1.In paragraphs 1 and 2, the author tells a story about a professor in Robert A. Fowkes?s class. What was strange about the professor? A:First, the professor said “ladies and gentl
emen,” while there was only one student. Second, Robert A. Fowkes, the only student in class, missed one class, but the professor didn?t give the lecture Fowkes had missed, but gave the next one in the sequence. 2.Why was the lecture system popular in the thirteenth century? A:In the 13th Century books were so rare and expensive that few students could afford them. 3.In paragraphs 5–7, what does the author use an imaginary class to show us? A;The author uses an imaginary class to show us the inadequacy of the lecture system. 4.In the imaginary class, what makes Mary and other students bored? A:The way the professor lectures: He is just reading from a stack of his very old notes. 5.Why do Mary and her fellow students stick it out while some drop out of college? A:Mary and some other students become resigned to the lecture system and wait to become juniors and seniors. Then, they will attend smaller classes and at last get the kind of personal attention that real learning requires. 6.In paragraph 10, the author discusses active learning and passive learning. Give some examples of both. A:Active learning: Students write essays, do experiments and then have their work evaluated by their instructors. Passive learning: Attending lectures. 7.In what way do most students learn best? A;Most students learn best by engaging in frequent and even heated debate. 8.According to paragraph 13, why do administrators love lectures? A;They can cram a lot more students into a lecture hall than into a discussion class. 9.Why may smaller classes be exhausting to the teacher? A;Smaller classes may require energy, imagination, and commitment from the teacher, which can be very exhausting. 10.According to the author, who should receive more lectures? A;Juniors and seniors.
1.In paragraph 1, the author says that we are in the middle of a sixth great extinction. What are these great extinctions? Could you name some. In what way is the current great extinction different from the previous five ones? A;The difference lies in the fact that the previous five great extinctions have occurred for natural causes, but the current great extinction has been caused by human activities. 2.What is the author trying to do with paragraph 2? A;The author gives us some examples to show what human needs have caused the current great extinction. Generally speaking, they are humans? needs for survival. 3.Why did the buffalo and the passenger pigeon in North America become extinct? A;Both the buffalo and the passenger pigeon became extinct owing to overhunting by humans. 4.What point does the author want to illustrate by writing about the European rabbits in paragraph 4? A;He wants to illustrate that natural habitats of some native species could be destroyed by the introduction of foreign species. The introduction of European rabbits into Australia is a good example. They multiplied quickly and threatened the habitat of native grazing animals in Australia by eating all the vegetation. 5. In paragraph 5, the author states that humans endanger other species by destroying their natural habitats. What example does the author give to support this statement? A;The example is: The rapid shrinking of rainforest caused the loss of many species that made their homes in it. 6. What can we learn from paragraph 8? A;Each life form occupies a special place in the ecosystem, and the disappearance of any species will affect other species in the ecosystem. But 74 species are dying out every day. 7.What are the two advantages that biodiversity has over monocultures according to paragraphs 9–12? A;1) Biodiversity makes it possible for useful substances to be found in species we haven?t got to test or study. 2)Biodiversity will save humanity from being starved to death owing to their great dependence on a small number of species. 8.In paragraph 10, the author writes about the Pacific yew tree. What makes the Pacific yew tree so highly valued today? What does the author want to tell us by mentioningthis tree? A;Because it is discovered that the bark of the Pacific yew tree contains a substance called taxol, which can effectively treat certain kinds of cancer. By mentioning this tree, the author wants to tell us that many species may die out before their value is discovered.
9.What is the main idea of paragraph 11? A;Paragraph 11 mainly tells us that the value of the vast majority of species has yet to be discovered. It is very important for us to protect the diversity of species. If we don?t, we will lose species that may turn out to be extremely important to our own survival. 10.What point is suggested by the last paragraph? A;It suggests that it?s hard to tell whether these protective methods will be effective or not now because the rapid human population growth may make it difficult to put these methods into practice.
1.At the beginning of the article, the author declares that, in order to solve the current confusion about the proper roles that men and women should play in marriage, he proposes to establish new marital norms. What pattern of marriage behavior does he propose? Is this pattern a traditional one or a brand new one? A;He proposes a pattern of late marriage followed by a modified traditional nuclear family in the early childrearing years. It is mainly a traditional pattern but with some changes. 2. According to the first principle proposed by the author, should women be well-educated and work outside the home after marriage? Is this a traditional or modern idea? A;Yes. The author says women should be well educated and be trained according to their abilities for a socially useful paid job or career. Everyone should make work contribution in their lifetime. This is a modern idea. 3. What is the second principle the author proposes? Is this a traditional or modern idea? A;The second principle is that young people should hold the expectation that they will marry only once and for a lifetime and that they will have children. This is a traditional idea. 4. According to the third principle, what is the best age for marriage? Why? In addition, what?s the possible result of late marriage? Is the author for or against this way of life? How do you know? A;The best age for marriage is late twenties or early thirties, or even later for men. The reason why society encourages people to marry relatively late in life is that at that time they are more mature, know better what they want in a mate, and are more established in their jobs or careers, and men have begun to have more stable sex life with a permanent sexual partner, all of which help reduce the risk of divorce. The reason why individuals, both women and men, also want to marry later is that they want to have time to pursue personal expression and fulfillment before marriage. One possible result of late marriage is long years of nonmarital cohabitation in young adulthood. The author is for nonmarital cohabitation, but on the condition that it is associated with “serious, caring relationships,” not “sexual promiscuity”, because he writes that this is “an arrangement that often makes more sense than the alternatives to it,” meaning it is more sensible than living alone ith one?s parents.
5.According to the fourth principle, what is the disadvantage of late marriage? How to overcome it? A;The disadvantage of late marriage is that, as people live a single life for 10 years or even more, they tend to be more eager to fulfill themselves, less willing to carry out family responsibilities, and therefore find it harder to adapt to marriage and childrearing. To overcome this disadvantage, young unmarried adults should be encouraged to save a large part of their income for a family fund, which will be used when the wife quits working outside and stays at home as full-time housewife after marriage and childbirth. 6. From children?s birth to their early or middle teen years, what childrearing arrangements does the fifth principle recommend to the parents? Is this strategy known as “sequencing” a traditional or new practice? A;This practice is mainly traditional but with some modifications, such as mothers? working parttime after the child is 3 years old or fathers? becoming the primary caretaker after the child is 18 months old if they wish. 7.For women, it seems that the conflict between childcare and career development is unavoidable. To the author, which of the two is more important? What should the government do to make up to women for their career loss? A;To the author, childcare is more important since he says “it is possible to ?make up? for career loss, but impossible to make up for child-nurturing loss.” He urges that the government institute parental leave and child allowance programs for families with young children to live on a single income, and develop “veterans benefits” type of programs that provide mothers with financial subsidies and job priorities when they return to the paid work force. 8. According to the sixth principle, while the mother is ordinarily the primary caretaker of the infant, what domestic work should the father do? And after the infant is 18 months old, is any change possible to the father?s role? Here is the father assuming the traditional marital gender role or a new one? What should employers do accordingly to adapt to this situation? A;The father should be an active supporter of the mother-child bond as well as an auxiliary homemaker and care provider. He should take care of the house, yard and car and in many cases cook meals, clean the house, look after the child, etc. if he has the skills and talents. After the child reaches 18 months, it is possible that the father becomes the primary caretaker. Here the father is assuming a new role of auxiliary homemaker and care provider in addition to the traditional role of breadwinner. Accordingly employers must allow not only mothers but also fathers to be absent from work frequently while taking flex-time and part-time jobs because fathers also have to care for the children. 9. As the seventh principle implies, will the situation last throughout their marriage that women do more domestic work and less paid work than men? A;No. In the earlier marriage life women will do more domestic work than men, but in the
later marriage life women will do more paid work than men partly because husbands, being older, will retire earlier than their wives and partly because due to hormonal changes, women become more work-oriented and men become more home-oriented in later life. 10. In conclusion, in the author?s opinion, which should have a higher priority for men and women in modern society, personal pursuits or parenting? For the benefit of both society and individuals, is it sensible to completely abandon the marital roles of men as the breadwinner and of women as the homemaker and childrearer associated with the traditional nuclear family? What marriage behavior does the author disapprove of? What marriage behavior does he advocate? A;During the parental years, parenting should have a higher priority over personal pursuits. Parents should limit their expressive freedom for the welfare of children. No, it is foolhardy to do so. When there are young children in the family, if the traditional marital gender roles are abandoned, then society will be in danger. The author disapproves of the “strive for androgyny”, that is, people struggling to play both the male breadwinning role and the female childrearing role at the same time. He advocates that people acknowledge, accommodate, and appreciate the different needs, interests, values and goals of different sexes. He disapproves of the “unisex pursuit of freedom with a male bias”, that is, both men and women pursuing freedom (success and fulfillment in career) that is traditionally possessed by men. He advocates that people give more importance and respect to family bond and childcare that are traditionally valued by women. By this, he suggests that the traditional division of labor is still nece should go on playing the traditional female childrearing role during the child-nurturing years.