1. 基本规则：在有定语从句的复合句中，如果定语从句中先行词是从句的主语（也即关系代词作从句的主语），则这个定语从句可以转化为以过去 分词或现在分词作定语的形式。同样的，分词作定语也可以转化为一个定语从句。 2. 举例:There is a boy who is sleeping. There is a sleeping boy. A t
eacher who is named Tom will teach us physics.(其实我们更常说 A teacher whose
A teacher named Tom will teach us physics.
name is…，但这种写法从语法上讲并没有错，所以也可以使用) 3. 语序：分词作定语置于名词之前，分词短语则应置于名词之后。 4. 总结：定语从句转化为分词作定语时，对于从句中的谓语动词用主动语态的，使用现在分词作定语；用被动语态的，使用过去分词作定语；用完 成时态的，使用 having+过去分词作定语。分词作定语转化为定语从句时，having+过去分词作定语转化为完成时态；过去分词作定语转化为被动语 态；现在分词作定语转化为主动语态；具体时态酌情而定。 5. 举例：The boy who is going out forgot to put on his coat. There are three doors which were locked. The boy going out forgot to put on his coat.
There are three locked doors. The teacher having finished his class slowly went out.
The teacher who had finished his class slowly went out. The boy going out forgot to put on his coat. There are three locked doors.
The boy who is going/went out forgot to put on his coat.
There are three doors which were/are locked. The teacher who had finished his class slowly went out.
he teacher having finished his class slowly went out.
6. 特殊情况：对于表状态的不及物动词的过去分词作定语，转化为定语从句应用完成时态。 7. 举例：Fallen leaves in the park must be swept away. Leaves which have/had fallen in the park must be swept away.(这个单词 fall
转 载 标签： 状语从句
在使用英语时，有一个规则：能使用短语时不用句子，能用单个词时不用短语。因此，有些从句在实际应用时，有些可以可以简化成短语。下面先 讲讲义中出现过的时间状语、原因状语和条件状语的简化情况。 情形一：从句主语和主句主语一致 步骤：去（从句）连词—去（从句）主语—（从句）谓语变分词 时间状语从句 1、 以 when，while 引导的时间状语从句和以 if 引导的条件状语从句，谓语动词是主动语态时，如果从句谓语动词所表示的动作是与主句谓语同时 发生，可简化为现在分词的一般式；如果从句谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语之前，则可简化为现在分词的完成式。 When we heard (=When hearing/Hearing)the teacher's pleasant talk to us, we began to feel comfortable. While Mary was standing(While standing/Standing) in front of the teacher, she(Mary) was very nervous.
状语从句的谓语动词是被动语态时，可简化为过去分词。 When ／If it is heated to a high temperature(=Heated to a high temperature)，water will change into steam． If we are given(=Given) more time, we can do the work better. If the city is seen(=Seen) from the mountain, it（the city） looks very beautiful. 2、以 after,before 引导的状语从句可用 after,before+从句谓语动词的动名词（短语）形式构成介词短语作状语。 After he put on (=After putting)the trousers, he found they were 2 inches too long. 也可：Having put on the trousers, … Before we do the job(=Before doing the job), we'd better think it over. 3、以 as soon as 引导的状语从句，可用 On+谓语动词的动名词形式作状语，此时的动词是非延续性动词。 Doctor Bethune began to operate on the wounded soldiers as soon as he arrived (=On arriving)at the village. 2、原因状语从句 可简化为分词短语作状语。 Since you still look pretty sick(=Looking pretty sick), you'd better have a good rest. Because he was(=Being) one of the best teachers in the city, he was given a medal. Since I didn't know Chinese(=Not knowing Chinese), I tried to speak to her in English. 情形二：从句主语和主句主语不一致 步骤：去连词—留主语—动词变分词 当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不一致时，状语从句简化成分词短语时则要保留其本身的主语，使该主语成为分词短语的逻辑主语，即构成独立主 格结构（主语+分词）。例如： As it was fine that day（=It being fine that day）），we decided to go fishing．
Since his father had fallen ill（His father having fallen ill），John had to begin working at the age of ten.
If weather permits(=Weather permitting), we will have a picnic.