当前位置:首页 >> 高中作文 >>

2014高考英语作文写作专项训练之说明文


2014 高考英语作文写作专项训练之说明文 (基于 2013 全国各地高考试题的分析整理)
一、 文体题型概述 (一)统计分析 说明文是今年来高考英语书面表达比较常见的一种体裁, 其特点是对事物或做事情的方 法进行客观地介绍。 有些书面表达题虽是以应用文的形式出现的, 但其主要内容也属于说明 文。以下是 2013 年高考说明文的分类统计: 省份 安徽 江苏 上海 辽宁

重庆 内容 家长包揽、孩子依赖 保护地球的言与行 推荐画展场所及理由 介绍中秋节 写信反映江豚现状 出题形式 图画 图画 文字提示 文字提示 图画+文字 说明顺序 逻辑顺序 逻辑顺序 空间顺序 逻辑顺序 时间顺序 说明内容 事物/事理 事物/事理 事物/事理 事物 事物 体裁整合 / / 议论文 应用文(稿件) 应用文(信件)

分析上表可以看出, 去年高考英语说明文以图画或者文字形式出现, 并且常与其他文体 整合考察。 要求学生能够按照一定的说明顺序对一定事物或事理进行介绍和说明, 以达到实 际应用和交际的目的。 (二)技巧策略 写说明文宜采用三段式:第一段主要介绍要说明的对象及说明的目的;第二段说明事 物的主要特征或做事情的方法步骤;第三段进行总结概括。时态通常用一般现在时。 写作时应遵循以下几个步骤: 1、仔细审题,明确说明对象,抓住要说明的事物或事理的主要特征。 2、选择合理的说明顺序(时间顺序、空间顺序或逻辑顺序)分层次进行说明,注意条理清 晰。 3、选择恰当的说明方法,比如定义法、举例法、比较法和细节描述法等,不要遗漏主要内 容。 4、根据说明顺序及内容确定过渡词和恰当的句型结构。文字应客观、简洁、明了,不要追 求华丽和加入太多个人观点。 5、图标类作文注意: (1)图表和数据内容不一定要全部描述。 (2)善于抓住总的规律,趋势,归纳增减率。 (3)时态:特定时间用过去时。经常出现的情况或自己的评述用一般现在时。 (4)要适当运用一些高级词汇并灵活使用图表类写作常用的经典好句型。 (三)常用表达 1、过渡词 表顺序:first, second, third, in the first place, above all, at first, in the beginning, to begin with, besides, what’s more, in addition, furthermore, moreover, another, also, especially, in particular 表时间:first, then, next, after that, next, finally now, at present, recently, after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days, form now on, from then on, at the same time, meanwhile, till, not…until, before, after, when, while, as during, 表示解释说明:for example, for instance, in this case, such as…, take… for example,in fact, actually 表顺序:first, then, next, finally, in the first place, last but not least, above all, first and foremost,
1

表递进: in addition, besides, fruthermore, what’s more, on the other hand, meanwhile, for one thing…for another, on top of that, apart from that, 表举例: for example, for instance, such as, a typical (striking) example is that, a case in point 表目的: for this reason,, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to, 表总结:in a word, in short, in brief, on the whole, generally speaking, in my opinion, as far as I know, as we all know, as has been stated, as I have shown, finally, at last, in summary, in conclusion, 2、常用句型: 1) Nowadays it is common to use…, but not knowing how to use…keeps many people away from enjoying the wonderful service that …has brought us. 2) As is known to all, it is important to …. Therefore, an increasing number of people are showing more interest in how to … 3) With the development of …, there is an increasing need for people to know how to … 4) There are several steps to follow./ Here are some tips. 5) The first thing to do is to … 6) Although …is important, but without …, all the efforts you have made will be in vain. 7) To ensure success, there is one more thing that you must bear in mind, that is… 8) If you can do what has been mentioned above, you can guarantee success. 9) With the help of the above methods, you will achieve you goal soon. 3、图表式作文写作模板 It is obvious in the graphic/table that the rate/number/amount of Y has undergone dramatic changes. It has gone up/grown/fallen/dropped considerably in recent years (as X varies). At the point of X1, Y reaches its peak value of …(多少). What is the reason for this change? Mainly there are …(多少) reasons behind the situation reflected in the graphic/table. First of all, …(第一个原因). More importantly, …(第二个原因). Most important of all, …(第三个原因). From the above discussions, we have enough reason to predict what will happen in the near future. The trend described in the graphic/table will continue for quite a long time (if necessary measures are not taken 括号里的使用于那些不太好的变化趋势) 二、 经典例题分析 (2006 全国卷 I) 假定你是李华。 应英国朋友 Bob 的要求, 写一封短信介绍你校图书馆的基本情 况。内容须包括下面两幅图中的相关信 息。 注意: 1、 字数 100 左右 2、 可以适当增减细节,以使行文连贯 3、 开头语已为你写好 Dear Bob, Thank you for your last letter asking about our library.______________________ Best wishes Li Hua
2

注:上面的小字是:借阅须知:每人每次 5 本,借期 10 天。下面的小字是:开放时间:周 一至周五,早 9:00 至晚 7:00,周末闭馆。 ) 【例文 1】 Dear Bob, Thank you for your last letter asking about our library. Here is some information about it. Located between the garden and the teaching building, our school library situates in the center of the school and has beautiful surroundings. It has all kinds of books, magazines and newspapers providing us with all kinds of knowledge and the latest information. According to the rules, each student can borrow no more than 5 books at a time for at most 10 days, and it is open from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m every day except weekends, which makes it convenient for us students to read in it or to borrow books from it. The school library is our favorite place after class. We enjoy reading in it. 点评:该生作文属于第五档(23 分) 。考生充分理解了题目要求,带着一种自豪的语气但又 很客观准确地介绍了学校图书馆。 写作内容覆盖了两幅图中所有要点, 在说明第一幅图时采 用了选择中心坐标法, 在说明第二幅图时将图书馆规则和便于学生使用结合起来, 逻辑非常 清晰,全文结构紧凑。该考生对倒装句、定语从句使用熟练恰当,行文流畅。完全达到了预 期的写作目的。 【例文 2】 Dear Bob, Thank you for your last latter asking about our library. Our library, which is surrounded by green trees, ①located in the middle of our school, just behind the garden and in front of the teaching building. Even though it has not ②a large space, there are quantities of books for us to read or to borrow. We can borrow books from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. on ③workdays. And each of us can borrow 5 books once for a t most 10 days. Magazines are available too, but we can’t take them away. I love my school library. Welcome to our school to visit it! 点评:该生作文属于第四档(18 分) 该文基本覆盖了所有主要内容,也应用了一些高级表达 法和词汇,语言基本准确,但也出现了一些错误(文中①②③处) 。第一幅图说明较好,采 用了中心坐标法, 但第二幅图在说明过程中缺乏一定的顺序和逻辑, 只运用了简单的连接词 and。总的说来完成了试题规定的任务,达到了预期的写作目的。 三、 高考真题演练 (2013 安徽卷) 孩子的成长和教育是社会热议的话题, 现今父母包揽一切、 孩子过度依赖等现象十分严 重。请阅读下面 的漫画,按要求用英文写一篇短文。 内容要求: 1、描述漫画内容; 2、分析漫画所揭示的问题; 3、提出你的看法。 注意: 1、短文开头已给出,不计入总词 数; 2、考生可适当发挥,使文章内容 充实、连贯; 3、词数 120 左右;
3

4、文中不能出现考生的具体信息。 参考词汇:pave the way From the picture, we can see a family of three walking on a long red carpet. _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________

(2013 江苏卷) 请根据你对以下两幅图的理解, 以“Actions Speak Louder than Words”为题, 用英语写一篇作 文。 参考词汇: banner (横幅) stump (树桩) 你的作文应包括以下内 容: 1、 简要描述两幅图的内 容; 2、 概述你对两幅图中不 同做法的理解; 3、举例说明两幅图对你的启示。 注意: 1、可参照图片适当发挥; 2、作文词数 150 左右; 3、作文中不得提及有关考生个人身份的任何信息,如校名、人名等。 _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ (2013 上海卷) 上海博物馆拟举办一次名画展, 现就展出场所 (博物馆还是社区图书馆) 征集公众意见, 假设你是王敏,给上海博物馆写一封信表达你的想法。你的信必须满足以下要求: 1. 简述你写信的目的及你对场所的选择; 2. 说明你的理由(从便利性,专业性等方面对这两个场所进行对比) 。 _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ (2013 辽宁卷) 一个英文网站面向中学生征稿。请你写一篇英文稿件,介绍“中秋节”及这个节日里的主 要活动。 写作要点: 1、它是中国传统节日之一; 2、家人团聚; 3、赏月、吃月饼、 4、还有旅游、访友等其他活动。 5.…… 注意: 1、词数 100 左右;
4

2、可以适当增加细节,以使用文连贯; 3、开头语已您写好,不讲总词数。 参考词汇:中秋节:the Mid-Autumn Festival 农历: lunar calendar 赏月: enjoy the full moon 月饼: moon cake The Mid- Autumn Fetival The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th of the eighth month of Our Chinese lunar calendar. …… (2013 重庆卷) 调查显示,中国长江江豚(finless porpoise)受人类活动影响而频临灭绝,目前总数不足 1000 只。暇设你是李华,现请用英文给 WWF(世界自然保护基金组织)写一封信,请他们关 注这一状况并提供帝助。内容应包括: · 说明写信目的 · 简述江豚现状 · 希望 WWF 如何帮助(比如:资助江豚保护项目等) · 表示感谢并期待回复 注意: (1)词数不少于 80; (2)在答题卡上作答 (3)书信格式及开头均已给出(不计入总词数) 。 Dear Sir or Madam, I’m a student from Chongqing,China. _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Yours sincerely, Li Hua 四、 真题参考范文 (2013 安徽卷) One possible version From the picture we can see a family of three walking on a long red carpet. The son, well dressed, waves proudly in the middle while the father behind bends forward to hold the jacket and the mother in front rolls out the carpet, sweating. It shows a common phenomenon nowadays that children are the focus of families, shouldering the hope of their parents. Parents arrange everything for their children and spare no effort to pave the way for their success. As a consequence, children become so reliant on their parents that they have no independent thought or creative ideas. Such a situation is of great concern. In my opinion, overprotection and too much care are extremely bad for children's development. Instead of doing everything for them, parents should encourage their children to overcome difficulties and inspire them to develop by themselves. Only in this way can they grow up to be independent and become truly successful. (2013 江苏卷) Actions Speak Louder than Words People celebrate Earth Day differently. In Picture 1, a man is trying to put up a banner on a lonely tree surrounded by stumps, but in vain, while Picture 2 shows a couple happily planting trees. The message conveyed here is clear: “Actions speak louder than words.” Our earth is suffering
5

severe damage. Should we just pay lip service or take practical measures to protect it? The answer is definitely the latter. Immediate actions should be taken, like stopping cutting down trees, to better the environment. Actions are important in other fields, too. Instead of shouting empty slogans, it is more meaningful to donate books and sports goods to children in need. We should strictly and voluntarily follow traffic rules, stopping at the red light rather than complaining about traffic jams. Only when we match our words with actions can we make a difference in whatever we hope to accomplish.(150 words) (2013 上海) Possible version 1 Dear Sir or Madam: I have heard from the newspaper that you, the Shanghai Museum, are planning to organize a famous painting exhibition. And you are now collecting suggestions about whether to hold it in your museum or the art gallery. I am now writing to express my opinion that the exhibition should be held in the museum. My reasons are as follows. In terms of convenience, the museum has more advantages over the gallery. First, it is located in the People’s Square, which is the center of the city. So people can enjoy convenient transportation such as the subway line 1, 2 and 8, which are available to people from nearly every district. It saves the visitors a lot of time and trouble of traffic jam. Another advantage is that it is easy to be found by those from other provinces around the country. After all the Shanghai Museum is a landmark of our city familiar to nearly every Chinese. With regard to the professional function, though it seems natural that an art exhibition be set in the gallery, in a more general sense, I think the museum has more advanced facilities to make the exhibition successful and to preserve the paintings well. As we know, the museum has successfully held many national and international exhibitions and its advertising and organizing experience is of no match; also its staff is qualified and professional. To sum up, I am sure the show will be fantastic if it is held in Shanghai Museum. (248 words) Possible version 2 To whom it may concern: I’ve learned that an art exhibition is to be held and that you’re collecting suggestions on its location. I’m writing this letter to share with you my opinions. In my opinion, it is more advisable to hold the art exhibition in Shanghai Museum than in community libraries. My reasons are as follows. On one hand, it is more convenient for people to get to Shanghai Museum which is located in the center of the city. And the museum is much more spacious than community libraries, which provides visitors with a more comfortable environment for appreciating art. On the other hand, as a well-known museum, Shanghai Museum is more professional and experienced in holding art exhibitions. Its professional security guards and advanced facilities can better protect those famous paintings from being damaged or stolen. Therefore, I suggest the exhibition be held in the museum. Wang Min (2013 辽宁卷) The Mid- Autumn Fetival
6

The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the 15th of the eighth month of Our Chinese lunar calendar. As one of the traditional Chinese festivals, it has been enjoying great popularity in our country. Usually, no matter how far away or how busy we are, we will try to come home for the celebration. The moon that night looks the brightest in the whole lunar month. What we love most is the time we enjoy the full moon together. With the beautiful moon up in the sky, we sit together and eat moon cakes and fruit, sharing our stories. In addition to these traditional activities, we have a wider range of choices such as travelling and visiting our relatives or friends. (2013 重庆卷) Dear Sir, How are doing?Hope everything goes well with you! Right now I am writing to you to tell you something about Yangtze Finless Porpoise. On account of lack of human protection, the number of Yangtze Finless Porpoise is becoming smaller and smaller, only 1000 left up to now. Most of them are dying out. Therefore, it’s time we took immediate measures to change the situation. So I hope WWF will do something to help Yangtze Finless Porpoise by setting up a special fund organization or drawing up some rules on how to protect it and so on. I will be looking forward to your reply. Thank you!

7


相关文章:
2014高考英语作文写作专项训练之说明文
2014 高考英语作文写作专项训练之说明文 (基于 2013 全国各地高考试题的分析整理)一、 文体题型概述 (一)统计分析 说明文是今年来高考英语书面表达比较常见的一种...
2014年全国高考英语作文真题汇总与范文集锦
·2014 高考英语作文真题及范文集锦 已为你拟好,不...[写作要求]1. 作文中可以使用亲身经历或虚构的故事...2014-08-湖南卷(信息说明文) 【科技创新例子,信息...
2015高考英语作文说明文练习
2015高考英语作文说明文练习_高考_高中教育_教育专区。...写作要点包括:简述 漫画内容;分析产生此现象的原因;...专题推荐 2014年高考语文新课标I卷... 2014年高考...
2015年湖南高考英语作文专项训练----说明文
2015年湖南高考英语作文专项训练---说明文_高考_高中...文档贡献者 liu55555yi 贡献于2014-12-26 ...高考英语说明文写作技巧 10页 免费 2012年高考英语...
高考英语概要写作之说明文
高考英语概要写作之说明文_高中作文_高中教育_教育专区。高考英语概要写作之说明文...“During 2014, we are sad to say this: 1, 215 rhinos were killed. ...
最新2014高考英语二轮复习方案专题说明文型基础写作 Word版含答案
英语作文:描写地点专题 3页 2下载券 2014高考英语二轮 说明文... 暂无评价 6...专题限时训练(三十一) [说明文型基础写作] (限时:每篇 15 分钟) A 以下是...
2014英语高考英语作文10篇范文
2014英语高考英语作文10篇范文_高考_高中教育_教育专区...说明文 【题目要求】 在日常生活中,因特网起着越来...写作提示: 1.本文从不同角度阐述英语的重要性,用...
2014高考英语话题作文写作指导+佳作欣赏(8)
社会现象,发表 自己的观点的夹叙夹议类文章居多,间或有描述性的说明文写作。 ...专题 2014年高考语文新课标I卷... 2014年高考理科数学新课... 2014高考英语...
高考英语作文说明文
高考英语作文说明文_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。英语四六级说明文写作指导 ...1/2 专题推荐 2014年高考语文新课标I卷... 2014年高考语文北京卷真... ...
高考英语 写作模板之说明文
高考英语说明文写作技巧 10页 免费 英语说明文作文题模版 5页 2下载券 提高英语...Step 4 Homework. 《学英语》28 期 读写任务 3 今日推荐 90份文档 2014...
更多相关标签:
高考英语写作专项训练 | 说明文专项训练 | 说明文阅读专项训练 | 说明文基础专项训练 | 说明文片段写作训练 | 说明文写作训练 | 说明文阅读专项训练1 | 初中语文写作专项训练 |