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2015年高中英语 Unit1 Tales of the unexplained Grammar and usage课件 牛津译林版必修2


Present perfect tense & Present prefect continuous tense

Look at the following sentences and try to explain why the tense is used in these sentences.

1. We have s

tudied English for about five years. 2. They have lived there since 1990. 3. She hasn’t finished her homework yet. 4. Eric has just come back. 5. How long have you been here?

1. The form of the present perfect tense:
We form the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle of the verb. have (has) +过去分词

2. The uses of the present perfect tense: Justin has disappeared, so Kelly is very sad.

Note:
We use the present perfect tense to talk about things that happened in the recent past, but are connected to the present.

I have not seen Justin since last Friday night.

Note: We also use the present perfect tense to talk about something that started in the past and is still happening now.

I haven’t seen you for ages. He has just gone out. It has been very cold lately. She has already finished her homework. He hasn’t seen her since the meeting.

Note:
We use the present perfect tense when the exact time of an action is not clear or important.

We use it with time expressions such as: already ever for just lately never recently since yet We use already for affirmative statements, yet for negative statements. We use for + a period of time, since + a point in time.

He has just gone out.(= He went out a few minutes ago.) I have just heard the news. (= Now I know the news.)
Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about actions that were completed only a short time ago.

e.g. They say that they have been to America many times.

Note:
We can also use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, that is, we use the present perfect tense with the time expressions once/twice/three times…

Look at the sentences and find the difference:
Tom has rung up three times this morning.

Now it is still in the morning.

Tom rang up three times this morning.

Now it is not still in the morning.

Note:
Actions occurring in an incomplete period might be indicated by today or this morning/afternoon/ evening/ week/ month/ year/ century or all day/night/week, all the time, always etc.

Point out what tense or tenses are used in the sentences and the reasons why they are used.

1. We have studied English for about five years. We began to study it five years ago. 2. They moved to the south in 1990 and have lived there since then.

3. Eric left home last year and has just come back. 4. They bought this house three years ago and they have lived here since then. 5. My brother went to see my grandpa last week. He has visited him three times this month.

Complete the sentences. seen my pen?” “Yes, I 1 “_____ Have you _____ saw it on your desk just now.” (see) ____ 2 “_____ had dinner?” “Yes, I ____ Have you ____ had it with Mary.” (have) 3 _____ come yet this Have the postman _____ morning? ____ come this morning? Did the postman _____ (come)

Note:

The present perfect tense is normally used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period, but with the past simple tense, we use time expressions which a fixed point in the past.

Bill has smoked since he left school.

He still smokes.

Bill smoked for six months.

It means that he stopped smoking then.

Note: Sometimes, however, the present perfect tense used for the action finishes at the time of speaking. e.g. It has been very cold lately but it’s just beginning to get warmer. On meeting someone, you may say: I haven’t seen you for ages. (But I see you now.)

Note: The present perfect tense used for a past action whose time is not definite and often has a result in the present.

Tom has had a bad car crash.
He’s probably still in hospital now.

Tom had a bad car crash.

He is probably out of hospital now.

You are writing about a friend’s travels in your diary. Complete your diary entry using the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

Answers for the diary:
(2) __________ saw (4) __________ loves (6) __________ has seen (8) __________ has travelled (10) hasn’t ____________ found (3) __________ has visited (5) hasn’t __________ visited (7) has ____________ never met (9) ____________ has found (11) Has, ___________ been

Look at the sentences:

Sorry. Have you been waiting long?

I have been waiting for an hour.

waiting

arrive

Past

One hour ago

Present

1. The form of the present perfect continuous tense:
We form the present perfect continuous tense with have/has been and the present participle of the verb. have (has) +been + doing

2. The uses of the present perfect continuous tense:
We sometimes use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that started in the past and are still continuing, or have just finished but are still connected to the present in some way.

This is the website of Dr Frank. Fill in the missing words, using the correct tense.
Answers of Dr Frank’s website:

have been talking (2) ______________ have been talking (3) ______________ (4)_______________ have been studying(5) _____________ have seen (6) have ______________ been writing

Present perfect or present perfect continuous tense? Li Jia has been reading a book about Stonehenge.

She is still reading the book.

Li Jia has read a book about Stonehenge.

She finished reading the book. She knows the content of the book now.

Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about an action completed in the recent past, and the present prefect continuous tense for an action that started in the past and is still happening.

I have visited Egypt twice this month.

I have been touring Egypt for two months.

Note: The present perfect continuous tense can’t be used with time expressions such as twice or how many times, because in this tense the action is continuous, not stopped and started again. We can use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, and the present perfect continuous tense for non-stop actions.

How long have you been swimming in the lake? How many times have you swum in the lake?

Note: We usually use the present perfect tense to ask questions beginning with how many/much, and the present perfect continuous tense to ask questions beginning with how long.

A state verb or an action verb? 1. I have had this camera for five years. state verb 2. I have taken photos of UFOs with this camera. action verb 3. I have been taking photos of UFOs with this camera. state verb

An action means something happening or changing. A state means something staying the same. Some examples of action verbs are do, go, and play. Some examples of state verbs are like, know and exist.

Note: We can use either a state verb or an action with the present perfect tense, but we usually can only use an action verb with the present perfect continuous tense. A state verb doesn’t mean an action, so it can’t be used in a continuous tense.

e.g. They’ve always had a big garden. How long have you known each other? He’s been in hospital since his accident.

I’ve never visited Paris. I’ve already been to Paris.

Note: We use the present perfect tense, not the present perfect continuous tense, with the words like always, never, yet, already and ever.

How long have you been learning English?

How long have you learnt English?

It has rained for a long time.

It has been raining for a long time.

Note: An action which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just finished can, with certain verbs, be expressed by either the present perfect or present perfect continuous. Verbs which can be used in this way include expect, hope, learn, lie, live, sleep, sit, study, wait, want, snow, etc.

Make up dialogues with the present perfect tense and the present perfect continuous tense.

Two friends are chatting. Read their conversation and circle the right words to complete it.

Answers of part A on page 11: (1) ______________ heard researching (3) been ______________ started (5) ______________ (7) ______________ read started (9) ______________ been making (11) _____________ (2) _____________ been doing done (4) _____________ achieved (6) _____________ (8) _____________ found (10) ____________ been drawing

This is the comic strip John sent to Mary. Write a story with the characters in it by answering the following questions. Use your imagination and be creative.

1. Where do you think the boy has been waiting? ________________________________ He has been waiting at a bus stop in _______________ a city. 2. What have the aliens been travelling by? What does it look like? ________________________________ They have been travelling in a UFO. It _______________ looks like a saucer.

3. Who else have the aliens talked to? They probably have talked to animals ________________________________ or plants on Earth as well as creatures ________________________________ on other plants. ________________________________ 4. What other planets have the aliens visited? ________________________________ They have visited Mars, Venus, Jupiter ______________________ and some other planets.

1. – I’m sorry, but I don’t quite follow you. Did you say you want to return on September 20? – Sorry, I _________ myself clear. We want to return on October 20. A. hadn’t made B. wouldn’t make C. don’t make D. haven’t made

2. Every year a flood of farmers arrive in Shenzhen for the money-making jobs they ______ before leaving their hometowns. A. promised B. were promised C. have promised D. have been promised

3. Mother wanted to be a good provider, a role she ________ since her marriage to father. A. shoulders B. shouldered C. is shouldering D. has been shouldering

4. The book has been translated into thirty language since it ________ on the market in 1973. A. had come B. has come C. came D. comes

5. I’m tired out. I _______ all afternoon and I don’t seem to have finished anything. A. shopped B. have shopped C. had shopped D. have been shopping

1. Finish Part C1 and C2 on page 88 in Workbook. 2. Review Task part.


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