一 定语：修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。汉语中常用?……的?表 示。 定语主要由形容词担任。此外名词、代词、数词、副词、介词短语以及动 词不定式（短语） 、分词也可以做定语。 a beautiful city; a bag full of money.注意：汉语的定语无论多长都放在被 修饰词的前面， 而英语中的定语则不然， 是一个词时，
放在被修饰词的前面， 若 是两个以上的词组、短语或从句则放在被修饰词的后面， thirty women teachers ; his father; the girl in red. the boy from America Our monitor is always the first student to enter the classroom. falling leaves; fallen leaves; the boy playing basketball; the book bought by my mother; a reading room; a swimming pool He is the man who you are looking for. 二：定义及相关术语 1．定语从句：修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它 所修饰的先行词之后。 2．先行词：被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。 3．关系词：引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系 代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等；关系副词有 when, where, why. 1. I have an apple. An apple is red. I have an apple that/which is red. ↑ ↑ 先行词 关系代词 2.I like some friends. Some friends like sports. I like friends who like sports. ↑ ↑ 先行词 关系代词 3.I like music. The music is quiet. I like music that/which is quiet. ↑ ↑ 先行词 关系代词 关系词通常有下列三个作用：A、引导定语从句，连接主从句；B、代替先行词； C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。 （二）关系代词引导的定语从句 1．who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. Those who want to go to th e museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 2．whom 指人，在定语从句中做宾语，常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. Li Ming is just the bo y ( whom ) I want to see. The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor.
注意：关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替，也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3．Which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. He likes to read books which are wri tten by foreign writers. The house which is by the lake looks nice. This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not int eresting at all. 。 4．That 即可指人，也可指物.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语，作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? The person that /whom you introdu ced to me is very kind. The season that / which comes after spring is summer. Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 5．Whose 即可指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. He has a friend whose fat her is a doctor. I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 注意： 指物时， 常用下列结构来代替： The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow? （一）限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况 1．当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除 外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定代词时，或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等不定代词修饰时。如： Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. All that can be done has been done. 。 There is little that I can do for you. He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who，如： Any man that / who has a sense of duty won?t do such a thing. All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 2．当先行词被序数词修饰时。如： The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 3．当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如： This is the best film that I have ever seen. 4．当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如： This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如： Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.
5．当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如： Who is the man that is standing by the gate? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 6．当先行词为人与物时。如： They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school （三）关系副词引导的定语从句 1． when 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。当先行词是表时间的名词，比如 time, day, week, month, year 等； 且定语从句中缺时间状语时用 when. 若先行词是 表时间的名词，定语从句中缺主语或宾语时，用 that/which 引导。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. The time when we got together finally arrived. Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandpare？ Do you remember the days（that/which） we spent together last year? I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. I will ne ver forget the days that / which we spent together. 2． where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。若先行词是表地点的名词，比 如 park, city, farm, place 等；且定语从句中缺地点状语时用 where. 若先行词是表 地点的名词，定语从句中缺主语或宾语时，用 that/which 引导。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. I visited the farm wher e a lot of cows were raised . Shanghai is the city (which/that) I want to visit. I know a place where we can have a picnic. I know a place which / that is famo us for its beautiful natural scenery. 3． why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。若先行词是 reason; 且定语从句 中缺原因状语时，用 why 引导。若先行词是 reason，定语从句中缺主语或宾语， 用 which/that 引导。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. I don?t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. I didn’t believe the reason (that/which) he explained to me 注意：关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来 表示。如： From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he h ad known what he wanted to be when he grew up. Great changes are taking pla ce in the city where / in which they live. The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. （四）“介词+关系代词 which/whom”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. Tomorrow I?ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I?ll bring here the magazine for which you asked. This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday.
This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. We’ll go to hear the fam ous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We?ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our workin g conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our workin g conditions. 注意：１． 含有介词的固定短语动词一般不拆开，介词仍放在短语动词的后面。 如：look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. （误） ２．若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只可用 whom，不可用 who, that； 关 系 代 词 指 物 时 只 可 用 which ， 不 可 用 that 。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. ( 正 ) The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误) ３ ． “ 介 词 + 关 系 代 词 ” 前 还 可 有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。如： He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 注意 事项:如何判断关系代词和关系副词 方法一： 用关系代词，还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动 词后面无宾语，就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词；而及物动词后 接宾语，则要求用关系代词。 例如：This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 判断改错（注：先显示题，再显示答案，横线；用不同的颜色表示出。 ） （错） This is the mountain village where I visited last year. （错） I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. （对） This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. （对） I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 方法二： 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)，也能正 确选择出关系代词/关系副词。例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案： 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分，先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语
时，选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose)； 先行词在从句中做状语时，应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语，when 时 间状语，why 原因状语) 。 （五）限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 形式上：不用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上： 是先行词不可缺少的定语， 如删除， 主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上：译成先行词的定语：“．．．的” 关系词的使用上：A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用 that C．可用 who 代替 whom 非限制性定语从句 形式上：用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上：只是对先行词的补充说明，如删除，主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上：通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上：A．不可省略 B．不用 that C．不可用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例： The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. China is a country which has a long history. In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. Last summer I visited the People?s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year. （二）关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其用法有相同之处，也有不同之处。具 体情况是： 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后，甚至还可以分割 主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正 如、正像”的含义。如： As is known to all, China is a developing country. He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. John, as you know, is a famous writer. Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don?t believe. 注意：当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。 如： Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 1. 当先行词受 such, so, the same 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 如： I?ve never heard such stories as he tells. He is not such a fool as he looks. This is the same dictionary as I lost last week.
注意：当先行词受 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句，但与 as 引导的定语从句意思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary?s wedding. She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. (三) 以 the way 为先行词时，若定语从句中缺方式状语，定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导，而且还可以省略。若定语从句中缺主语或宾语，用 （that/which）引导定语从句。 The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. I don?t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. I don’t like the way (that/which) he told me. 做定语从句题一般分三步：第一找出先行词；第二看先行词在定语从句中的语 法功能（做主语、宾语或状语）；第三选择合适的关联词。 Exercises: 1.There are three bedrooms in the house,_____ is Mary's. A the smallest of which B the smaller of which C the smallest of them D the smallest one 2.The Greens will move into the new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished. A by the time B by which time C by that time D by this time 3.Alice has a large collection of phone,_____ was taken in london. A none of them B no one of which C all of which D none of which 4.With the fast development of agriculture, the people ____ village I taught before lived a happy life. A who B whose C in whose D in which 5.There is a moutain ____ the top is always covered with snow. A whose B of which C it's D that 6.She may have missed her train, in ____ case she won't arrive for another hour. A what B that C which D this 7.1)I have three children,and two of _____ are doctors. 2)I have three children, two of ____ are doctors. 8.There two thousand students in our school,____ are girls. A two-thirds in which B two-thirds in them C two-thirds of them D of whom two thirds 9.I have bought two ballpens,_____ writes well. A neither of them B none of them C neither of which D none of which （1---6ABDCBC 7----9B DDC） 特殊结构定语从句点击 1. These houses are sold at such a low price ________ people expected. A. like B. as C. that D. which 2. I've never heard so interesting a story ________ you told me. A. as B. that C. of which D. about which
3. I've seen the same film ________ you saw yesterday. A. that B. which C. as D. like 4. I'll buy the same coat ________ you wear. A. that B. which C. as D. like 5. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 6. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 7. This is the first time ________ he has been here. A. that B. when C. at which D. which 8. I don't like ________ you speak to her. A. the way B. they way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 答案与简析： 1. B。当先行词被 such 修饰时，定语从句用 as 引导，即构成结构为"such+（a/an） ＋形容词＋名词＋as"引导的定语从句，意为"......像......一样的"。整个句子意为： 这些房屋以人们原来估计的那样低的价格出售。 2. A。由 so interesting a story = such an interesting story 和上面一题的解释便可得 知答案。as 在定语从句中作宾语。整句意为：我从未听说过像你告诉我那样有趣 的故事。 3. A 4. C。当先行词被 same 修饰时，定语从句由 that 或 as 引导，但意思不同。用 that 引导定语从句指同一物，而用 as 引导定语从句指同类事物。 5. A。做此题的关键是要知道 I think 在定语从句中作插入语，做题时将其去掉便 可容易得到答案。 6. B。Ａs 在此引导非限制性定语从句，代表它所修饰的整个句子内容，并且它 可放在所修饰句子的前、中或后面。其常见结构如：as you know, as is said above, as is often the case （情况经常是这样） 等。 如选Ａ， 则需将逗号改为 that； 如选 D， 则需将逗号改为 is that。 7. A。当先行词为 the first time, the last time 等时，定语从句的引导词用 that 而不 用 when。 8. A。当先行词为 way 时，定语从句的引导词用 that 或 in which, 也可省略。 定语从句 1．This is the best factory ____we visited last year . A. where B. which C. in which D. that 2.Is this the factory ____computers are built ? A. that B. which C. in which D. in that 3.please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red . A. whose B.its C. which D. which of 4.The man ____has arrived .
A. whom I told you B. that I told you C. whom I told you about him D. I told you about 5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking ? A. to whom B. to who C. whom D. to that 6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born . A. from where B. in which C. which D. in where 7. The comrade ___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher . A. whom B. which C. who D. whose 8. He asked us to watch carefully everything ___he did in class . A. who B. that C. what D. where 9. I?ll visit the professor tomorrow ,___he will be back from Shanghai . A. who B. that C. when D. which 10.The school ___I study is a new one . A. on which B. at where C. on that D. at which 11. China has many islands,____the largest is Taiwan . A. in which B. at which C. which D. of which 12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here . A. what B. where C. that D. which 13. Our teacher lives in the house ____door faces to the north . A. which B. his C. that D. whose 14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded ? A. whom B. to whom C. to who D. about whom 15.Wrestling is a sport in ___people easily get hurt . A. that B. when C. which D. what 16. I told you ____I know . A. all that B. all which C. all what D. all whom 17.China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun . A. of which B. of whom C. of who D. of them 18. Is this factory ____we visited last year ? A. in which B. around that C. whom D. the one 19. Who is the man ____was there ? A. who B. which C. that D. whom 20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir ? A. that B. which C. whose D. who 21. I still remember the day ____she first wore that green dress . A. which B. in which C. on that D. on which 22. The knife ____we used to cut the bread is very sharp . A. with which B. with it C. with that D. which 23. The games ____the young men competed in were difficult . A. in which B. which C. it D. who 24.It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it 25. George Mallory was an English school teacher _____ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which
历届高考英语单项选择题定语从句精选 26.His parents wouldn?t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose 27.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that 28.In the dark street , there wasn?t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom 29.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it 30.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A.which B.where C.that D.when 31．Carol said the work would be done by October,______personally I doubt very much. A. it B.that C.when D.which 32．Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A．who B．which C．this D．what 33.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A.which price C.the price of which C.its price D.the price of whose 34._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A.As B.It C.That D.Which 35.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A.this B.which C.that D.same 36.On the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A.whose B.of which C.which D.its 37.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A.what B.which C.that D.when 38.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A.that B.where C.which D.there 39.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A.in which B.in that C.in whose D.whose 40.I don?t like _____ you speak to her. A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which 41.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through . A.It?s the reason B.That?s why C.There?s why D.It?s how 42.He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science. A.which I think is B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think which is 定语从句答案: 1-5DCADA 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 DBDBC 16-20 ABDCA 21- 25 DABBA
KEYS: 26-30 DBDBB