩如生的马的油画。. E Wu Hang 吴航 I'm studying art at school, and I enjoy it a lot, although I can get tired of looking at pictures all the time. 我正在求学艺术, 尽管一直看着图画会让我疲倦,我还是非常喜欢艺术。 I'm crazy about the paintings of Qi Baishi, and this delightful picture of the little shrimps is such a lovely example of his work. 我对 齐白石的画非常的着迷。 这幅令人愉快的小虾图正是他作品中可爱的典型。 But I can't stand that picture of a golden-haired girl. I think it's stupid. 但是我无法赞同这幅金发女孩图。我觉得 太糟了。 .F Sarah Hardwick 莎拉.哈代维克 My parents are fond of going to art galleries and often take me with them, so I've developed an interest in art. 我的父母通常喜欢带着我一起去 艺术画廊, 因此我对艺术产生了兴趣。 I must say, I love that picture of the six horses. They look so alive. It's by a Chinese artist, isn't it? I can tell by the style. 我得说我喜欢有六匹马的那幅 图。他们看起来像活的一样这是中国艺术家所作,对吗?我可以从这画的风格看出来。 I think the painting of the young girl is probably by Picasso. I really like him. I think he's an extraordinary artist. 我觉得这幅年轻女孩的画很可能是毕加索的作品。我非常喜欢他。我认 为他是非凡的艺术家。 MODULE 5 Newspapers and Magazines Chinese Taikonaut Back on Earth! 2 While he was travelling in space, Yang spoke to two astronauts aboard the 在太空旅行期间,杨跟在不断绕地球运转的太空站里的 International Space Station, which is orbiting the earth, American astronaut 两位宇航员对了话,他们是美国 宇航员爱德华.卢 Edward Lu and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko. Lu, whose parents were 和俄罗斯宇航员尤里?马林年科。卢的父母在中国出生, born in China, spoke to Yang in

Chinese during his flight. ―Welcome to space,‖ 他用中文和飞行中的杨利伟进行了交谈。―欢迎 来到太空。 he said. Malenchenko said, ―I'm glad there is somebody else in space with us. 他说。 ‖ 马林年科说:―真高兴有人来太空跟我们做伴。 It's great work by thousands and thousands of people from China. ‖ 它是成千上万的中国人共同的杰作。‖ 3 Many countries around the world sent messages of congratulations. Sean 世界上很多的国家纷纷向中国发送贺电。 Keefe from the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) in the 美国国家航空和宇宙航行局 的肖恩?奥吉夫 US said that Yang's space flight was ―an important historical achievement and NASA 在美国说杨的空间飞行是―一次重大的历史性的胜利, wishes China continuing success with its space flight programme‖. United Nations 美国航天局祝愿中国在太空飞行计划 中取得进一步的成功‖。 Secretary?General Kofi Annan called the fight―a step forward for the whole world‖. 联合国秘书长科菲?安南称这次飞行是―人类世界前进的一大步‖。 1. China's first taikonaut Lieutenant Colonel Yang Liwei landed safely this morning in the Shenzhou V capsule in Inner Mongolia, 300 kilometres northwest of Beijing. 中国首位太空旅人杨利伟上校 乘坐神州 5 号太空舱于今早安全着陆在北京西北部 300 公里处的内蒙古省内。 Yang was in space for twenty-one and a half hours and made 14 orbits of the earth. 杨在太空停留了 21 个 小时零 30 分钟,绕地球转了 14 周。 "It is a great moment in the history of China—and also the greatest day of my life," said Yang. ―它是中国历史上的一个伟大时刻——当然也是我一生 中最重要的一天。‖杨利伟说。 When he was orbiting in the capsule, he took photographs of planet earth. "Our planet is so beautiful," he said. 当他在太空舱里绕地球飞行时,他拍了很多 地球的照片。他说:―我们的星球真漂亮。 The Beijing Space Control Centre said the flight was a "complete success". 北京航空控制中心称此次飞行是―完全成功的‖。 When Yang landed, Premier Wen Jiabao telephoned the Control Centre to offer his congratulations. 杨一着陆,温家 宝总理就打电话给控制中心表示祝贺。 When Yang took off from Jiuquan in northwest China at 9 am yesterday, China became the third nation to send a man into space. 昨天上午九点,杨从中 国西北部的酒泉起飞, 向世界宣告中国成为了第三个把人送入太空的国家。 Yang is the 438th person to travel in space, including astronauts from 32 countries. 包括来自 32 个国家的宇航员 在内,杨是第 438 位在太空旅行的宇航员。 In total, these astronauts have spent more than 26,000 days in space. 这些宇航员总共在宇宙的时间已经超过了 26000 天。 2. While he was travelling in space, Yang spoke to two astronauts aboard the International Space Station, which is orbiting the earth, American astronaut Edward Lu and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko. 在 太空旅行期间, 杨跟在不断绕地球运转的太空站里的两位宇航员对了话, 他们是美国宇航员 爱德华.卢和俄罗斯宇航员尤里.马林年科。 Lu, whose parents were born in China, spoke to Yang in Chinese during his flight. "Welcome to space," he said. Malenchenko said, 卢的父母在 中国出生,他用中文和飞行中的杨利伟进行了交谈。―欢迎来到太空。‖ "I am glad there is somebody else in space with us. It's great work by thousands and thousands of people from China." 他说。马林年科说:―真高兴有人来太空跟我们做伴。‖ 它是成千上万的中国人共同 的杰作。 3. Many countries around the world sent messages of congratulations. 世界上很多的国 家 纷 纷 向 中 国 发 送 贺 电 。 Sean O'Keefe from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) in the US said that Yang's space flight was "an important historical achievement and NASA wishes China continuing success with its space flight programme". 美国国家航空和 宇宙航行局的肖恩.奥吉夫在美国说杨的空间飞行是―一次重大的历史性的胜利,美国航天局 祝愿中国在太空飞行计划中取得进一步的成功‖。 United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan called the flight "a step forward for the whole world". 联合国秘书长科菲.安南称这次飞 行是―人类世界前进的一大步‖。

MODULE 6 Films and TV Programmes
电影评论:卧虎藏龙 Review: film Review: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Martial arts films are often enjoyable but they are seldom great art. 武打片通常是令人愉快的,能算得上真正艺 术性的武打片却很少。 Now, to everyone's surprise, Ang Lee, director of a number of excellent films, has made a martial arts film called Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. The result is a masterpiece. 令大家惊讶的是,曾经拍了许多优秀影片的导演李安,现在拍了一部名为《卧 虎藏龙》的功夫片。 结果它成为电影界的一部杰作。 The film belongs to a type of Chinese story called wuxia. These stories tell of nineteenth-century martial arts masters with unusual abilities. 这部影片属于一种被称之为武侠的中国故事。这些故事 讲述的是 19 世纪那些有 着非凡才能的功夫大师。 Wuxia films are popular in China, and they are now popular in the west too. 武侠电影在中国非常流行,现在在西方也很受欢迎。 The story takes place in the early 1800s in China. A man and a woman, Li Mubai (played by Chow Yun-Fat) and Yu Xiulian (played by Michelle Yeoh), both masters of the martial arts, are in love with each other. 故事发生 在中国 19 世纪早期。一男一女两位功夫大师,李慕白(周润发饰)和 俞秀莲(杨紫琼饰)相爱 了。 But Xiulian had a fiancé who has died. Because this fiancé was a good friend of Mubai, Mubai feels that he cannot marry Xiulian. 但秀莲有一个死去的未婚夫。因为秀莲的未婚夫曾 经是慕白的好朋友,所以慕白认为他不能娶她。 When someone steals Xiulian's sword, Mubai and Xiulian try to get it back. 有人把秀莲的剑偷走之后, 慕白和秀莲就试图把它取回来。 The action takes place on Peking rooftops, and in places as far away as the deserts of western China. 故事发生在北京的房顶上和遥远的中国西部的沙漠地区。 As in the old wuxia stories, characters leap through the air every now and then, with beautiful, graceful movements, while audiences shout in surprise. 正如在古代武侠故事中一样,影片中的人物们不时在空中跳跃并 做出许多优美的动作, 令观众们都惊奇地叫出了声。 Unusually, it is the female characters that interest us most. Brave, good and strong, Xiulian is the character we care about most. 不同以往 的是这次最使我们感兴趣的是女主角。 勇敢善良而又坚强的秀莲这个角色, 是最令我们关注 的。 Beautiful Zhang Ziyi plays the part of Yu Jiaolong, a young woman who is not as good as she seems. 美丽的章子怡扮演玉娇龙,玉娇龙是一个并不像外表看起来那样善良的年轻女子。 The fight scenes between Jiaolong and Xiulian are some of the most exciting moments in modern cinema. 娇龙和秀莲之间的武打是现代电影中最激动人心的场面之一。 But one cannot forget the wonderful Chow Yun-Fat, who is as good with a sword as he is with a gun. 但是谁也不会不 注意到周润发, 他真了不起, 他使剑和使枪一样厉害。 His romantic scenes with Yu Xiulian are very moving, as their eyes show all the love that they must not express in words. 他和俞秀莲之 间的浪漫戏很感人, 他们的眼神传递了所有的爱意, 这种爱是不可以通过语言表达的。 this rarely reach the cinema. Go and see Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. It will make your heart leap with excitement at its beauty. 中国很少有这样的电影。去看《卧虎藏龙》吧,这部电影会使 你因其美丽而兴奋得心跳不止。 Films like Martial arts films are often enjoyable but they are seldom great art. Now, to 武打片通常是令人愉快的, 能算得上真正艺术性的 武打片却很 少。 everyone's surprise, Ang Lee, director of a number of excellent films, has made 令大家惊讶 的是, 曾经拍了许多优秀影 片的导演李安,现在 a martial arts film called Crouching Tiger,Hidden Dragon. The result is a masterpiece. 拍了一部名为《卧虎藏龙》 的功夫片。 结 果它成为电影界的一部杰作。 The film belongs to a type of Chinese story called Wuxia. These stories tell 这部影片属于 一种被称之为武侠的中国故事。这些故事 of nineteenth?century martial arts masters with unusual abilities. wuxia films are 讲述的是 19 世纪那些有着非凡才 能的功夫大师。 武侠电影 popular in China, and they are now popular in the west too. 在中国非

常流行, 现在 在西方也很受欢迎。 The story takes place in the early 1800s in China. A man and awoman, Li 故事发生在中国 19 世纪早期。一男一女 Mubai (played by Chow Yun?Fat) and Yu Xiulian (played by Michelle Yeoh), 两 位 功 夫 大 师 , 李 慕 白 ( 周 润 发 饰 ) 和 both masters of the martial arts, are in love with each other. But Xiulian had a 俞秀莲(杨紫琼饰) 相爱了。但秀莲有一个 fiancé who has died. Because this fiancé wasa good friend of Mubai, Mubai 死去的未婚夫。因为秀莲的未婚夫曾经是慕白的好朋友, feels that he cannot marry Xiulian. When someone steals Xiulian?s sword,Mubai 所以慕白认为他不能娶她。有人把秀莲 的剑偷走之后, 慕白 and Xiulian try to get it back. The action takes place on Peking rooftops, and in 和秀莲就试图把它取回来。故事发生在北京的房顶上和遥远的 places as far away as the deserts of western China. As in the old wuxia stories, 中国西部的沙漠地区。 正如在古代武 侠故事中一样, characters leap through the air every now and then, with beautiful, graceful movements, 影片中的人物们不时在空中跳跃并做出许多优 美的动作, while audiences shout in surprise. Unusually, it is the female characters that 令观众们都惊奇地叫出了声。不同 以往的是这 次最使我们感兴趣的是 interest us most. Brave, good and strong, Xiulian is the character we care about most. 女主角。勇敢善良而又坚 强的秀莲这个角色,是最令我们关注 的。 Beautiful Zhang Ziyi playsthe part of Yu Jiaolong, a young woman who is 美丽的章子怡扮 演 玉娇龙, 玉娇龙是一个并不像 not as good as she seems. The fight scenes between Jiaolong and Xiulian are 外表看起来那样善良的年轻 女子。娇龙和秀莲之间的武打是现代电影中最 some of the most exciting moments in modern cinema. But one cannot forget the 激动人 心的场 面之一。 但是谁也不会不注 wonderful Chow Yun?Fat, who is as good with a sword as he is with a gun. His 意到周润发,他真 了不起,他使剑和使枪一样厉害。他 romantic scenes with Yu Xiulian are very moving, as their eyes show all the love 和俞秀莲之间的 浪漫戏很感人, 他们 的眼神传递了所有的爱意, that they must not express in words. Films like this rarely reach the cinema. Go 这种 爱是不可以通过语言表达的。 中国很少有这样的电影。 and see Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. It will make your heart leap with 看 去 《卧虎藏龙》吧,这部电影会使 你因其美丽而兴奋得 excitement at its beauty. 心跳不止。 ( 90 1 thrill 1)n 意为―激动,震颤 感,令人震颤的经验‖。如: a thrill of joy/fear/pleasure/horror 一阵欢乐/害怕/ 愉快/恐怖 He gets his thrills from rock?climbing. 他从攀岩运动中得到兴奋、刺激的感觉。 2)v 意为―使震 颤,使激动,使产生震颤感‖。 如: We were thrilled to hear your wonderful news. 我们听到 你的好消息非常兴奋。 Her voice thrilled with joy. 她高兴得声音发颤。 thriller n 意为―充满 刺激的电影‖; a thriller writer 写惊险故事的小说家。 2 character n 1)表示―特征,性质,特 征(的总和)‖。如: the general character 共性 be different in character 有不同的性质 2)表示 ―(人的)性格, 品质, 骨气‖等。 如: build up one's character 培养品性 get a good/bad character 得到好/坏名声 She has a strong character. 她性格坚强。 3)为―人物,角色‖的意思。如: I found all thecharacters in his play very interesting. 我觉得他那出戏中的所有人物都很有趣。 4) 表示―(汉)字, 字体, 书写符号‖等。 如: I wish this book were written in bigger characters; these are too difficult to read. 我希望这本书的字大一点就好了, 读起来很吃力。 3 leap (leapt, leapt; leaped, leaped) 1)v 意为―跳,跳跃;跳过,使……跳过‖。 leap over a fence 跳过篱笆 leap to a conclusion 一下子得出结论 leap at a chance 抓 住机会 Look before you leap. 三思而后 行。 He leapt thewall and ran away. 他跳过墙跑了。 2)n 意为―突然跳起;跃过的距离;激 增, 跃进‖。 a leap in the number of birth 出生率的激增 4 interest 1) vt 表示―使发生兴趣, 引 起……的注意‖。如: American football doesn't interest me at all. 美式足球一点也提不起我的 兴趣。 The interesting book interests the boy. 那本有趣的书引起了男孩的兴趣。 2) n 为―兴 趣, 关心, 重要性, 影响, 利息,利益, 利害‖等意思。 如:I find/ take/ have no interest in such

things. 我对这些不感兴趣。Eating seems to be his only interest in life. 吃似乎是他生活中惟一 的爱好。 The interests of the individual must be subordinated to the interests of thecollective. 个 人利益必须服从集体利益。 5 occasionally adv 表示―偶然, 偶而, 有时‖。 相当于 sometimes/ from time to time/ now and then。 We go for walks in thefields occasionally. 我们偶尔去田野里 散步。 6 setting n 表示―置放,沉落,环境;(书或电影的)背景,安置位置‖等意思。 短语 be set in 表示―以……为背景‖。 The end of the film is set in the setting of the sun. 电影结束时是 以落日为背景的。 如: The TV play was set in the special social setting. 那部电视剧是以一个 特殊的社会环境为背景的。 Film Review: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon 1. Now, to everyone's surprise, Ang Lee, director of a number of excellent films, has made a martial arts film called Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. 令大家 惊讶的是,曾经拍了许多优秀影片的导演李安,现 在也拍了一部名为《卧虎藏龙》的功夫片。 1)to one's surprise 意为―出乎意料的,令某人吃 惊的是……‖,相当于 to the surprise of sb。 surprise 意为―吃惊地, in 在惊慌中‖(in 意为―处 在……状态‖)。 如: She looked up in surprise when I shouted. 当我叫喊时, 她吃惊地抬起 头来。 my surprise, To he succeeded at last. 令我吃惊的是, 他最后成功了。 类似结构有: to one's delight/joy/sorrow/disappointment/discouragement 意为―令人高兴/难过/失望/泄气的是‖。 如: Much to their delight/to their great delight, the newly designed machine works very well. 使 他们极为高兴的是,新设 计的机器运转良好。 2)a number of 意为―许多的,大量的‖,修饰 可数名词,作主语时谓语用复数形式。 the number of 意为 ―……的数 量‖,后接可数名词, 作主语时谓语用单数形式。如: A large number ofpeople came from all parts of the country to see the exhibition. 许多 人从全国各地来参观这个展览。 The number of the students in our class is forty?five. 我们班有 45 个学生。 2. The story takes place in the early 1800s in China. 故事发生在中国 19 世纪早期。1) take place 意为―发生‖, happen, come about 意思相同, 与 都相当于不及 物动词。 The 2008 Olympic Games will take place in Beijing. 2008 年奥运会将 在北京举行。 What has happened over there? 那儿发生了什 么事? 2)inthe early 1800s 意为 ―在 19 世纪早期‖,也可写为 in the early 1800?s。 in one's +整十的复数形式 意为―在某人 几十岁的时 候‖。如: He went abroad in his thirties. 他三十几岁时出国了。 3. . . . both masters of the martial arts, are in love with each other. 两位武功 大师相爱了。 be in love with sb 意为―爱着某人, 相爱,喜欢‖,表示状态;fall in love with sb 意为―爱上某人‖,表示动 作。如: They have been in love with each other for four years. 他们相爱四年了。 If you are really in love with art, you Don't mind hard work. 如果你真的 喜欢艺术, 你就不会介意艰苦 的工作。 Jenny fell in love with Tom as soon as she saw him. 珍妮一看见汤姆就喜欢上他了。 4. As in the old wuxia stories, characters leap through the air every now and then, with beautiful, graceful movements, while audiences shout in surprise. 如在 古代武侠故事中一样, 影片中的 人物不时在空中跳跃并做出许多优美的动作, 令观众们都惊奇地叫出了声。 every now and then 意为―有 时, 偶尔‖, 用于一般现在/过去时态。 如: Every now and then I go out to the beach. 我有时到海滩去。 He wrote to me every now and then. 他偶尔给我写信。 5. Unusually, it is the female characters that interest us most. 不同以往的是,这次最使我们感兴趣的是女主 角。 句中 it is . . . that/ who . . . 是强调句型,可用来强调主语、宾语、状语等成分。其中, who 只能用于强调人。 It was in the street that I met him yesterday. 昨天我是在大街上遇见他 的。 It was him that/who I met inthe street yesterday. 昨天我在大街上遇见的是他。 6. Brave, good and strong Xiulian is the character we care about most. 勇敢善良而又坚强的秀莲这个角 色, 是最令我们关注的。 care about 意为―喜欢, 关心‖, ― 对 …… 介 意 / 在 乎 ‖ 。 如 : I really care about my English teacher. 我 的 确 喜 欢 我 的 英 语 老 师 。 The government cares much about the problem of old people. 政府非常关心老人问题。 He failed in

the exam but I Don't think he cares very much. 他虽然考试不及格, 但我认为他并不在乎。 7. Beautiful Zhang Ziyi plays the part of Yu Jiaolong. 美丽的章子怡扮演玉娇龙。 play a part = play a role 意为―扮 演……的角色‖; ―在……中起作用‖。 如: He played a very important part in the film. 他在电影中扮演非常重要的角色。 China is playing an increasingly important part in safeguarding the world peace. 中国在捍卫世界和平中起着越来越重要的作用。play the part 意为 ―扮 演……的角色‖(指具体角色)。 如: He played the leading part of Othello in thetragedy. 他在悲剧中扮演主角奥赛罗。 8. Ang Lee had never directed a martial art film before. 李安以前从来没有导演过武打片。never 是频度副词, 通常位于动词前面。 这样的 词还有 seldom, always, often, frequently, sometimes, usually, rarely, occasionally 等。如: I often heard him sing. 我经常听他唱歌。 They occasionally saw him walk along the river bank. 他们偶尔看见他在河边散步。 其中 never, seldom, rarely 等为否定副词, 位于句首时, 句 子用倒装结构。 Never have we workers been daunted by difficulties. 我们工人从来没有被困 难所吓倒。 Seldom have we seen such big melons. 我们极少见过这么大的 瓜。 Ask a young 1. person inthe street who the greatest American film director is , and you may get the answer Steven Spielberg. 在街上问一 位年轻人谁是美国最伟大的电影导演,得到的答复可能是史蒂文?斯 皮尔伯格。 该句中―祈使句+and/or+简单句‖相当于一个条件复合句 +简单句。如: Work hard and you'll make great progress. = If you work hard, you'll make great progress. 努力学习, 你就会取得很大的进 步。 Be more careful, or you'll make the same mistake. = If you Don't be more careful, you will makethe same mistake. 多加小心,否则你就 会犯同样的错误。 2. He has certainly made more successful films than any other director in the West. 他拍摄的电影在西 方导演中当然是最 成功的。 make films 意为―拍电影‖;any other . . . 意为―任何其他 的……‖。如: China is larger than any other country in Asia. 中国比亚 洲其他任何一个国家 都大。 3. . . . completing his first 15?minute home movie at the age of 13. ……在 13 岁时就制 作了第一部播放时长 15 分钟的家庭电影。 at the age of = when he was . . . years old 意为 ―在……岁时‖。如: He started school at the age of 6. 他 6 岁入学。 At the age of 32, he went to France. 32 岁时,他去了法国。 4. This was shown at a local cinema and made $100. 这部电 影是在当地影院播 放的,赚了 100 美元。 make . . . (money)是及物动词,意为―赚(钱),挣 得, 赢得……‖。 如: He made a lot of money from this film. 这 部电影为他赚了很多钱。 How much do you make from working part?time? 你打零工赚了多少钱? 5. AHollywood film studio liked it and employed Spielberg to make a full?length film. 一家好莱坞电影制片厂欣赏 这部电影, 就聘请斯皮尔伯格制作一部大型电影。 Full-length adj 意为―(小说、戏剧等)标 准长度的,大型的,全长的‖。如: a full-length novel 足本的小说 a full-length skirt 长裙(长 及踝的) 6. Thisfilm,Sugarland Express, made in 1974, had some success. 摄于 1974 年的电影 《横冲直撞大逃亡》 取得了一定的成功。 success 此处 为名词―成功‖, have some success in= be successful in . . . 意为―在……获得成功‖。如: Do you have any success in persuading your father? 你说服你父亲了吗? He is successful in the final exam. 他期末考试获得了成功。

必修三
外研版高中必修3 MODULE 1 Europe 欧洲 Read the passage and match the photos with these descriptions.阅读文章并将图片与下列描述搭 配起来。a landmark in Paris 巴黎的标志性建筑 an art gallery in Florence 佛罗伦萨的美术馆 a church in Barcelona 巴塞罗那的教堂 a building in Athens 雅典的一座建筑 The Eiffel Tower 埃 菲尔铁塔 The Parthenon 帕台农神庙 The Uffizi Palace 乌菲齐美术馆 The Sagrada Familia 圣 家大教堂 Great European Cities 欧洲大城市 PARIS 巴黎 Paris is the capital and largest city of

France,situated on the River Seine. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. 巴黎是法国的首都, 也是法国最大的城市, 坐落 在塞纳河畔。巴黎是世界上最漂亮的城市之一,每年有超过八百万的游客来这里旅游。 The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Paris. One of the world's largest art galleries,the Louvre,is also located in Paris. 最受游客欢迎的旅游景点是埃菲尔铁 塔, 它是巴黎著名的象征。 世界上最大的美术馆之一——卢浮宫, 也在巴黎。 The city is also famous for its restaurants, cafes and theatres. About two-thirds of France's artists and writers live in Paris. 这个城市也以餐馆、咖啡馆和剧院而闻名。法国大约三分之二的艺术家和作家都生 活在巴黎。BARCELONA 巴塞罗那 Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain and is situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometers east of the Spanish capital,Madrid. 巴塞罗 那是西班牙的第二大城市, 它位于西班牙东北海岸, 大概在离西班牙首都马德里东边五百千 米的地方。 One of Barcelona's most famous landmarks is the Church of the Sagrada Familia, which was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. 巴塞罗那最著名的标志性建筑之一 就是由建筑师安东尼奥?高迪建造的圣家大教堂。 Gaudi worked on the project from 1882 until his death in 1926. The church hasn't been finished yet! 高迪从1882年起从事这项工程直至1926 年逝世, 这座家庙还没有竣工。FLORENCE 佛罗伦萨 Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years. 佛罗伦萨是意大利的一座城市, 这座城市因文艺复兴而变得著名。 文 艺复兴是一次大型的文艺运动, 开始于13世纪, 持续了三百年。 During the Renaissance, some of the greatest painters of all time lived and worked in Florence. 在文艺复兴时期,历史上一些 最伟大的画家在佛罗伦萨生活和工作。 Many of Florence's most beautiful paintings and sculptures were produced by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. 佛罗伦萨 很多非常漂亮的油画和雕塑都是由伟大的艺术家如莱昂纳多?达?芬奇和米开朗琪罗创作的。 Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists who come to see the art galleries,churches and museums.The Uffizi Palace is the most famous art gallery in the city. 每年大约有一百万的 游客来佛罗伦萨参观美术馆、教堂和博物馆,乌菲齐美术馆是这座城市最著名的美术馆。 ATHENS 雅典 Athens,the capital of Greece,is known as the birthplace of western civilisation. 雅 典是希腊的首都, 作为西方文明的发祥地而闻名于世。 Two thousand four hundred years ago,it was the world's most powerful city. 2400年前, 雅典是世界上最强大的城市, Buildings such as the Parthenon on the Acropolis Hill were built during this period.Greece's best writers lived in ancient Athens. Their work has influenced other writers ever since.像位于雅典卫城山的帕台农 神庙这样的建筑等就是在那个时期建造的。 希腊最优秀的作家就住在古雅典, 他们的作品影 响了后世的作家。 Module 2 Developing and Developed Countries 发展中国家与发达国家 Read the passage.Answer these questions.阅读文章并回答下列问题。 What did world leaders agree to do in 2000? 2000年各国领导人达成了什么协议? What does the Human Development Index measure? 衡量人类发展的尺度是什么? What are the first two Development Goals? 最 初的两个发展目标是什么? What progress have we made towards these goals? 我们朝着这些 目标取得了哪些进步? What do developed countries need to do? 发达国家需要做些什么? The Human Development Report 人类发展报告 In the year 2000,147 world leaders agree to work together to reduce poverty by 2015 or earlier. From this agreement came the Human Development Report. 2000年,147个国家领导人达成协议,一起努力到2015年甚至更早缓解 贫困,这个协议达成后接下来便产生了《人类发展报告》 One of the most important sections 。 of this report is the Human Development Index.This examines the achievements of 175 countries.

这个报告最重要的一部分就是―人类发展指标‖,这对175个国家的成果作了分析检测。 The Index measures a country's achievements in three ways:life expectancy (how long people usually live),education and income.The index has some surprises.Norway is at the top of the list,while the US is at number 7. 这项指标从三个方面衡量一个国家的成就:寿命(人们通常能活多久) 、 教育和收入。 这项指标显示了一些令人感到意外的情况。 挪威高居榜首, 而美国则排在第七。 The other top five countries are:Iceland (2), Sweden (3), Australia (4), the Netherlands (5). 中间 五个国家按名次分别是冰岛、瑞典、澳大利亚和荷兰, The UK is in the thirteenth position,while China is in the middle of the list.The bottom ten countries are all African countries,with Sierra Leone (in West Africa) at the bottom of the list. 英国位居第十三, 而中国排 在名单的中间。处于末端的十个国家均是非洲国家,西非的塞拉利昂排在最后。 The report describes eight Development Goals.The most important goals are to: 这个报告描述了八个发展 目标,最重要的目标是: reduce poverty and hunger;缓解贫穷和饥饿; make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11;确保11岁以上的孩子都能接受教育; fight AIDS and other diseases;战胜艾滋病和其他疾病 improve the environment of poor people, e.g. make sure they have safe drinking water; 改善穷人的生活环境,如确保他们都喝上安全健康的饮用 水; encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries.鼓励发达国家给予其他 国家更多的帮助。 The 2003 Human Development Report gives examples of successful development. For example, in nine years(1953-1962),China increased life expectancy by 13 years. 2003年的《人类发展报告》报告了几个发展成功的实例,譬如,在九年(1953-1962)的时 间里, 中国的人均寿命就增加了13岁; In the last ten years in China, 150 million people moved out of poverty. However, the challenges are still great. 在过去的十年中,中国有1.5亿人摆脱了 贫穷,然而,仍然还存在着很大的挑战。 Every day 799 million people in developing countries are hungry. Over half of these are in South Asia or Africa. 在发展中国家每天仍有7.99亿人处于 饥饿中,这些人中有一半是南亚或者非洲的; Although more than 80% of children in developing countries go to primary school, about 115 million children are not being educated. 虽 然发展中国家超过80%的孩子能上小学, 但是仍然有1.15亿的孩子没有接受教育; More than 1 billion people in developing countries do not drink safe water. 在发展中国家还有超过一百万 的人喝不到安全健康的饮用水, However, in other regions of the world, e.g. Eastern Europe,water is now mostly safe to drink. 但是在世界的其他地区,如东欧,水已经基本上可 以安全饮用了。 The report shows that we are making some progress but that we need to make greater efforts. 报告显示我们正在进步, 但是我们必须作出更大的努力。 Although developed countries give some financial help, they need to give much more. 虽然发达国家提供了一些经 济救援,但是提供救援的数量应该大大增加。 Interestingly, the countries that give the most money are the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. 有趣的是,给予最多经济资助的国家分别是 荷兰、 挪威和瑞典。 These are among the five richest countries in the world, so it is right that they should do so. 这几个国家都是世界上最富裕的五个国家中的,所以它们应该这么做的。 MODULE 3 The Violence of Nature 自然的暴行 Read about the Gulf Stream and check the meaning of the words.阅读关于墨西哥湾流的文章, 查找下列单词的意思。 current 水流 flow 流动 latitude 纬度 The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current which starts in the Gulf of Mexico and flows northeast across the Atlantic. It also travels past the east coast of the United States towards eastern Canada. It is one of the strongest currents anywhere in the world. Because of the Gulf Stream, The United Kingdom and other places in Europe are much warmer than parts of Canada on the same latitude.墨西哥湾流是发源 于墨西哥湾,穿过大西洋向东北流动的温暖洋流。它还沿着美国东海岸向加拿大东部流动。

它是世界上最强大的一股水流。 因为有墨西哥湾流, 英国和欧洲其他地方比处于同纬度的加 拿大很多地区更暖和。 What is a current?水流是什么? A kind of electricity.一种电 A movement of water.水的一种运动 A kind of wind.一种风 What kind of things flow?什么东西 会流动? Water.水 Time.时间 Money.钱 Read the passages on page 23 and answer these questions.阅读第23页的文章,回答下列问题。 How strong are tornado winds?龙卷风有多强 烈? What can happen to furniture when a house is destroyed by a tornado?当一座房子被龙卷 风摧毁了,家具会发生什么? How many tornadoes are there in the US every year? 美国每年 会有多少次龙卷风? How many people died in the worst tornado of all time? 最严重的一次龙 卷风中死了多少人? What happens at sea during a hurricane? 刮飓风的时候,海上会发生什 么? When was the worst hurricane of all time? 最严重的一次飓风发生在什么时候? Was the actor Charles Coghlan killed in it? 演员查尔斯?科格伦在飓风中被夺取生命了吗? What happened to him after the hurricane? 飓风之后,他发生了什么? What Is a Tornado?龙卷风是 什么? A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. 龙卷风是指一 个从空中的雷暴延伸到地面而生成的旋转气柱。 The most violent have winds of more than 400 kilometres per hour. 最强的龙卷风风速超过400千米每小时 Almost all of them occur in the US, in the area from Texas in the southeast to South Dakota in the north.,几乎所有的龙卷风 都发生在美国,从东南部的得克萨斯州到北部的达科他。 Tornadoes can pick up cars, trains and even houses and put them down in the next street--or even in the next town. 龙卷风可以卷起 汽车、 火车甚至是房子并把它们卷到旁边的街道——甚至能卷到邻近的城镇。 They can take the fur off the back of a cat and the feathers off a chicken. 它们可以将猫背上的皮毛和鸡身上 的羽毛拔下来, They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. 它 们可以摧毁房子,却把房内的家具留在原处。 On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. 美国平均每年会发生800次龙卷风,造成 大约80人死亡, 1500人受伤。 The worst tornado of all time occurred in 1925, affecting three US states: Missouri,Illinois and Indiana. 最严重的一次龙卷风发生在1925年,影响了美国的三个 州: 密苏里州、 伊利诺伊州和印第安纳州。 By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured. 等到风停时,已有700多人死亡,2700多人受伤。 What Is a Hurricane?飓风是什么? Hurricanes are strong tropical storms, and they usually occur in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. 飓风是强烈的热带风暴, 它 们通常发生在大西洋南部、加勒比海和墨西哥湾。 There are violent winds of 120 kilometres per hour or more, which cause huge waves, heavy rain and floods. 猛烈的飓风以120千米每小时 甚至更快的速度移动,引起巨大的波浪,大雨和洪水。 There are on average six Atlantic hurricanes each year and they usually affect the east coast of the US from Texas to Maine. 平均每 年会发生6次大西洋飓风,通常会影响美国东部海岸从得克萨斯州到缅因州。 The worst hurricane disaster of all time occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. 最严重的 飓风灾害是1900年9月8日发生在得克萨斯州的加尔维斯顿, Winds of 200 kilometers per hour and five-metre high waves hit the city. 飓风以200千米每小时的速度卷起5米高的波浪向城市 袭来, The disaster killed 6,000 people in a population of 37,000 and destroyed 3,600 buildings. 那次灾害夺去了37000人口中的6000条人命,摧毁了3600栋建筑物。 An Extraordinary Event 非比寻常的事件 This is a story about the 1900 Galveston hurricane.这是一个关于1900年的加 尔维斯顿飓风的故事。 Charles Coghlan was a nineteenth-century Irish actor who went to live in Canada. 查尔斯?科格伦是19世纪一位居住在加拿大的爱尔兰演员, He then moved to New York, where he became famous. By the late 1890s, he had moved to Galveston, where he died in 1899, a year before the hurricane struck. 那时,他搬到纽约并在那里出了名,19世纪90年代后

期, 他搬到了加尔维斯顿, 并于1899年, 也就是飓风来袭的前一年去世。 The cemetery where Coghlan was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and Coghlan's coffin ended up in the sea. 埋 葬科格伦的公墓被飓风摧毁了, 科格伦的棺材最后被卷入了大海。 Eight years later, the coffin was found by fishermen in the sea near his home on Prince Edward Island in the east of Canada. 八年之后, 科格伦的棺材在加拿大东部的爱德华王子岛省被一位渔夫在离他家不远的海里发 现了。 The Gulf Stream had carried it 3,000 kilometres up the eastern US coast to Prince Edward Island. 墨西哥湾流载着它漂了3000千米沿着美国东海岸漂到了爱德华王子岛省。 Coghlan travelled back to Canada--after he had been buried in Texas! 被葬在得克萨斯州后,科格伦又漂 回了加拿大。 MODULE 4 Sandstorms in Asia 亚洲沙尘暴 READING AND VOCABULARY 阅读与词汇 Look at the photo. Answer these questions.看图 回答问题。 What is happening?正在发生什么? What is the cyclist wearing and why?那个骑自 行车的人戴着什么?他为什么要那样做? What do you think happens to traffic in this situation? Why?你认为在这种情况下交通会发生什么?为什么? What do you think experts advise people to do in this situation? 你 认 为 在 这 种 情 况 下 专 家 会 建 议 人 们 怎 么 做 ? Sandstorms in Asia 亚洲沙尘暴 Sandstorms have been a major disaster for many Asian countries for centuries. 几个世纪以来, 沙尘暴已经成为很多亚洲国家的严重灾害。 Scientists have tried many ways to solve this problem and in China, a mass campaign has been started to help solve it. 科学家已经想了很多办法来解决这个问题, 在中国, 已经开展了一场帮助解决沙尘暴问题的 大型战争。 Sandstorms are strong, dry winds that carry sand. They are often so thick that you cannot see the sun, and the wind is sometimes strong enough to move sand dunes. 沙尘暴是带有 沙石和尘土的强大而干燥的风。沙尘暴通常很浓密以至于人们都看不见太阳,有时候,风的 强度大到可以掀动沙丘。 The four main places in the world where there are sandstorms are Central Asia, North America, Central Africa and Australia. Ren Jianbo, from Inner Mongolia described a terrible sandstorm he experienced as a child in the desert. 世界上四个主要的有沙尘 暴的地方是:亚洲中部、北美、非洲中部和澳大利亚。来自内蒙古的任建波描述了他小时候 在沙漠中经历过的一次严重的沙尘暴, ―To have been caught in a sandstorm was a terrible experience,‖ he said. ―There was nothing to be done. ―被困在沙尘暴中是一种很可怕的经历,‖ 他说, ―什么也干不了, It was the most frightening and the most dangerous situation I've ever been in. You just had to hope you'd survive. I thought I was going to disappear under the sand.‖ 那是我 遭遇过的最可怕、 最危险的境况, 你只能希望自己能够幸存, 我原以为我会消失在沙石底下。 ‖ Northwest China is part of the sandstorm centre in Central Asia. Sandstorms begin in desert areas. 中国西北是亚洲中央沙尘暴中心的一部分。沙尘暴开始于沙漠地带, Sandstorms in China appear to have increased in recent years as a result of ―desertification‖. 近年来因为―沙漠化‖, 中 国发生沙尘暴的次数明显增加了。 This is a process that happens when land becomes desert because of climate changes and because people cut down trees and dig up grass. 这是发生在由于 气 候 变 化 以 及人 们 砍 伐树 木 、 开 垦 草地 等 使 得陆 地 变 成 沙 漠时 的 过 程。 Sandstorms sometimes affect Beijing. Citizens wake up to an orange sky and strong winds that cover the city in a thick, brown-yellow dust. 有时候沙尘暴会影响北京,市民醒来时,发现昏黄的天空,狂 风夹着黄沙在城里肆虐。 The storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very slowly because the thick dust makes it difficult to see. 暴风有时持续一整天,因为浓密的尘土降低了 能见度,所以车辆等开得很慢。 The Chinese Central Weather Station can forecast a sandstorm some weeks before it arrives in Beijing, but the strength of the storm sometimes surprises people. 中国中央气象台在沙尘暴到达北京前的几个星期就能预见到,但是风暴的威力有时是惊人

的。 When a sandstorm arrives in the city, weather experts advise people not to go out. Huang Xiaomei, who lives in Beijing says, 当沙尘暴到达一个城市时,专家会建议人们不要出门。居 住在北京的黄小梅说; ―To be cycling in a sandstorm is frightening. The winds are very strong. It's difficult to breathe and the dust makes me ill. So if you want to go out, you'd better wear a mask.‖ ―在沙尘暴中骑车是很可怕的,风力非常强,很难呼吸,而且尘土会让我得病,所以 如果你想出门,最好带上面罩。‖ The desert is only 250 kilometres away to the west of Beijing. To prevent it coming nearer, the government is planting trees. 沙漠位于北京西边距离北京仅仅 250千米,为了防止沙漠进一步向北京延伸,政府正在植树。 Already the government has planted more than 30 billion trees and plans to continue planting for the next five years. 目前政府 已经种了超过三十亿棵树,而且计划在接下来的五年中继续植树。

MODULE 5
Great People and Great Inventions of Ancient China 中国古代的伟大人物及其发明 Read Philosophers of Ancient China and match the words with the definitions.阅读―中国古代的 哲学家‖, 将下列单词写在与之对应的定义后面。 order(n) bring up found(v) principle belief 秩 序 抚养成人 建立 准则 信仰 an idea that influences the way you behave 影响你行为方式的 思想 to start an organisation or philosophy 创办一个组织或者哲学 the feeling that something is true and exists 事物真实存在的感觉 when people obey laws and rules and do not cause trouble 人们遵守法律准则,不惹麻烦 to look after children until they are adults 照看小孩直到他们成 年 Find the words and phrases in the passage that match these definitions.从文中找出与下列定 义相对应的单词或短语。 < gave a lot of importance to 给出……的大量重要性 $ job 职 位 8 doing what he suggested 按他的建议做 X tell your employer that you are going to leave your job 告诉你的雇主你要离开你的工作岗位 9 someone who gives advice 提出建议 的人 : having a lot of influence 有很大影响 T Read the passage again. Choose the correct answers.再读一遍文章,选择正确的答案。 h Check your answers to Introduction activity 2 according to the passage.根据文章,核对你引言中活动2的答案。 2 Learning to learn 学会学 习 Write a list of seven words which are related to the same topic. Show it to your friend quickly. See how many he/she can memorise. Discuss with him/her how words are better memorised.写出与同一个主题有关的七个单词,快速给你的朋友看,看看他/她能记住几个, 与他/她一起讨论怎样更好地记单词。 hilosophers of Ancient China 中国古代的哲学家 Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. But it was also a time when there were many great philosophers. Confucius(551BC-479BC) is the philosopher whose influence has been the greatest. 古代中国各诸侯国之间经常发生战争。 但那也是一个产生了许 多哲学家的时期。孔子(公元前551--公元前479)是影响最大的哲学家。 He stressed the importance of kindness, duty and order in society. Chinese society was influenced by these ideas for more than 2,000 years. 他强调了仁爱、 责任和社会秩序的重要性。 中国社会受孔子学说的 影响已长达两千多年。 Mencius was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to those of Confucius. Mencius was born in 372 BC. 孟子是一位思想家,他的理论和孔子的理论很相似。 孟子生于公元前372年, His father died when he was young, and he was brought up by his mother, He became a student of Confucius's ideas, and was then given an important position in the government of a state. 自小就丧父,他母亲把他抚养成人。他成为儒家弟子,并在一个国家 政府谋得很重要的职位。 However, when he saw that the ruler was not following his advice, he resigned. For many years he travelled from state to state, teaching the principles of Confucius. He then became an adviser to another ruler. 但是当他发现统治者并不听从他的建议时, 他辞职了。 好几年的时间, 他周游列国, 宣扬儒家学说。 然后他又成为了另一个统治者的顾问。 He spent

his last years preparing a book of his teachings called The Book of Mencius. 他晚年一直在准备 记载他自己学说的书《孟子》 Mencius believed that the reason why man is different from 。 animals is that man is good. 孟子认为人区别于动物的本质就是人是性善的。 He taught that if the government was kind, then people would be good. He believed that people were more important than rulers, and hated the state when it treated people badly. 他主张―仁政‖、―王道‖, 提倡―民为重, 君为轻‖, 反对暴政。 Mozi was another teacher who was very influential. Born in 476 BC, he came from a family which was very poor. 墨子是又一位极具影响力的先哲。 墨子于 公元前476年出生于一个贫苦家庭。 He became famous for his unusual clothes and behaviour. Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism. 他因为不同寻常的服装和行为举止而出名。 墨子 创立了墨家学派, In some ways, his beliefs were similar to those of Confucius. For example, he considered that government was most important. As a result, he spent many years trying to find a state where people would follow his teachings. 他的理论在某些方面和孔子的理论相似。 例如, 他认为统治非常重要,因此他花了好多年努力寻找一个人们愿意听从他的理论的国家。 Mozi believed that all men were equal. His idea of love was different from the Confucian idea of kindness. 墨子认为人人都是平等的, 他主张的―兼爱‖与孔子的―仁爱‖不同。 Mozi taught that we should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves. He hated the idea of war. Mozi died in 390 BC. 墨子认为我们必须爱护所有的人,照顾比我们弱小的人。 墨子反对统治者发动的侵略战争。墨子逝世于公元前390年。

MODULE 6 Old and New 古今鉴
Now answer the questions before reading the passage.阅读文章之前,现在先回答下列问题。 Mao Zedong wrote a poem in which he dreamed of ―walls of stone …‖ Did Mao Zedong actually see the walls of stone? 毛泽东写过一首词,在词中,他想象了―更立西江石壁……‖,毛泽东 真的看到石壁了吗? The power of the Yangtze River has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam. Does this mean that the power can be used or not?三峡大坝利用了长江水的动力。这意味 着这个水力可以利用还是不可以利用? Sun Yat-sen first suggested the idea in 1919. Did Sun Yat-sen think of the idea himself or hear it from someone else?在1919年,孙中山首次提出这个 想法。这个想法是孙中山自己想出来的还是在别人那里听说的? About 800 historical relics have been submerged. Is it possible to see the relics now that they have been submerged?大约有 800个历史遗迹被水淹没。既然被水淹没了,那么现在还有可能看到这些历史遗物吗? The Three Gorges Dam 三峡大坝 ―Walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain‖―更立西江石壁, 截断 巫山云雨‖ Mao Zedong wrote a poem in which he dreamed of ―Walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain till a smooth lake rises in the narrow gorges‖. 毛泽东写过一首词, 在词中, 他想 象了―更立西江石壁, 截断巫山云雨, 高峡出平湖‖的壮丽景观。 Now his dream has come true. The power of the Yangtze River, which is the world's third longest river, has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam. 如今,他的理想变成了现实,世界第三长河——长江的水力已经被三峡 大坝很好地利用了。 The Three Gorges Dam, which is the biggest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, has been built to control flooding and provide hydro-electric power for the central region of China. 三峡大坝是中国自万里长城和京 杭大运河以来最大的建筑工程,它是作为防洪大坝和中国巨型水利枢纽而建的。 The dam is nearly 200 metres high and 1.5 kilometres wide. It is the largest hydro-electric power station and dam in the world and has cost more than any other construction project in history. 大坝高约200 米,宽约1.5千米,是世界上最大的水力发电站和水坝,耗资超过历史上其他所有的建筑工 程。 Sun Yat-sen, who was the leader of the 1911 Revolution, first suggested the ides of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. Three quarters of China's energy is produced by burning coal.

孙中山是1911年的革命领袖, 他在1919年最先提出横跨长江建立大坝的想法。 中国四分之三 的能源是通过燃煤获得的。 In 1993, China used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity. Unfortunately, burning coal causes serious air pollution and increases global warming. 1993年,中国燃掉了12亿吨煤用于供热和发电。遗憾的是,燃煤造成严重的空气 污染并使得全球变暖。 The dam will generate electricity equal to about 40 million tons of coal without causing so much air pollution. 大坝将要生产相当于燃烧4000万吨煤所产生的电量, 但 却不会造成那么严重的空气污染。 The reservoir has flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages. 水库淹没了2个城市、11个县市、140个城镇和4000多个村庄, More than a million people who lived in the region have moved from their homes. 超过一百万住 在这个地区的人们离开了他们的家乡。 Now they're living a happy new life in different areas. 现在,他们在不同的地区过着幸福的生活。 The Three Gorges area is one of the most beautiful areas of China and the project has flooded some of China's most famous historical sites, including the Qu Yuan Temple, the Han Watchtower and the Moya Cliff carvings. 三峡坝区是中国最美丽 的地方之一, 三峡工程淹没了一些中国著名历史遗迹, 包括屈原祠、 汉阙、 摩崖石刻。 About 800 historical relics have been submerged. Some of them are being removed and some are being put into museums. 大约有800个历史遗迹被水淹没,这些被淹没的遗迹有的搬迁到其他地方 了,有的搬到了博物馆。 MODULE 7 Revision 复习 Read the passage, an article written by a student called Mark.阅读学生马克写的这篇文章。 I decided to spend a year between school and university travelling round the world. 我决定中学毕业后,在上大学之前,花一年的时间周游 世界。 I worked hard and saved quite a lot of money for the trip. I started my trip in France and after visiting the capital Paris, I travelled down to the south of France, which is known for its lovely beaches. 我非常努力地工作,为这次旅行攒了一大笔钱。我的旅行从法国开始,游览 了首都巴黎之后,我就沿法国南下,去了一个以美丽可爱的海滩而闻名于世的地方。 Then I spent a month walking in the mountains in northern Italy. I then travelled to Rome, the capital of Italy, and spent a week visiting the city's wonderful art galleries, churches and museums. 然后我 花了一个月行走于意大利北部的山脉之间。 之后我去了意大利的首都罗马, 在那里花了一个 星期参观这个城市精彩绝伦的美术馆、教堂和博物馆。 From there I flew to Athens, Greece, and took a boat to a small Greek island. I had planned to meet a friend of mine there and we took an apartment on a beach and had a wonderful time swimming and sunbathing. 然后从那里飞往 希腊的雅典,并坐小船去了希腊的一个小岛。我早就计划去那里会见一个朋友,我们相约在 海滩上,在那里游泳、洗日光浴, 度过了非常快乐的时光。 Next, I flew to India, and travelled round it for about three months. 接下来我飞往印度,花了大约三个月在那里周游。 Although the cities were crowded, the countryside was beautiful. I stayed in a small fishing village on the west coast and it was the happiest time of my life. 虽然那里的城市很拥挤,但是乡下很漂亮。 我待在西部海岸的一个小渔村,那是我生命中最快乐的时光。 I then flew to northeast India, where there had been a terrible flood three months ago. 接着我飞往印度东北部,三个月前那里 发生了一场严重的洪灾。 The water had gone but the damage to crops and homes was terrible. 虽然洪水退了,但是庄稼和家园所受的损害极其严重。 I then flew to China, a country I had always wanted to visit. I saw Beijing, of course, and the Great Wall, and also took a trip to see some villages on the Yangtze River which would soon be under water because of the Three Gorges Dam. 然后我飞往了中国,这是我做梦都想去的国家。当然,我游了北京,看到了万里长城, 还去了长江沿岸的一些村庄, 这些村庄很快就要因为建三峡大坝而被淹没了。 While I was in China, I read a lot about ancient Chinese history and became particularly interested in the ideas of the great philosopher Confucius. 在中国的那段时间,我阅读了很多关于中国古代历史的书

籍,并对伟大的哲学家孔子的思想特别感兴趣。 Then I flew to Japan where I spent two interesting weeks. I was astonished to see that some people in the big cities wear masks to protect their lungs from pollution. 接着我飞往日本,在那里我度过了有趣的两周。我惊讶地发现大 城市里有些人因为环境污染, 戴着面具以保护他们的肺。 I hope that never happens in my city! Then, at last, I flew all the way home again. It had been a great experience, but, yes, it was good to be home! 我希望我所在的城市永远都不会发生那样的事情。最后,我乘飞机按照原路返回。 这是一次非常不错的经历,但是,当然了,还是在家里好!

必修 5
Module 1 British and American English
Words, words, words British and American English are different in many ways. The first and most obvious way is in the vocabulary. There are hundreds of different words which are not used on the other side of the Atlantic, or which are used with a different meaning. Some of these words are well-known – Americans drive automobiles down freeways and fill up with gas; the British drive cars along motorways and fill up with petrol. As a tourist, you will need to used the underground in London or the subway in New York, or maybe you will prefer to get around the town by taxi (British) or cab (American). British and American Chips or French fries? But other words and expressions are not so well known. Americans use a flashlight, while for the British, it’s a torch. The British queue up; Americans stand in line. Sometimes the same word ahs a slightly different meaning, which can be confusing. Chips, for example, are pieces of hot fried potato in Britain; in the States chips are very thin and are sold in packets. The British call these crisps. The chips the British know and love are French fries on the other side of the Atlantic. Have or have got? There are a few differences in grammar, too. The British say Have you got…? while Americans prefer Do you have…? An American might say My friend just arrived, but a British person would say My friend has just arrived. Prepositions, too, can be different: compare on the team, on the weekend (American) with in the team, at the weekend (British). The British use prepositions where Americans sometimes omit them (I’ll see you Monday; write me soon!) Colour or color? The other two areas in which the two varieties differ are spelling and pronunciation. American spelling seems simpler: center, color and program instead of centre, colour and programme. Many factors have influenced American pronunciation since the first settlers arrived four hundred years ago. The accent, which is most similar to British English, can be heard on the East Coast of the US. When the Irish writer George Bernard Shaw made the famous remark that the British and the Americans are two nations divided by a common language, he was obviously thinking about the differences. But are they really so important? After all, there is probably as much variation of pronunciation within the two countries as between them. A Londoner has more difficulty understanding a Scotsman from Glasgow than understanding a New Yorker. Turn on the TV Some experts believe that the two varieties are moving closer together. For more than a century communications across the Atlantic have developed steadily. Since the 1980s, with satellite TV and the Internet, it has been possible to listen to British and American English at the flick of a switch. This non-stop communication, the experts think, has made it easier for British people and Americans to understand each other. But it has also led to lots of American words and structures passing into British English, so that some people now believe that British English will disappear. However, if you turn on CNN, the American TV network, you find newsreaders and weather forecasters all speaking with different accents – American, British, Australian, and even Spanish. One of the best-known faces, Monita Rajpal, was born in Hong Kong, China, and grew up speaking Chinese and Punjabi, as well as English. This international dimension suggests that in the future, there are going to be many ―Englishes‖, not just two main varieties. But the messages is ―Don’t worry.‖ Users of English will all be able to understand each other – wherever they are. The Man Who Made Spelling Simple In English the spelling of words does not always represent the sound. So people say /rait/ but spell it right, or write, or even rite. Combinations of letters (like ough) may be pronounced in a number of ways. And some words just seem to have too many

letters. For Americans things are a little bit easier, thanks to the work of Noah Webster, a teacher who graduated from Yale University in 1778. as a young man he had fought against the British in the American War of independence, and he felt that written English in the newly independent United States should have a distinctive ―American‖ look. So he began his work on American English. His first book, the Elementary Spelling Book, suggested simplifying the spelling of English words. The book was extremely popular. By the 1850s it was selling one million copies a year, making it one of the most popular school books ever. Many of the suggestions were quickly adopted. Center instead of centre, program instead of programme, and flavor instead of flavour. Others, however, such as removing silent letters like the s in island or the final e in examine, were not. Webster is best known for his American Dictionary of the English Language, which first appeared 1828. it introduced lots of new American words, with information about their pronunciation and use, and, of course, the new spelling. The British criticized the dictionary, but it quickly became a standard reference book in the States. Today, Webster’s dictionary is still the number one dictionary for American students.

Module 2 A Job Worth Doing
The Human Traffic Signal At 3500 meters, La Paz, in Bolivia, is the highest capital in the world. Life is hard at high altitude, and the mountains make communications difficult. Many roads are in bad condition and accidents are frequent. One road in particular, which goes north from La Paz, is considered the most dangerous road in the world. On one side the mountains rise steeply; on the other side there is a sheer drop, which in places is hundreds of metres deep. Although there is not a lot of traffic, on average, one vehicle comes off the road every two weeks. The drop is so great that anyone inside the vehicle is lucky to survive. In theory, the road can only be used by traffic going uphill from 8 in the morning, and by traffic coming downhill from 3 in the afternoon. But in practice, few drivers respect the rules. But thanks to one man, the death toll has fallen. Timoteo Apaza is a gentle 46-year-old man who lives in a village near the most dangerous part of the road, known locally as la curva del Diablo (the Devil's Bend). Timoteo has an unusual job – he is a human traffic signal. Every morning he climbs up to the bend with a large circular board in his hand. The board is red on one side and green on the other. Timoteo stands on the bend and directs the traffic. When two vehicles approach from opposite directions they can't see each other, but they can see Timoteo. Timoteo is a volunteer. No one asked him to do the job, and no one pays him for it. Sometimes drivers give him a tip, so that he has just enough money to live on. But often they just pass by, taking the human traffic signal for granted. So why does he do it? Before he volunteer to direct the traffic, Timoteo had had lots of jobs. He had been a miner and a soldier. Then one day while he was working as a lorry driver he had a close encounter with death. He was driving a lorry load of bananas when he came off the road at a bend and fell three hundred metres down the mountain. Somehow he survived. He was in hospital for months. Then, a few years later, he was called out in the night to help pull people out of a bus which had crashed at la curva del diablo. This last experience had a profound effect on Timoteo. He realised that he was lucky to be alive himself, and felt that it was his mission in life to help others. And so every morning, week in, week out, from dawn to dusk, Timoteo takes up his place on the bend and directs the traffic. Growing Jobs What sort of jobs will people de doing ten years from now? according to a survey published by an American university, the ten fastest growing jobs will be related to computers and health. They include computer systems analysts, data analysts and database managers. But there

will also be a rise in the demand for health care professionals. Some of these will be new jobs, such as bioinformaticians, who combine computer skills with knowledge of biology. Others will be more traditional. For example, more home care nurses will be needed to look after the rapidly ageing population. But many youngsters will need professional care, too: 14 million Americans suffer from speech or language problems, and six million of them are under the age of 18. the number of speech pathologists (who help people who have problems speaking) is expected to double by the year 2012. and social workers will continue to be in demand. Of course there will be plenty of other new jobs, some of which we probably can’t even guess. But for those who love the outdoor life, a good bet could be the leisure industry. As more and more countries open up to tourism, more travel agents will be needed, but the real demand will be for guides to take groups and even individuals on adventure holidays. For people doing this job, common sense, physical fitness and an outgoing personality are likely to be more important than computer skills.

Module 3 Adventure in Literature and the Cinema and The Steamboat
There was a big storm after midnight and the rain poured down. We stayed inside the shelter we had built and let the raft sail down the river. Suddenly, by the light of the lightning, we saw something in the middle of the river. It looked like a house at first, but then we realized it was a steamboat. It had hit a rock and was half in and half out of the water. We were sailing straight towards it. "It looks as if it'll go under soon," Jim said, after a couple of minutes. "Let's go and take a look," I said. "I don't want to board a sinking ship," said Jim, but when I suggested that we might find something useful on the boat, he agreed to go. So we paddled over and climbed on to the steamboat, keeping as quiet as mice. To our astonishment, there was a light in one of the cabins. Then we heard someone shout, "Oh please boys, don't kill me! I won't tell anybody!" A man's angry voice answered, "You're lying. You said that last time. We're going to kill you." When he heard these words, Jim panicked and ran to the raft. But although I was frightened, I also felt very curious, so I put my head round the door. It was quite dark, but I could see a man lying on the floor, tied up with rope. There were two men standing over him. One was short, with a beard. The other was tall and had something in his hand that looked like a gun. 'I've had enough of you. I'm going to shoot you now," this man said. He was obviously the one who had threatened the man on the floor. And it was a gun he had in his hand. "No, don't do that," said the short man. "Let's leave him here. The steamboat will sink in a couple of hours and he'll go down with it." When he heard that, the frightened man on the floor started crying. "He sounds as if he's going to die of fright!" I thought. "I have to find a way to save him!" I crawled along the deck, found Jim, and told him what I had heard. "We must find their boat and take it away, then they'll have to stay here," I said. Jim looked terrified. "I'm not staying here," he said. But I persuaded him to help me, and we found the men's boat tied to the other side of the steamboat. We climbed quietly in and as we paddled away we heard the two men shouting. By then we were a safe distance away. But now I began to feel bad about what we had done. I didn't want all three men to die. The Life of Mark Twain Often the lives of writers resemble the lives fo the characters they create. Mark Twain, who wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, was no exception. To start with, the author’s name, Mark Twain, is itself an invention, or ―pen name‖. Twain’s real name was Samuel Clemens. ―Mark Twain‖, which means ―watermark two‖, was a call used by sailors on the Mississippi to warn shipmates that they were coming into shallow water. Like Huck, Mark Twain led an adventurous life. He left school early, and as an adolescent, determined to make his fortune in South America, set off from his home in Hannibal, Missouri, for New Orleans. He wanted to

take a boat to the Amazon, where he thought he could get rich quickly. He arrived in New Orleans without a penny in his pocket only to find that there were no boats for South America. Forced to change his plans, he worked for several years as a pilot on a steamboat, taking passengers up and down the Mississippi, the great river which flows from the north of the US near the Canadian border, down to the Gulf of Mexico. Later he became a journalist and began writing stories about life on the river. Twain’s vivid and often amusing descriptions of life on the river quickly became popular, and established the reputation he still enjoys today as one of America’s greatest writers.\

Module 4 Carnival
The Magic of the Mask Think of carnival, and you think of crowds, costumes, and confusion. The sounds and sights change from one country to another but the excitement is the same everywhere. ―Carnival‖ comes from two Latin words, meaning ―no more meat‖. In Europe, where it began, carnival was followed by forty days without meat, as people prepared for the Christian festival of Easter. People saw Carnival as a last chance to have fun at the end of the winter season. Having fun meant eating, drinking, and dressing up. The most famous carnival in Europe was in Venice. At the beginning, it lasted for just one day. People ate, drank, and wore masks. As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. For weeks on end people walked round the streets wearing masks, doing what they wanted without being recognised. Ordinary people could pretend to be rich and important, while famous people could have romantic adventures in secret. Many crimes went unpunished. The government realised that wearing masks had become a problem. Their use was limited by laws, the first of which dates back to the fourteenth century. Men were not allowed to wear masks at night; and they were not allowed to dress up as women. In later times more laws were passed. People who wore masks could not carry firearms; and no one could enter a church wearing a mask. If they broke the laws, they were put into prison for up to two years. Finally, when Venice became part of the Austrian empire, at the end of the eighteenth century, masks were banned completely, and carnival became just a memory. But in the late 1970s the tradition was revived by students. They began making masks and organising parties, and threw bits of brightly coloured paper (called coriandoli) at tourists. The town council realised that carnival was good for business, and the festival was developed for tourists. Today, carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February. People arrive from all over Europe to enjoy the fun. Hotels are fully booked and the narrow streets are crowded with wonderful costumes. German, French and English seem to be the main languages. But the spirit of Venice carnival is not quite the same as the great American carnivals. If the key to Rio is music and movement, then in Venice it is the mystery of the mask. As you wander through the streets, you see thousands of masks—elegant or frightening, sad or amusing, traditional or modern-- but you have no idea what the faces behind them look like. Nobody takes them off. If the masks come off, the magic is lost. The Meaning of Carnival Carnival today is an international, multicultural experience. But how did it become so? To understand what carnival is all about, we need to look at the history of America and the meeting of two cultures – European and African. The arrival of Europeans in America, and the opening of huge farms and plantations to grow cotton, fruit and vegetables, meant there was an immediate need for people to work on them. This marked the beginning of the slave trade. For more than two hundred years, until the beginning of the 19th century, when the trade was finally stopped, millions of people were taken by force from their homes in Africa and transported to the New World to work as slaves. Six million were taken to the

Caribbean islands where there were British and French landowners. Naturally, the Europeans also imported their own festivals. So the slaves were forced to watch as their masters celebrated carnival with food, drink, and masked dances. In Trinidad, the slaves began to hold their own carnival celebrations: they painted their faces white, imitating their masters and making fun of them. But at the same time they were continuing their own African traditions – such as walking round a village wearing masks and singing a custom which they thought would bring good luck. When the slave trade was abolished in 1838 the former slaves took over the carnival. It became more colourful and more exciting than it had been before. Magnificent costumes were made and musical bands created. Carnival became a celebration of freedom. With the passing of time, the white inhabitants of the island began to take part in the carnival, too – and they were welcomed by their former slaves. Carnival became a way to unite different communities, as people forgot their everyday problems and enjoyed themselves eating, drinking, and dancing. Today, visitors from all over the world come to this small state in the Caribbean to join in the fun. Carnival has become a celebration of life itself.

Module 5 The Great Sports Personality
A Life in Sport They called him the prince of gymnasts. When he retired at the age of 26, he had won 106 gold medals in major competitions across the world. They included six out of seven gold medals at the 1982 World Championship, and three at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles ( as well as two silver and a bronze). Li Ning was the best. When sports journalists met in 1999 to make a list of the greatest sportsmen and sportswomen of the twentieth century, Li Ning’s name was on it, together with footballer Pele and boxer Muhammad Ali. But even though he had won everything it was possible to win in his sport, Li Ning retired with the feeling that he had failed. He was disappointed because he had not performed well in the 1988 Seoul Olympics. But it was this sense of failure that made him determined to succeed in his new life. A year after his retirement, Li Ning began a new career—as a businessman. But he didn’t forget his sporting background. He decided to launch a new brand of sportswear, competing with global giants like Nike and Adidas. He made the unusual choice, for a Chinese person, of choosing his own name as the brand mark. The bright red logo is made up of the first two pingyin letters of Li Ning’s name, L and N. Li Ning’s sports clothes came onto the market at just the right time. The number of young people with money to spend was on the increase—and sport had never been so popular. Li Ning’s designs were attractive, and they had a major advantage over their better-known rivals—they were cheaper. A pair of Nike trainers, for example, could cost up to five times as much as a similar Li Ning product. Success for Li Ning was guaranteed, and it came quickly. In just a few years, Li Ning won more than fifty per cent of the national market. Today a Li Ning product is purchased every ten seconds. But the clothes are not only worn on the athletics track or the football pitch. If you go into a school or university anywhere, you will see students in Li Ning tracksuits with the familiar logo. The company has also grown internationally. The Spanish and French gymnastics teams wear Li Ning clothes, while Italian designers are employed by the company to create new styles. Whenever Chinese athletes stepped out onto the track during the 2008 Olympics, they were wearing Li Ning tracksuits. But Li Ning’s goal when he retired was not to make money. His dream was to open a school for gymnasts. He was able to do this in 1991. Since then, he has continued to help young people to achieve their sporting ambitions. Like Pele and Muhammad Ali before him, who have worked with the United Nations for children’s rights and peace, Li Ning has discovered that the

work of a great sportsman does not finish when he retires from the sport. It starts. And if you are a great sportsperson, anything is possible, as Li Ning’s advertising slogan says. Marathon: the Ultimate Olympic Event The final event in the Olympics is the marathon. It is also usually the most exciting. As the leader comes into the stadium to run the last few metres of the 42-kilometre race, the crowd rises to its feet to shout and cheer. The name of the race comes from a battle in Ancient Greece. According to the story, a soldier ran from the scene of the battle, Marathon, to Athens, to bring the news of a Greek victory against the Persians. He died just after arriving. The marathon has been an Olympic event. Since the modern games started in 1896. At first the distance was 40 kilometres – the distance between Marathon and Athens. In 1908, however, at the London Olympics, it was changed. The King of England wanted the runners to leave from his castle in Windsor and arrive in a new stadium in central London. The distance was 26 miles – about 42 kilometres. In fact, the 1908 marathon ended dramatically. When the leader, an Italian, entered the stadium he returned the wrong way and fell onto the ground. Officials picked him up and helped him to the finishing line, just as the second runner, an American, entered the stadium. The Americans protested and in the end the American runner was declared the winner. Since then, there have been many more exciting marathons. In fact, you don’t have to wait for the Olympic Games to run or watch a marathon, as there are marathons in over sixty countries and hundreds of cities around the world today. One of the most famous marathons is in New Your, and is watched by two million people around the streets and across the bridges of the city’s five boroughs, and past New York’s famous landmarks. But perhaps one of the most beautiful and extraordinary marathons ever is the Greet Wall Marathon, which most competitors find is the toughest course to run. The marathon is the final Olympic event because it is thought to be the hardest. But experts believe that most people – even people who are not particularly good at sport – can run a marathon, if they train for it. Animals in Danger Saving the Antelopes On a freezing cold day in January 1994, Jiesang suonandajie found what he was looking for – a group of poachers who were killing the endangered

Module 6 Tibetan antelope.
Jiesang knew he had to move quickly. He shouted to the poachers to put down their guns. Although surprised, the poachers had an advantage –there were more of them. In the battle which followed Jiesang was shot and killed. When his frozen body was found hours later, he was still holding his gun. He had given his life to save the Tibetan antelope. At the beginning of the twentieth century there were millions of antelopes on the Qinghai – Tibetan Plateau. By the 1990s the number had fallen to about 50,000. The season is simple: the wool of the Tibetan antelope is the most expensive in the world. It is soft, light and warm – the ideal coat for an animal which has to survive at high altitudes. A shawl made from the wool (known as ―shahtoosh‖, or ―king of wools‖ in Persian) can sell for five thousand dollars. For poachers the profits can be huge. Often working at night, the poachers shoot whole herds of antelopes at a time, leaving only the babies, whose wool is not worth so much. The animals are skinned on the spot and the wool taken to India, where it is made into the shawls. From there, it is exported to rich countries in North America and Europe. The business is completely illegal – there has been a ban on the trade since 1975. But in the 1990s the shawls came into fashion among rich people. A police raid on a shop in London found 138 shawls. About 1,000 antelopes – or 2 per cent of the world’s population – had been killed to make them. In the 1990s the Chinese government began to take an active part in protecting the antelopes in the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve – the huge national park on the

Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which is the main habitat of the antelopes. Over the next ten years about 3,000 poachers were caught and 300 vehicles confiscated. Sometimes there were gunfights, like the one in which Jiesang Suonandajie was killed. But today the governments seems to be winning the battle. The number of poachers has fallen. The small group of officials who work in the reserve are helped by volunteers who come from all over the country, and who are ready for the difficult conditions of life at 5,000 metres. Meanwhile, in those countries where the shawls are sold, police are getting tough with the dealers. International co-operation seems to be working. Since 1997 the antelope population has slowly begun to grow again. WWF The WWF is the world’s largest organization for nature conservation. It was founded in the UK in 1961 and opened an international office in Switzerland in the same year. its aim was to protect the natural habitats of wild animals in danger of extinction. One of the founders, the painter and naturalist Peter Scott, designed the famous panda logo. The initials, WWF, stand for World Wide Fund for Nature. Originally the name was World Wildlife Fund. Today the organization has branches in 90 countries in all five continents. It has thousands of volunteers and more than five million supporters who help by giving money. Since 1985 it has spent more than $1,000 million on 11,000 projects in 130 countries. The focus of attention has changed, too. In the 1980s the WWF became interested in all activities which have an effect on the environment, such as pollution and the way we use energy. The WWF believes that our world has a future only if peole learn to conserve nature and not waster energy. As a result, it started working with governments to introduce environmental education into schools. The WWF has worked with the Chinese government since 1980, when Dr George shaller arrived to work with Chinese scientists on the panda project. For fifteen years WWF China staff had been based in Switzerland but came to China to monitor the project. Then, in 1995, the organization set up an office in Beijing. Today there are more than thirty staff working on twenty rojects all over the country. They include work in forests, energy, and in environmental education for China’s primary and secondary schools as well as saving the panda, of course.

选修 6
Module 1 Small Talk

How Good Are Your Social Skills?
Have you ever crossed the road to avoid talking to someone you recognize? Would you love to go to a party and talk confidently to every guest? Do you want to make more friends but lack the confidence to talk to people you don‘t know? And are you nervous

about the idea of being at a social event in another country? Don‘t worry – we can help you! You needn‘t worry about situations like these if you have good social skills. And they are easy to learn. People with good social skills communicate well and know how to have a conversation. It helps if you do a little advance planning. Here are a few ideas to help you. Learn how to do small talk. Small talk is very important and prepares you for more serious conversations. Be prepared! Have some low-risk

conversation openers ready. For example: Think of a recent news story – not to serious, e.g. a story about a film star or sports star. Think of things to tell people about your studies. Think of ―safe‖ things you can ask people‘s opinions about – music, sport, films, etc. Think of topics that you would avoid if you were talking to strangers – and avoid talking about them! That way, you don‘t damage your confidence! Develop your listening skills Listening is a skill which most people lack, but communication is a two-way process – it involves speaking AND listening. Always

remember – you won‘t impress people if you talk too much. Here are some ideas to make you a better listener: DO Show that you are listening by using encouraging noises and gestures – smiling, nodding, saying ―uh-huh‖ and ―OK‖, etc. Keep good eye contact Use positive body language Ask for more information to show your interest DON‘T Look at your watch Yawn Sign Look away from the person who‘s talking to you Change the subject Finish other people‘s sentences for them Always remember the words of Benjamin Disraeli, British Prime Minister in the 19th century: ―Talk to a man about himself, and he will speak to you for hours!‖ Learn the rules If you go to a social occasion in another country, remember that social rules can be different. In some countries, for example, you have to arrive on time at a party; in other countries, you don‘t

need to. In addition, you need to know how long you should stay, and when you have to leave. Some hosts expect flowers or a small gift, but in other places, you can take things, but you needn‘t if you don‘t want t. remember also that in some countries, you mustn‘t take flowers of a certain colour, because they‘re unlucky. In most places, you don‘t have to take a gift to a party – but find our first!

The Wrong Kind of Small Talk
Esther Greenbaum was a saleswoman for a firm of fax machines and business supplies. But she was also the most outspoken human being in the world – well, Westchester County, at least. Her motto was ―Every time I open my mouth, I put my foot in it.‖ Esther Greenbaum‘s major shortcoming was that she had a complete absence of small talk. No, that‘ not quite true. She had small talk, but it was the wrong kind. In fact, she had never learnt the basic rules of social communication, and as a consequence, she made systematic mistakes every time she opened her mouth. It was no coincidence either that she wasn‘t a very good saleswoman. One day during a meeting, Esther was introduced to an important customer, a mature woman. ―Nice to meet you,‖ she said. ―How old are you?‖ The

customer looked awkward. ―Forty? Forty-five?‖ said Esther. ―You kook much older. And your friend … she‘s older than you, but she looks much younger!‖ On another occasion, Esther teased a typist, ―Hey! When‘s your baby due?‖ The typist went red and contradicted Esther. ―Actually, I‘m not pregnant,‖ she said. ―Oh, sorry,‖ said Esther without any apology. ―Just putting on a little weight, huh?‖ Esther was never cautious about other people‘s feelings. One of her acquaintances, a salesman in the firm, was going through a very messy divorce and was very depressed. She tried to cheer him up. ―Forget her! She was a complete fool. No one liked her anyway.‖ Much of the time, Esther said the first thing to come into her head. One day at work, a clerk came into the office with a new hairstyle. ―Nice haircut,‖ said Esther. ―How much did it cost?‖ The woman replied, ―I‘d rather not say.‖ Esther replied, ―Well, anyhow, either you paid too much or you paid too little.‖

She met a very famous writer once. ―Hey, what a coincidence!‖ she said. ―You‘re writing a book and I‘m reading one!‖ The trouble with Esther was she said what she thought, and didn‘t think about what she said. A young man was trying to modest about his new job many miles away. ―I guess the company chose me so they‘d get some peace in the office,‖ he smiled. ―No, I guess they chose you to discourage you from spending your whole career with us,‖ Esther replied sweetly. Once, Esther went to a brunch party to meet some old school friends on the anniversary of their graduation. She greeted the hostess. ―Do you remember that guy you were dating? What happened to him?‖ she asked. ―You know, the ugly one.‖ At the moment, a man came up and stood by her friend. ―Esther, I‘d like you to meet my husband,‖ she said, ―Charles, this is…‖ Esther interrupted her, ―Hey, so you married him!‖

Making Friends in the USA
In the USA, conversation is less lively than in many other cultures, where everyone talks at the same time. When someone talks,

everyone is expected to listen, no matter how dull the person‘s speaking may be. If you‘re not sure what to talk about, you can ask what people do. We‘re defined by our jobs and we‘re usually happy to talk about them, unless you‘re spy! Some people say that Americans talk about their feelings more than Asians, but are more secretive about factual matters. You can safely ask questions about families, where you come from, leisure interests, as well as the latest movies. We‘re interested in people‘s ethnic background too. But it‘s best to avoid politics, religion and other sensitive topics. A highly personal conversation can take place after a very short period of knowing someone, but this doesn‘t mean that you‘re close friends, or the relationship is very deep. But a lot of people are very friendly and hospitable, and the famous invitation ―If you‘re ever in Minneapolis / San Diego / Poughkeepsie, do call by and see us!‖ is never made without a genuine desire to meet again. But while few Americans will worry about the questions you may ask, particularly if you clearly show you‘re aware of cultural differences, they may hesitate before they ask you similar questions. In fact, it‘s a sign that they don‘t wish to violate your private life. So, many Americans will talk about safe topics because

they don‘t dare to be too curious or personal, but will happily talk about more private matters if you take the lead. Generally we dislike arguments, and we avoid topics which lead to disagreement. It‘s easy to return to discussing the weather: ―Do you like the USA?‖ How do you like the weather?‖ or making compliments: ‖What lovely flowers and what a beautiful vase!‖ ―That‘s fabulous dress you‘re wearing.‖ You should accept compliments graciously and say ―Thank you!‖ There are a couple of dangerous topics of conversation: age and money. Age is not treated as something very special, unless someone is very old: ―Isn‘t she wonderful for her age!‖ and there are no special rules or signs of extra respect for elderly people. Anyway, Americans always want to look younger than they really are, so don‘t expect an accurate reply! Income is a very private matter, and you‘d do well to avoid asking how much people earn, although some people may not only be open about it, but show off their wealth. We don‘t ask how much things cost, either. But what we don‘t like is silence, and almost anything is better than the embarrassment for a quiet party and silent guests.

The AAA

It is estimated that 80% of all conversation in English is small talk. A very important function of small talk is to establish a relationship between people who don‘t know each other very well, or don‘t know each other at all. Psychologists say that the most successful formula for small talk between people like this is the AAA model. AAA = answer, add and ask. This is how it works. Imagine a situation where two strangers are talking to each other after someone they both know has left the room, or the café or party, etc. the first person asks a question: A: Do you live near here? The second person replies by answering the question, adding some extra information and then asking another question: B: (Answer) Yes, I do. (Add) In an apartment on Brown Street. (Ask) Do you live nearby too? The first person does the same, answer, add and ask: A: (Answer) No, I live in Bristol. (Add) I‘m just visiting London. (Ask) Have you lived here long? B: (Answer) Not so long. (Add) I moved here three years ago.

(Ask) What‘s the purpose of you visit to London? The speakers may have difficulty at first, but they soon realize that the important thing is that they are saying something. By continuing with the AAA model, the conversation continues. Because the thing they both want to avoid is an embarrassing silence. The conversation can continue in this way for a long time. However, something can happen that completely changes the atmosphere. B: Why do you live in Bristol? A: I‘m studying there. History. Are you a student? B: Yes. And I know some people who are studying at Bristol. Do you know a girl called Helen Brown? A: Helen Brown? Yes! She‘s on of my best friends! How do you know her? B: She‘s my cousin. At this point, the AAA model stops. Because they used this very useful technique, they found something they have in common at last.

Module 2

Fantasy Literature

The Cat That Vanished
Will was stupefied with exhaustion, and he might have gone on to the north, or he might have laid his head on the grass under one of those trees and slept; but as he stood trying to clear his head, he saw a cat. She was a tabby, like Moxie. She padded out of a garden on the Oxford side of the road, where Will was standing. Will put down his shopping bag and held out his hand, and the cat came up to rub her head against his knuckles, just as Moxie did. Of course, every cat behaved like that, but all the same Will felt such a longing to turn for home that tears scalded his eyes. Eventually this cat turned away. This was night, and there was a territory to patrol, there were mice to hunt. She padded across the road and towards the bushes just beyond the hornbeam trees, and there she stopped. Will still watching, saw the cat behave curiously. She reached out a paw to pat something in the air in front of her, something quite invisible to Will. Then she leapt backwards, back arched and fur on end, tail held out stiffly. Will knew cat-behaviour. He watched more alertly as the cat

approached the spot again, just an empty patch of grass between the hornbeams and the bushes of a garden hedge, and patted the air once more.

Again she leapt back, but less far and with less alarm this time. After another few seconds of sniffing, touching,

whisker-twitching, curiosity overcame wariness. The cat stepped forward, and vanished. Will blinked. Then he stood still, close to the trunk of the nearest tree, as a truck came round the circle and swept its lights over him. When it had gone past he crossed the road, keeping his eyes on the spot where the cat had been investigating. It wasn‘t easy, because there was nothing to fix on, but when he came to the place and cast about to look closely, he saw it. At least, he saw it from some angles. It looked as if someone had cut a patch out of the air, about two metres from the edge of the road, a patch roughly square in shape and less than a metre across. If you were level with the patch so that it was edge-on, it was nearlyinvisible, and it was completely invisible from behind. You could only see it from the side nearest the road, and you couldn‘t see it easily even from there, because all you could see through it was exactly the same kind of thing that lay in front of it on this side: a patch of grass lit by a street light. But Will knew without the slightest doubt that that patch of grass on the other side was in a different world. He couldn‘t possibly have said why. He knew it at once, as strongly as he knew

that fire burned and kindness was good. He was looking at something profoundly alien. And for that reason alone, it enticed him to stoopp and look further. What he saw made his head swim and his heart thump harder, but he didn‘t hesitate: he pushed his shopping bag through, and then scrambled through himself, through the hole in the fabric of this world and into another. He found himself standing under a row of trees. But not hornbeam trees: these were tall palms, and they were growing, like the trees in Oxford, in a line along the grass. But his was the centre of a broad boulevard, and at the side of the boulevard was a line of cafes and small shops, all brightly lit, all open, and all utterly silent and empty beneath a sky thick with stars. The hot night was laden with the scent of flowers and with the salt smell of the sea. Will looked around carefully. Behind him the full moon sone down over a distant prospect of great green hills, and on the slopes at the foot of the hills there ere houses with rich gardens and an open parkland with groves of trees and the white gleam of a classical temple. Just beside him was that bare patch in the air, as hard to see from this side as from the other, but definitely there. He bent to look through and saw the road in Oxford, his own world. The turned

away with a shudder: whatever this new world was, it had to be better than what he‘d just left. With a dawning light-headedness, the feeling that he was dreaming but awake at the same time, he stood up and looked around for the cat, his guide.

The Story of J.K. Rowling and Harry Potter
The elder stateswoman of British fantasy literature is J.K. Rowling, the gifted creator of Harry Potter. Joanne Rowling‘s roots are in the southwest of England, where she grew up. But the idea for Harry Potter came to her while she was on a delayed train between Manchester and London. She wrote down her ideas on the back of an envelope. She then went to teach English in Portugal, where she continued to add flesh to the bones of the first Harry Potter story. But her name is forever associated with Edinburgh in Scotland, where she lived and developed the format for the whole series of seven books. There are many anecdotes about how, in 1990, J.K. Rowling began the first draft of Harry Potter and the Philosopher‘s Stone. She had the extra burden of looking after her baby daughter while she worked, and because she was too poor to own a typewriter, she wrote by hand. She spent many hours over a single cup of coffee in a warm cafeteria in Edinburgh because she had no money

to pay for the heating at home. Success was not swift and Rowling might have given up. But she was stubborn and overcame all the difficulties. It was only in 1997 that she completed the first Harry Potter story, which, because the publishers in the USA requested an adjustment to the title, was also known as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer‘s Stone. Rowling always intended that her output would be a book every year until she had finished the series. In fact, it took her about ten years to complete. But after the first book, the success of each of the following titles was automatic. The fifth book, The Order of the Phoenix sold about seven million copies the day it was published. Rowling‘s style has been a target for some criticism, but what makes the books so important is that, because they appeal to readers of all ages, they create a special literary bond between parents and children. In an age of computer games and television programmes, it is also claimed they are responsible for a renewed interest in reading. Harry Potter has even become part of the school curriculum, much to the pleasure of the schoolchildren. And the Harry Potter effect is not just restricted to the English-speaking world. Rowling‘s books have been translated into more than 55 languages, and it has been estimated thath more

than 250 million copies have been distributed around the world. In 2005 it was estimated that Rowling had accumulated more than one billion dollars on deposit in her bank. She has thus attained the status of being the first writer to become a billionaire.

Introduction
One of the greatest British writes of fantasy literature was C.S.Lewis (1898-1963), who wrote The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Lucy discovers the winter land of Narnia where she and her two brothers and sister meet the White Witch. They also meet Aslan, the lion, who is the only one who can defeat the Witch and restore summer to Narnia. With Aslan, the children learn to be brave and to forgive. They learn great sorrow and happiness, and finally they learn wisdom. Their time in Narnia is the great adventure that every child dreams of. Extract from The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe And then she saw that there was a light ahead of her; not a few inches away where the back of the wardrobe ought to have been, but a long way off. Something cold and soft was falling on her. A moment later she found that she was standing in the middle of a wood at nighttime with snow under her feet and snowflakes falling through the air.

Lucy felt a little frightened, but she felt very inquisitive and excited as well. She looked back over her shoulder and there, between the dark tree trunks, she could still see the open doorway of the wardrobe and even catch a glimpse of the empty room from which she had set out. (She had, of course, left the door open, for she knew that it was a very silly thing to shut oneself into a wardrobe.) It seemed to be still daylight there. ―I can always get back if anything goes wrong,‖ thought Lucy. She began to walk forward, crunch-crunch over the snow and through the wood towards the other light. In about ten minutes she reached it and found it was a lamppost. As she stood looking at it, wondering why there was a lamppost in the middle of a wood, and wondering what to do next, she heard the pitter-patter of feet coming towards her. And soon after that a very strange person stepped out from among the trees in to the light of the lamppost. He was only a little taller than Lucy herself and carried over his head an umbrella, white with snow. From the waist upwars he was like a man, but his legs were shaped like a goat‘s (the hair on them was glossy black) and instead of feet he had goat‘s hoofs. He also had a tail, but Lucy did not notice this at first because it was so neatly caught up over the arm that held the umbrella so as to keep it from trailing in the snow. He had a red woolen muffler round his

neck and his skin was rather reddish too. He had a strange, but pleasant little face, with a short pointed beard and curly hair, and out of the hair there stuck two horns, one on each side of his forehead. One of his hands, as I have said, held the umbrella; in the other arm he carried several brown-paper parcels. With the parcels and the snow it looked just as if he had been doing his Christmas shopping. He was a Faun. And when he saw Lucy he gave such a start of surprise that he dropped all his parcels. ―Goodness gracious me!‖ exclaimed the Faun.

The Lord of the Rings
One of the most famous fantasy stories of the twentieth century is the trilogy The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien. All three parts of the story have been made into very successful films. The story takes place in a world called Middle Earth. Humans are only one of the creatures who exist at this time. There are also elves, tall beautiful creatures who have magical powers and never die. There are hobbits, who are like small humans and live in holes in hills. There are also dwarves, who are similar to small, ugly men and live deep in the mountains. In The Lord of the Rings, a wicked wizard called Sauron, who has great magical powers, has created nine rings. Any

creature who possesses one of these rings has great power. But Sauron has created one ring – the Ring – that can control all of these rings. The person who has this ring controls the whole of Middle Earth. Fortunately, this ring has been lost for hundreds of years. But then it is discovered by a hobbit. Sauron, realiseng that the Ring has been found, sends his creatures to get it back. If he finds the Ring, Sauron will rule Middle Earth and it will become a place of darkness and fear. Gandalf, a good wizard, realizes that in order to save Middle Earth, the Ring must be destroyed. To do this, someone must take the Ring into Sauron‘s kingdom. There, they must destroy the Ring in the fires that created it. The three books tell the story of the journey to destroy the Ring. In the last book of the trilogy there is a terrible war between Sauron and his creatures, and those who want to save Middle Earth. Many people believe that The Load of the Rings is the best twentieth century novel in English. Of course, there are always those who do not enjoy reading fantasy novels. But if you do, then this is one story you should definitely read.

Module 3 Interpersonal Relationships – Friendship

Roy’s Story
I remember the first time I met Roy. He was standing in the centre of a group of boys, and he was telling a joke. When he reached the final line, everyone burst out laughing. Roy laughed too. A loud happy laugh. ―Popular boy,‖ I thought to myself. My name is Daniel. I was from the north of England, but my father had been offered a better job in London, and our whole family had moved there. I was twelve and, having lost all my old friends, I felt shy and lonely at my new school. There were 33 students in my new class, and most people weren‘t very interested in a shy new boy. Roy was one of the few people who were kind to me. He often invited me to join his particular group, and as a result, I started getting to know people. Roy and I become good friends. We trusted each other and we could talk about personal matters, things that were important to us. Five years later, Roy and I are still in the same class. But just under a year ago. Roy‘s father was knocked over by a car. He died a few days later. The family had to move to a much smaller house in order to manage financially. Roy, who had always been very close to his father, changed completely, becoming silent and moody. He had always been a clever, hard-working student but now he

seemed to lose all interest in his work. He started losing friends. These days, Roy and I see each other from time to time, but we no longer close. About three months ago, a group of us were playing football together after school. Having left something in the cloakroom, I went inside to get it, and found Roy going through the pockets of people‘s coats. In his hand he had a wallet – and I knew it wasn‘t his! My mouth fell open and I just looked at him. Roy went bright red. ‖I‘ll put it back right now,‖ he said, and he did so. I turned round and walked out without saying a word. I really hoped that Roy would explain why he had been stealing, but instead he started avoiding me. At the same time, small amounts of money started disappearing from students‘ lockers. I wonder if the thief was Roy but decided not to say anything to anyone. I hope it wasn‘t him. Last week our school had a big fair in order to raise money for a charity. It was very successful and by the end of the day, we had made about $500. Our class teacher, Mr White, came and chatted to a group of us that included Roy, and held up a box for us to see. ―There‘s $500 in here,‖ he said with a smile. But to our surprise, the next morning, we were told that the money had been stolen. Mr White had left the box in a classroom for a few minutes, and when

he came back it had disappeared. The head teacher asked anyone who thought they might know something about the theft to come to him. This weekend, having thought about the situation for a while, I decided to ask Roy about the theft, and this morning I went to see him. Roy was out, and I went upstairs to his bedroom to wait for him. It was a cold day and his jacket was lying on the back of a chair. I put it on and put my hands in the pockets. I could feel a lot of paper notes and I pulled them out. It looked as if there was about $500 there. I was so surprised that I just stood there, holding the notes in my hands. At that moment, the door swung open, and Roy walked in.

Childhood Friends
The first time I lost my best friend, I thought it was the end of the world. I don‘t mean that he died, he just went away, but I still measure all pain by how hurt I was when Danny left. I was blessed with a happy childhood, one that most people would want to have. We lived in a small bungalow in a tiny village in Scotland and we were a very close family. Our neighbours next door had a son named Danny, and we grew up together. We spent long summer evenings in the pine forests, digging

up worms for fishing, and collecting feathers left by the birds in the cages where they had been kept for the hunters. It was here that I discovered that I was allergic to the tiny flies which bit me and made my face swell. There were a few walnut trees above the village and we would chase the squirrels away and wait for them to ripen. Of course, it was too far north for a proper harvest. On windy days we‘d slide down the stony slopes to the loch and feel the spray of the sea in our faces. Danny was a good carpenter too, and we made brooms out of branches, which we tried to sell in the village shop. We built a tree house, where we smoked our first cigar, and I was sick! Once I slipped on some damp leaves, fell out, scratched my arms and cut the heel of my foot, so he washed my wounds in the stream. He was a very considerate boy for someone so young. My mother simply scolded me for tearing my underwear. We were on good terms with everyone in the village, and we even gave a salute to the local policeman as he passed on his bicycle. But in our imagination, he was an enemy soldier, and we were two spies looking for secrets. It was the finest friendship anyone could have, and life seemed perfect. And then at the age of 14, his parents moved to London, over

400 kilometres away. The pain was acute, and I couldn‘t forgive Danny for leaving me. I felt he had betrayed me. It was the worst loss I have ever experienced. I‘m now back in touch with Danny, and it‘s a privilege to call him my friend. We‘re both much more mature now, and we‘re still very alike. But while I‘m nostalgic for the happy times we spent together many years ago, I‘m ashamed of my feelings, and I don‘t want to rewind the recording of my life and remember my loss and my pain.

Friends Reunited
One of the biggest Internet successes is a website called Friends Reunited. Friends Reunited brings together – that is, unites – old friends, people who used to be friends with each other, but have not seen each other for a long time. The website was begun in 1999 by a London couple called Stephen and Julie Pankhurst. Julie wanted to know what her old school friends were doing. Did they all have families or their own? Did they still live in the same area? Were they married? Did they have children? She and her husband realised that the Internet was the perfect way to get in touch with old friends, and Steve and his business partner, Jason Porter, built the website. Slowly, people

heard about the site and became interested. By the end of 2000 the site had 3,000 members. Then the website was mentioned on a radio programme and suddenly the site became very popular. By the end of 2001 the website had 4 million members, and by the end of 2002 it had over 8 million! How do you find old friends using Friends Reunited? It‘s very easy. People join the website and give information about themselves – the name of their old school, the neighbourhood they lived in, the college the went to, the sports team they belonged to, etc. To find an old friend, you type in their name, school, etc. you may find that your friend is a member of the website, and you can then contact him or her through the website. Most people are very happy to reply, and people often become friends again as a result. There are many wonderful stories about people who have found each other again through Friends Reunited. For example, there is the extraordinary story of a man who lost his memory as a result o a bad car accident. He could not remember anything about his past. Through Friends Reunited he contacted old friends, and with their help, he was able to find out about his past and put his memory back together. Another man writes: ―Thanks to Friends Reunited, I have found my daughter, who I have not seen since she was 13. she is now 27 and I have discovered that I am a

grandfather. It would have been impossible to find my daughter without the help of Friends Reunited. From the bottom of my heart, thank you.‖

Module 4 Music

An Interview with Liu Fang
Part 1 Liu Fang is an international music star, famous for her work with traditional Chinese instruments. She was born in 1974 and has played the pipa since the age of six. She‘s given concerts since she was eleven, including a performance for the Queen of England during her visit to China. She graduated from the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, where she also studied the guzheng in 1993. What is your musical training and background? My mother is a Dianju actress. Dianju is a kind of Chinese opera, which includes singing, dancing and acting. When I was a child, she took me to performances. I listened to music before I could speak! When I was five years old, she taught me to play the yueqin. In 1990, when I was 15 years old, I went to the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, where I studied the pipa and the guzheng. After I graduated, I went back to my hometown of Kunming and

worked as a pipa soloist of the Kunming Music and Dance Troupe. In 1996, I moved to Canada with my husband and I have been living there since then. What are the biggest challenges of playing the pipa and the guzheng? If your technique is not good enough, it is impossible to play classical Chinese pipa music. Also, the repertoire for the pipa is large – some pieces were written during the Tang Dynasty. There are many different pipa schools, and each one has its special way of interpreting the classical pieces. The biggest challenge is to respect the traditions but to add my own style. The same is true of my second instrument, the guzheng. Part 2 Who or what are your musical influences? The main influence is traditional singing. I listened to traditional opera singing and folk songs in my childhood. Now when I am playing a tune, I am singing in my heart. When I‘m playing a sad tune, I am crying in my heart. Listeners often say that they can hear singing in my music. What characteristics of Chinese classical music do you try to show in your playing? Firstly, Chinese music is similar to the Chinese language. In

Chinese, the same pronunciation with different tones has different meanings. The same is true for music. Secondly, classical Chinese music is closely connected to Chinese poetry, so it isn‘t surprising that most classical pieces have very poetic titles. Thirdly, classical Chinese music and traditional Chinese painting are like twin sisters. In Chinese art there are some empty spaces, which are very important. They give life to the whole painting and they allow people to come into the picture, like a dialogue. It‘s the same with classical Chinese music. There are empty spaces, and people say the silence is full of music. The pipa sounds and the pauses combine to make a poetry of sound. Listeners can experience the power and the beauty of the music, like enjoying a beautiful poem or painting. Part3 What do you like best about performing live? I enjoy playing and I enjoy performing in public. I like the atmosphere in a concert hall and I always feel happy when I have a concert. I feel a little depressed or lonely when there is no concert for a long time. I also enjoy the time immediately after the concert to share the feelings and ideas with friends and music lovers, listening to their impressions and understanding about the music. I love my career. I also enjoy traveling: I enjoy sitting in a plane dreaming, or

staying a hotel. What are your goals as an artist? I don‘t have a particular goal. But I hope to work with many composers, and I also wish to compose my own music. My background is traditional Chinese music. Since I moved to Canada, I have had opportunities to make contact with other musical traditions and play with master musicians. I wish to continue working with master musicians from other traditions and to be able to compose my own music, using elements from different cultures. I also wish to introduce classical Chinese pipa and guzheng music to every corner of the world.

Street music
It‘s a warm Saturday afternoon in a busy side road in the old district of Barcelona. The pedestrians are standing in a semi-circle around someone or something in front of the cathedral. I push my way through the crowd and find a quartet of musicians playing a violin suite of classical music. The session lasts ten minutes. Then one of the musicians picks up a saucer on the ground, and asks for money. All contributions are voluntary, no one has to pay, but the crowd shrinks as some people slide away. But others happily throw in a few coins. They‘re grateful for this brief interval of music as they go

shopping. Below the window of my apartment in Paris, a music man takes a place made vacant by an earlier musician. He raises the lid of his barrel organ and turns the handle. Then he sings the songs of old Paris, songs of the people and their love affairs. I remember some of the words even though I have never consciously learnt them. I tap my feet and sing along with him. Down there on the pavement, few passersby stop. Some smile, others walk past with their heads down. Cars pass, gangs of boys form and disappear, someone even puts a coin the cup on the organ. But the music man ignores them all. He‘s hot in the sun, so he mps his head with a spotted handkerchief. He just keeps singing and turning the handle. In Harlem, New York, some locals place a sound system by an open window. They plug it into the electrical socket, and all of a sudden, there‘s dancing in the streets. In downtown Tokyo, young couples eat popcorn and dance to the music of a rockabilly band, which plays American music from the Fifties. In the London Underground a student plays classical guitar music, which echoes along the tunnels. It lifts the spirits of the passengers, who hurry past on their way to work. In a street in Vienna or Prague or Milan a group of pipa musicians from the far Andes fill the air with sounds of South America.

The street musician is keeping alive a culture which has almost disappeared in our busy, organized, and regulated lives: the sound of music when you least expect it. In a recording studio, even when relayed by microphone, music loses some of its liveliness. Bt street music gives life to everyone who listens and offers relief from the cares of the day. It only exists in the present, it only has meaning in the context. It needs space.

Music from China One dozen beautiful young women, all in their twenties, take the stage and stand before a variety of ancient musical instruments. The moment they start to play, it is clear the members of Twelve Girls Band are among the most gifted musicians in the world. Coming from China, Twelve Girls Band is already one of that country‘s most popular groups. As they build a musical bridge between east and west, Twelve Girls Band charms the people of many nations around the world. A best-selling act all over Asia, Twelve Girls Band fills concert halls and arenas there, and has now been discovered by America. In 2004 the group arrived on the US music scene at NO. 62 of the billboard 200 album chart. It was the highest entry by an Asian group. In Japan, Twelve Girls Band is already a supergroup.

It has sold more than two million records, and has even appeared in TV ads for chocolate and cellphones, among other products. A Japanese DVD of Twelve Girls Band live in concert sold over 200,000 copies, and their live performances have been seen on television around the world. In 2004 they were named International Artist of the Year at the Japan Golden Disc Award ceremonies. Drawing upon more than 1,500 years of Chinese music, Twelve Girls Band mixes this rich tradition with classical, folk and contemporary sounds. The group signifies the symbolic choice of a dozen members found in various aspects of Chinese numerology with 12 months in a year, and in ancient mythology, 12 jinchai (golden hairpins, which represent womanhood). Inspiration also comes from yuefang, the female chamber orchestras that palyed in the royal courts of the Tang Dynasty. Each member of Twelve Girls Band has classical training, with backgrounds that include the China Academy of Music, the Chinese National Orchestra, and the Central Conservatory of Music. Skilled multi-instrumentalists, they perform on traditional Chinese instruments that include the guzheng, the yangqin, the erhu, the pipa and the dizi and xiao. The group‘s appeal is equally as broad, with children, teens, adults and grandparents filling arenas to see it perform. American

critics noticed the mixture of pieces by Mozart and Beethoven, with jazz standards like Dave Burbeck‘s Take Five, or a version of a mush-loved classic such as Simon and Garfunkel‘s El Condor Pasa. The group honours its musical heritage and shows a genuine love for all style of music – from complex classical works to long-lasting pop tunes.

The Grammy Awards – Are They Important? The Grammy Awards are presented every year in the music industry in the United States. They‘re like the Oscars in the film industry, and are given ofr important achievements in recorded music. They are presented y the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the music industry). The award ceremony is usually held in February. There are 105 categories in the awards, and they cover 30 different types of music – pop, rock, jazz, blues, rap, classical, etc. the awards depend on how many votes each artist receives from members of the Recording Academy. They are given for different reasons, not only for selling a lot of albums. In addition to the awards themselves, there are also performances by famous artists

at the ceremony. The award is called a Grammy because winners receive a statuette in the shape of a gramophone, an old fashioned hifi system. However, some people think that the Grammys are not as important as they used to be. Winners are often older, well-established artists who sell lots of albums to ―teenage girls and housewives‖, as one critic said. Therefore, the Grammys are not taken seriously by some musicians or music fans. There is a separate set of awards for Latin music, called the Latin Grammys, but only two awards for world music. Therefore, it is very difficult for musicians from the rest of the world to win prizes. Some of the greatest acts in music history, such as Elvis Presley and the Rolling Stones, have been awarded very few Grammys. On the other hand, the Beatles have won more Grammys than Elvis and the Rolling Stones combined.

Module 5 Cloning

Frankenstein’s Monster
Part 1 the story of Frankenstein Frankenstein is the name of a young scientist from Geneva, in

Switzerland. While studying at university, he discovers the secret of how to create life. Using bones from dead bodies, he creates a creature that resembles a human being and gives it life. The creature, which is very large and strong, and is also extremely ugly, terrifies anyone who sees it. However, the monster, who has learnt to speak, is intelligent and has human emotions. He becomes lonely and unhappy when he cannot find any friends and soon he begins to hate his creator Frankenstein. When Frankenstein refuses to create a wife for him, the monster murders Frankenstein‘s brother, his best friend Clerval, and finally, Frankenstein‘s new wife Elizabeth. The scientist chases the creature to the Arctic in order to destroy him, but he dies there. At the end of the story, the monster disappears into the ice and snow to end his own life. Part 2 Extract from Frankenstein It was on a cold November night that I saw my creation for the first time. Feeling very anxious, I prepared the equipment that would give life to the thing that lay at my feet. It was already one in the morning and the rain fell against the window. My candle was almost burnt out when, by its tiny light, I saw the yellow eye of the creature open. It breathed hard, and moved its arms and legs. How can I describe my emotions when I saw this happen?

How can I describe the monster who I had worked so hard to create? I had tried to make him beautiful. Beautiful! He was the ugliest thing I had ever seen! You could see the veins beneathe his yellow skin. His hair was black and his teeth were white. But these things contrasted horribly with his yellow eyes, his wrinkled yellow skin and black lips. I had worked for nearly two years with one aim only, to give life to a lifeless body. For this I had not slept, I had destroyed my health. I had wanted it more than anything in the world. But now I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and horror and disgust filled my heart. Now my only thoughts were, ―I wish I had not created this creature, I wish I was on the other side of the world, I wish I could disappear!‖ When he turned to look at me, I felt unable to stay in the same room as him. I rushed out, and for a long time I walked up and down my bedroom. At last I threw myself on the bed in my clothes, trying to find a few moments of sleep. But although I slept, I had terrible dreams. I dreamt I saw my fiancée walking in the streets of our town. She looked well and happy but as I kissed her lips, they became pale, as if she were dead. Her face changed and I thought I held the body of my dead mother in my arms. I woke, shaking with fear. At that same moment, I saw the creature that I had created. He was standing by my bed and

watching me. His mouth opened and he made a sound, then seemed to smile. I think he wanted to speak, but I did not hear. He put out a hand, as if he wanted to keep me there, but I ran out of the room. I hid in the garden and stayed there till morning, terrified by what I had done. Again and again I thought, ―I wish I had not done this terrible thing, I wish I was dead!‖ You cannot imagine the horror of that face! I had seen him when he was unfinished – he was ugly then. But when he stood up and moved, he became a creature from my worst nightmares.

Cloning and DNA Many people think that the science of genetics and cloning is recent. It‘s certainly true that in 1953, Watson and Crick, two scientist at Cambridge University, England, discovered the structure of the acid DNA – a transparent twisting ladder made of the fundamental components of life. But in fact, it was in 1866 that Mendel first recorded the results of growing pea plants. He understood that both the parent plants had influenced the genetic make-up of the new plant. In 1973, biochemists Cohen and Boyer discovered a procedure to use enzymes – chemicals formed in the body – to unzip the DNA, to cut out a sequence of genes, and finally to insert

them into the host cell and combine with its DNA. Cloning takes the DNA from a single cell to create a whole new individual. A clone is an organism which is genetically identical to another one. But it‘s now certain that no clone is an exact copy because of differences in experiences and upbringing. There are at least two teams of scientists which are trying to clone humans. Although controversial, there are many valid reasons to do so. An Italian doctor wants to offer cloning as an optional treatment for couples who find it difficult to have children. But anyone who was a clone of one of their parents would be under unknown psychological pressure throughout their childhood. Another reason is to reproduce the talents of exceptional human beings. But an Einstein clone might choose a path in life which is contradictory to the one the original Einstein chose. He may even possess new vices instead of existing virtues! A further reason is to obtain a supply of stem cells. Stem cells in embryos are very flexible and can develop into every other type of cell in the body. For example, it could help someone recover from a disease, repair human tissue, or help them walk again after an accident. These stem cells would need to come from an embryo taken from the clone of someone. But the embryo would then be wasted, which many people find unacceptable. What is clear is that

some voluntary code of practice among scientists has to be agreed. If not, compulsory government regulations will have to control cloning. A fourth reason for cloning is that some scientists and farmers think it would be handy to clone, for example, a prize cow which can resist bacteria or disease, or to sow a cloned crop which can resist rot or pests. But to rely on a few cloned animals or crops would restrict the biodiversity of the bread. Finally, the latest research into DNA has helped solve crimes by analyzing the suspect‘s saliva which they spit at a crime scene or the dirt under their fingernails.

Jurassic Park – Scientific Fact or Hollywood Fiction? Steven Spielberg‘s successful sci-fi adventure film follows two dinosaur experts – Dr Alan and Dr Ellie Sattler – as they are invited by the eccentric millionaire John Hammond to visit his new amusement park on an island off Costa Rica before it opens to the public. By cloning DNA taken from prehistoric mosquitoes, Hammond has created living dinosaurs for his new Jurassic Park. Accompanied by Hammond‘s two grandchildren, they are sent on a tour through Jurassic Park in computer-controlled cars. But a tropical storm hits the island, knocking out the power supply, and an

employee destroys the security system so that he can steal dinosaur embryos and sell them. The dinosaurs start to get out of control… So, since it is possible to clone sheep, is it possible to clone dinosaurs? Or is this just Hollywood? First, any DNA that has been taken from a preserved mosquito is only 40 million years old, so even if any DNA was found, the mosquitoes need to be much older, and as far as we know, mosquitoes that old do not exist. Second, although it is possible to find preserved mosquitoes, only one male has been recovered. In fact, only females can absorb the DNA of another creature. Also, there is no way of knowing if the DNA was from a dinosaur or not. Since there has been no previous discovery of dinosaurs, there is nothing to compare the new sample with. Thirdly, dinosaur DNA would not be intact after the long period of time since their extinction. When life ends, DNA breaks down and does not repair itself. Many questions also arise in the cloning of dinosaurs. Some of these questions are: What will be needed to raise a baby dinosaur from childhood successfully? What kinds of conditions do dinosaurs need to survive? What are the diets of dinosaurs? What kinds of care would dinosaurs need in their adult lives? What would

be done to protect humans from dinosaurs and vice versa? What ethical and human rights issues are raised by cloning? So cloning dinosaurs seems scientifically impossible. The world is not ready for it and the materials that are needed are not yet available. Even if it was possible to bring dinosaurs back to life they probably could not survive in the present day environment. Temperature, air, disease, and plants are all different today than in the era of dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are used to a completely different world and would find great difficulty living here. The only place that dinosaurs seem to exist today is in Hollywood.

Brave New World One of the most famous 20th century novels in the western world is a book called Brave New World. Written in 1931 by an Englishman called Aldous Huxley, it became a subject of much discussion as soon as first appeared. The reason why Brave New World is still so famous is that it describes a terrifying future world that is becoming more and more possible. Brave New World takes place 600 years in the future. At this time there is a world government. Its aim is for people to be happy, so that there are no more wars or violence. This government uses several very powerful methods to control people. The first is that

people are no longer born from human beings. Instead, they are cloned in factories. There are five different types of clones. The best type of clone, called Alphas, become the leaders of society. The second group, the Betas, also have good positions in society. There is only one of each Alpha person or each Beta person. However, with the three lower groups, one egg is used to create up to 96 clones. Each of these clones is of course identical. The only reason why scientists have not created thousands of identical clones is that they have not yet learnt how to do this. These lower groups do the harder, more boring jobs that are needed in society. For example, the lowest group, the Epsilons, are always factory workers. As small children, each cloned group is taught to like and dislike certain things and people. For example, the second group, the Betas, are taught to dislike the lower groups because ―they are stupid‖. While the Betas sleep, they are told that they are ―glad they are not Alphas, because Alphas work too hard‖. In this way, the government makes sure that people are happy with their position in society and will not try to change things. The government also keeps people happy with the use of a drug called soma that make people happy. As a result, very few people are unhappy or feel any strong emotion. Again, the

government wants people to be happy so that they will not try to change society. In this novel, Huxley asks very important and serious questions, such as, ―If we can completely control people, is that a good thing? If we can give people drugs to stop them feeling unhappy, is that good or bad? If we do this, do we just stop them feeling, so that they have no real emotions? Do we want real, sometimes dangerous human beings, or do we want a controlled, ?safe‘ society?‖ Today, more than seventy years after Brave New World was first written, these questions have become more important than ever.

Module 6 War and Peace

The D-Day Landings – Passage 1
In September 1939, Britain declared war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. The war, which lasted until 1945, is known as the Second World War. During the war, Germany occupied many countries, including France. He most important battle of the war in Europe was Operation Overlord, the military operation in 1944 to invade France. Operation Overlord started when boats full of soldiers landed

on the beaches of Normandy in France, known as the D-Day landings. More than 5,000 ships crossed the English Channel, carrying 130,000 troops to the French coast. Troops from the United States, Britain and Canada took part in the D-Day landings. The operation was extremely dangerous and many soldiers were killed before they even got off the boats. American soldiers attempted to land at the most dangerous place, known as Omaha Beach. The situation at Omaha Beach was so bad that the US army commanders thought about abandoning the invasion. Eventually, the soldiers made a breakthrough and the D-Day landings were successful. It was the beginning of the end of the Second World War. Operation Overlord started as a story of danger and confusion and ended as a story of bravery and acts of heroism.

The D-Day Landings – Passage 2 The soldiers of Able Company crossed the English Channel in seven boats early on the morning of 6 June 1944. when they were about 5 kilometres from the beach, the Germans started firing artillery shells at them but the boats were too far away. The Germans continued firing and Boat 5 was hit one kilometer from the

beach. Six men drowned before help arrived. Twenty men fell into the water and were picked up by other boats. As a result, they missed the fighting on the beach. Six men drowned before help arrived. Twenty men fell into the water and were picked up by other boats. As a result, they missed the fighting on the beach. They were lucky. If they had reached the beach, they would probably have been killed. When Boat 3 was a few metres form the beach, the soldiers jumped out, but the water was so deep that some of them disappeared under the water. Many of the men were either killed or wounded by machine gun fire. The soldiers on Boat 1 and Boat 4 jumped into the water, but it was too deep and most of them drowned. Half an hour after the first attack, two thirds of the company (a company is a group of about 100 soldiers) were dead. The survivors lay on the beach, exhausted and shocked. After an hour and forty-five minutes, six of the survivors tried to climb up the cliff to get off the beach. Four were too exhausted to reach the top. The other two, Private Jake Shefer and Private Thomas Lovejoy, joined a group from another company and fought with them. Two men. Two rifles. This was Able Company‘s contribution to D-Day.

The D-Day Landings – Passage 3 On 6 June 2004, survivors of the D-Day landings from many different countries returned to France to remember their lost comrades. Many of them went to the cemetery and memorial which overlooks Omaha Beach. The cemetery and memorial are situated on a cliff overlooking the beach and the English Channel, from where the boats attempted their landing. The cemetery contains the graves of 9,386 Americans who died during the landings. The memorial also contains the names of more than 1,500 men who were never found. On the memorial, there is part of a poem called ―For the Fallen‖, which was written by an English poet, Lawrence Binyon: They shall not grow old, as we that are left grow old. Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning we will remember them. The poem was first published in The Times newspaper on 14 September 1914 and can be seen on war memorials in many parts of the world.

Saving Private Ryan (1998) A review by Jenny Carter, aged 15 Saving Private Ryan is a film which was directed by Steven

Spielberg. The two main characters are Captain John Miller, played by Tom Hanks, and Private James Ryan, played by Matt Damon. James Ryan is the fourth brother to be involved in the Second World War. His three brothers have already been killed, two of them in the D-Day landings in Normandy, the other in a battle in another part of the world. Their heart-broken mother receives news about all her dead sons on the same day. The US army decides to send a group of men into the French countryside to try to find the fourth brother. Captain Miller, a hero and survivor of the Omaha Beach battle, is chosen to lead the rescue team of eight men. The film opens with a 30-minute sequence of the invasion of Normandy, probably the most violent images of war ever shown in a film. We see the full horror of war, and the chaos and senseless waste of life. Saving Private Ryan is an unforgettable anti-war film and also a story of courage and sacrifice. Spielberg has made a lot of good films, but he has never made one with such a strong message. And the message is simple – we want peace; we don‘t want war.

D-Day + 2 To our astonishment, just two days after we had received our confidential orders to join the D-Day landing troops, and after a day

fighting and seeing many of my friends killed by the enemy, we found ourselves outside a peaceful village in France. It was so sudden, after the mess and confusion of war on the beach. It was late afternoon, and the sun was setting on a perfect country scene of farm buildings, a main street, a few shops, a garage and a church. But we hesitated because we were aware that there might still have been enemy soldiers. Our lieutenant told Private Kowalski and me to advance and check the village. As we entered the main street, a young woman on a tractor drove out of the garage, saw us and called out something in French. Immediately five men came out of the bar, and two more from a farmyard, holding guns. I took off my helmet and yelled, ―American! Put your guns down!‖ they gathered round us, shouting and shaking our hands, some women appeared and kissed us. We soon understood that the enemy had abandoned the village, so Kowalski went back to the others to let them know it was safe. I walked into a barbershop and stroked my chin, to show I needed to shave. The barber had a magnificent moustache, which he used wax to keep in shape. He filled a tin with cold water, and took out a razor from a drawer. He used a leather sharpener on the razor, and then gave me the best shave I had had in years. Finally he picked up a pair of scissors and a comb, and cut my hair.

When the rest of our company arrived, they unloaded their baggage and bedding while the villagers brought out some jars of wine, and laid a table in the middle of the street, which they then covered with plates of potatoes and carrots, ham and sausages. Someone shouted ―Cheers!‖ in English and we all drank to liberation and to the French constitution. Some of our boys had never tasted wine before, and spat it out, thinking it was vinegar. We gave stockings to the women, which they loved, and in return, they gave us perfume for our girlfriends. I was too ashamed to admit that I was too young to have a girlfriend. But the villagers treated us like heroes, and for a brief moment, I felt that all the fear and danger had been worthwhile. But I also remembered my fiends who had died earlier that day, and wondered if they would have agreed.

Winston Churchill’s Speeches Winston Churchill is well-known as a statesman, politician and as the British Prime Minister during most of the Second World War. He is especially famous for his speeches which many believe made people even more determined to defeat the enemy. Many of these speeches contained lines which are remembered even today. Churchill made one of his greatest speeches in 1940, when

he was invited to become Prime Minister of Britain, and the leader of a new government. The country had been at war for over eight months, and he knew that it would suffer many great defeats before it would begin to win the war. So on 13 May 1940 he promised the House of Commons: ―I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined the Government, ?I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.‘‖ A month later, the Germany army had advanced across northern Europe, and the British Army had retreated to the coast of the English Channel. The only escape was to cross the sea back to England. Hundreds of small boats set out from ports on the English coast to bring back the soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk in France. But Churchill encouraged people that this was only a temporary defeat in a speech which included the words, ―We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets. We shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.‖ On 18 June 1940, Churchill gave another fine speech when he drew attention to the courage of everyone defending Britain. ―In years to come,‖ he said, ―…men will say, ?This was their finest hour.‘‖ The Germans continued their attacks on Britain from the air. A

small number of pilots resisted the much larger German Air Force. Germany lost many airplanes, and was forced to change their strategy. Britain was no longer threatened by an early invasion, and on 20 August 1940, he said, ―Never in the filed of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.‖ In two years, Germany began to lose some important battles. After a defeat in North Africa, on 10 November 1942 he made a speech with the famous words, ―Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But is is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.‖ Many people believe that Churchill‘s leadership inspired people to remain brave in the face of Nazi Germany. His speeches are still remembered and quoted today, and remain some of the finest examples of spoken English.

How the United Nations Tries to Keep the Peace If you see soldiers wearing sky-blue helmets, they are United Nations peacekeepers. The idea of UN peacekeepers began more than 60 years ago. They were the idea of Canadian Foreign Minister Lester Pearson, who won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work. The first UN peacekeepers were sent to the Middle East in

1948. They only went to see what was happening, and were not armed. The first armed UN peacekeepers were sent to the Middle East in 1957 when there was a disagreement between the British and Egyptian governments about the Suez Canal. Since then, there have been more than 50 UN peacekeeping operations, many of them since the year 2000. In 2003, there were fifteen, involving nearly 37,000 personnel (soldiers and civilians). UN peacekeepers have included soldiers and other personnel from more than 120 countries. Since 2000, most of the personnel have come from Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Ghana. There have also been soldiers from China, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Canada, Ireland, Italy and Australia. During the 1990s, eastern European countries such as Poland and the Czech Republic also sent personnel. There have been many UN peacekeeping successes, but also some failures. The UN couldn‘t stop a terrible civil war in the African state of Rwanda in 1995, despite warnings of the dangers from nearby states.

选修 7
Module 1 Basketball

Michael Jordan – Head and Shoulders Above the Rest!
During the 1990s, Michael Jordan was probably the best-known athlete in the world. He was the top scorer in the NBA, and played for the Chicago Bulls from 1984 to 1993. He was named their most valued player five times. Wearing his famous number 23 shirt, Michael Jordan became the most successful basketball player in the history of the game. Jordan was born in New York and grew up in North Carolina. He attended the University of North Carolina for a year before leaving to join the Chicago Bulls. He finished his first season (1984-1985) as one of the top scorers in the league, with an average of 28.2 points per game. In 1987, Jordan became only the second player to score more than 3,000 points in a season. He was the top scorer in the NBA for seven consecutive seasons (1987-1993). During this time, the average number of points he scored was more than 30 points per game. With him, the Bulls won their first NBA championship in1991. During this successful period they won the title again in 1992 and 1993. Jordan was also in the United States Olympic Basketball Team, known as ―the Dream Team‖, which won the gold medal at the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Jordan surprised everyone when he retired before the

1993-1994 season, but he rejoined the Chicago Bulls and won three more championships with them from 1996 to 1998. he played again for the Washington Wizards before finally retiring from sport in 2003 at the age of 40. Millions of fans admire his athletic ability, motivation and confidence. They have fantastic stories to tell about Michael Jordan, such as the time when he rescued the Bulls from ending a game on a tie. He stepped to the line and made two free throws. Each time he threw the ball straight through the basket – and each time he had his eyes closed. Off the basketball court, Michael Jordan opened his own steak restaurant because he loves steak so much. He also found success as an actor in the film Space Jam alongside the famous cartoon character Bugs Bunny! There is only one word to describe the best player in the world – awesome!

Wilt the Stilt – the Tower of Power!
Michael Jordan was the second player to score more than 3,000 points in a season – but the first was Wilt Chamberlain. Chamberlain was born in Philadelphia on 21st August 1936. He was one of the 11 children, the only one who was very tall. His father William worked in a shipyard and his mother Olivia was a cleaner.

As a child, Chamberlain had various health problems. He had pneumonia and almost died when he was ten. Chamberlain is the only NBA player who averaged over 50 points per game for an entire season. At one point, Chamberlain was so much better than all the other players that they changed the rules of the game to try to stop him! The giant player joined the NBA‘s Philadelphia Warriors in the 1959-1960 season and was an immediate success. During 14 seasons with four different teams, Chamberlain was named the most valued player in the league four times. On 2nd March 1962, he scored 100 points in a single game – no one has ever done that since! The final score was Warriors 169 New York Knicks 147! He ended his career after five amazing seasons with the Los Angeles Lakers. By the time he retired, Wilt held many NBA records: he scored 50 or more points 118 times and 60 or more points 32 times. Was Wilt Chamberlain better than Michael Jordan? Who knows? But there is no doubt that he deserves the title ―outstanding player of his generation‖.

Is Yao Ming Too Nice to Be a Star?
Jeff Van Gundy, the head coach of the Houston Rockets, has a

dream. He wants Yao Ming to be like other players. Star players, says Gundy, are ―selfish‖ and want the ball all the time. ―Let‘s put it this way,‖ he said. ―When they ask for the ball, they don‘t say ?please‘!‖ Yao, however, is a selfless and kind person. He has been brought up and trained in this way. It is not in his nature to be ―selfish‖ and ―rude‖. When he first arrived in the US, Yao was an instant hit among basketball fans nationwide. They all loved this kind, gentle but powerful giant. Van Gundy wanted to build his team around the talented Chinese player. To do this, he told Yao to be more aggressive and, if necessary, to be rude to his teammates. ―He‘s a wonderful guy, he has every physical basketball skill and he puts the team first,‖ Van Gundy said. ―But I want him to be a star, not just a great team player. He‘s got to think that he‘s the best player out there. That way, he can dominate the game.‖ ―At first, I didn‘t really understand what the coach wanted,‖ Yao said. ―But now I do. In China, everyone gave me the ball, I didn‘t have to ask! Here, I have to be a little ?impolite‘! I‘m not quite used to it yet. If you give me a little time, I can get more used to it. I have to learn to be l little more ?selfish‘.‖

Dizzy Heights of School Basketball
Basketball is one of the safest sports. Unlike wrestling or boxing, it‘s not usually dangerous. One reason for this is that the players‘ energy is partly directed upwards, at a 90-degree angle to the ground, and over the heads of the others. So there‘s less risk of a collision between two players. In other sports, such as baseball and American football, the player‘ energy moves parallel to the ground and towards their opponents, so they wear helmets which give adequate protection to their heads. But although basketball players wear socks and sneakers which are specially designed to absorb energy when they bound into the air, they war no other protection, just a vest and shorts. If there is an abrupt change of direction in their energy, from vertical to horizontal, such as when they accelerate across the court, bouncing the ball, there is a real danger of personal injury. For example, in the Kent State High School Basketball tournament, Chandler High was playing St Mary Central and at the interval the score was 50-52. but St Mary had appointed a captain who was not a typical basketball player. Whereas everyone else was tall and slim with short haircuts, Joe Johannsen was short and stout, with long hair and a large belly. But he was really fast, and

when he obtained control of the ball, he could make a circuit of the court and reach the opposing team‘s boundary within seconds. Anyhow, twelve minutes into the second half, Frank Sackler, the Chandler star player, made a controversial pass over Joe‘s head. Joe stepped aside and dipped his head down. Sackler bounced off him and committed a foul. The referee interrupted the match ,and there was a suspension of play. But Joe was unhurt, short the penalty, and the score was 88-90. there were three minutes to go. Joe immediately took possession of the ball and ran, … and suddenly 80 kilos hit the Chandler star, who howled loudly in pain and fell, with his nose bleeding and a cut on his left cheek. For a moment, he lay very still ,and the referee even checked his pulse, but soon confirmed he was OK. But when Sackler stood up he was dizzy, so they put a bandage round his head, a blanket round his shoulders, and called an ambulance to take him to the hospital. Joe was a considerate guy, and apologized as Sackler left, sniffing and weeping, either in pain or in frustration. Chandler scored with the penalty, and their teamwork had won the match. But Frank Sackler still has the scar on his face as a souvenir of the tournament.

How Did They Start?
How did American football start? Football – or soccer – started in England 800 years ago. The game was played with a round ball that players kicked but could not carry. There were two teams, but there were often a hundred players on each team! However, in 1823, William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School in England, picked up the ball during a soccer game and ran with it. Teachers at the school were shocked and angry but Webb Ellis‘s schoolmates enjoyed this new game, which they named after the school. Eventually, rugby was played with an oval ball that could be both carried and thrown. Rugby was exported to the United States, changed a lot and became the sport that Americans now call football. During a game of American football, the ball can be kicked, thrown or carried. How did basketball start? Basketball was invented in 1891 in a gymnasium in Springfield, Massachusetts by Dr James Naismith, a physical education teacher. Naismith wanted to create a game that would provide exercise for a noisy class through the clod winter months. Naismith attached two baskets to two tall poles at each end of the gymnasium and gave the players a soccer ball and told them to try

to throw the ball into the baskets. Naismith later wrote 13 rules which are the basis of modern basketball rules. How did baseball start? The exact origin of baseball is unknown, but it is probably based on an old English game called rounders. In the USA, a version of the game became popular in the early 19th century and eventually, a man called Alexander Cartwright wrote the rules or baseball in 1845. Cartwright I called ―the father of baseball‖ because the modern rules of the game are very similar to his original rules.

Module 2

Highlights of My Senior Year

Highlights of My Senior Year
I can hardly believe it, but my school life is almost over. Prom night has come and gone, and I‘ve received my high school diploma at last. It‘s a good thing that the exams are finished. I feel too excited to think clearly. It seems strange to think that in a few days‘ time I‘ll be walking out of the school gates forever. The first thing I‘m going to do is to take a long vacation! Meanwhile, I find myself looking back at my senior year, and thinking about all the wonderful things that have happened. I‘ve decided to write them down so that one day, years from now, when

I reread them ,the memories wil

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