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I 词汇及结构 1. would rather do sth 情愿做?. would rather sb did sth 情愿 sb 做? 情愿做?.而不愿意做?: do sth rather than do sth = prefer to do sth rather than do sth = prefer doing sth to doing sth I would rather stay at home today. 我今天宁愿待在家里。 I would rather you came here tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天来。 I would rather you hadn?t told me about it yesterday.我宁愿你昨天没有 告诉我关于它。 2.faith n. 信任,信仰 用 keep faith with 忠于信仰; 守信 break one's faith with sb. 对某人不守信 would rather do sth than do sth= would

I kept faith with him.我信守了对他的诺 言。 He who loses faith, loses all.失去信心的 人, 失去所有。 have faith in 相信, 信任 in good faith 老实地;诚恳地 adj. 忠诚的,可靠的 faithful

3.As there are so many different styles of Western art , it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. so+adj+a(an)+(单数可数) (+that?) so many/few +n (复数) (+ that?) so much/little (不可数) (+that?) such+adj.+n.(不可数)/ n (复数) eg.1) The book is ________interesting that I want to read it again. 2) It was ________a cold day that the ice in the river was nearly two feet thick. 3) It was _______cold a day that the ice in the river was nearly two feet thick. 4) There are _______many mistakes in your composition that I can?t understand it. 5) He has made ________rapid progress that he got the first in the exam. 6) _______that Maric was able to set up new branches elsewhere. (07 陕西) A. So successful her business was business C. So her business was successful business D. So was her successful B. So successful was her

B 4.consequently adv. 所以,因此 I overslept and ____ I was late for work. 我睡过头了,所以我上班迟到 了。 Mr Foster has never been to China. Consequently, he knows very little about it. 福斯特先生从未去过中国, 所以对中国了解得很少。 It rained that day and ___ the baseball game was called off. A. however D consequent adj. 作为结果的,随之发生的 as a consequence/result = in consequence = so She was found guilty, and lost her job in consequence (of it). 她被判有 罪,因而失去了工作 consequence n. 结果 as a consequence/result of = because of 5 .aim 1)n. 1 ○(C) 目标 without aim 无目的的/ 无目标的 achieve one?s aim miss one’s aim 打不中目标 B. still C. so D. consequently

2 ○(U) 对准, 瞄准 take aim at The hunter took aim at the lion sb/ sth’s aim is to do ??的目标是?. What is your aim in life? 你生活的目的是什么? The governor?s aim is to increase citizens? income. 2)v. 1 ○(以枪等) 对准,瞄准 aim at take aim at the target= aim at the target 瞄准靶子 The factory must aim at increasing its quality .他用枪瞄准老虎并开火, 但没打中 He aimed his gun at the tiger, fired but missed it. aimless a. 无目标的,无目的的 She led an aimless life. 2 ○打算,计划, 以??为目标, 立志做?? aim at doing = aim to do 瞄准, 力求做到,力争达到 Harry aims at becoming a doctor. or: Harry aims to become a doctor. 6.typical adj.典型的;具有代表性的;象征性的(representative) a typical character 典型人物 typical example 典型事例

He is a typical pupil; he is like most of the other pupils. 他是一个有代表性的学生,他和大多数其他学生一样。

adj. evident 明白的, 明显的(apparent) n. evidence 证据;证明 The applause made it evident that the play was a hit. 掌声显然表明该剧 是成功的。 It is evident (obvious) (to sb) that ….. It's evident that you are tired. 显然你累了。 in evidence = evident 明显的 7.realistic 现实主义的,逼真的,现实的 种更逼真的形式 realism 现实主义 idealism terrorist 恐怖分子 Socialism real Socialist adj. 真的 realize v. 实现 realist 现实主义 terrorism 恐怖主义 in a more realistic way 以一

8. During the Renaissance, new ideas and values gradually replaced those held in the Middle Ages. hold ?Ideas/ value 持有?的观点/ 价值观 I hold the view that the plan can?t work. adopt vt. 1).采取;采纳;吸收 After much deliberation, the president decided to adopt her suggestion. 再三考虑之后,我决定采纳她的建议。 2).过继,收养[(+as)]

Mr. Kern adopted the orphan as his own son. 克恩先生将那孤儿收养为 自己的儿子。 3).正式通过,接受 The agenda was adopted after some discussion.经过讨论,议事日程获得 通过。 adopted adj. 被收养的,被采用的 adopted child 11.possess 用作动词时,不能用于进行时。有多种不同的含义: 1) “有,拥有” 。如: The library possesses a number of the artist?s early works. 图书馆里藏 有那位画家的一些早期作品。 2) “具有??的特质” 。常见搭配有 be possessed of sth,意为“具有 某种品质或特征” 。如: I?m afraid he doesn?t possess a sense of humor. 恐怕他没有什么幽默 感。 He is possessed of great natural ability. 他很有天赋。 3) “支配,控制” 。如: He was possessed by the desire to be rich. [n]. possession 1 ○【c】财产,所有物(常用复数) The ring is one of her most valuable possessions. 这只戒指是他最珍贵 的财产之一。 personal possessions 个人财产

He lost all his possessions in the fire. 2 ○【u】占有,拥有 take possession of 占领,夺取 占有

come into possession of in possession of in the possession of

(表主动)占有 (表被动) ?被占有

He is in ~ of the house. 他拥有这套房子。 The house is in the ~ of him. 这套房子在他的占有之下。 -- Does the young man standing there _____the company? -- No. The company is _____ his father. A.have ~ of; in ~ of B.in ~ of ; in the ~ of C.take ~ of ; in the ~ of D.have ~ of ; in ~ of

9.convince convince sb. to do sth=convince sb of sth.说服某人做? Convince sb that 使某人确信某事 He convinced me of his sincerity. 他使我确信他的真诚。 I was convinced that he was sincere. Your mistakes convinced me that you hadn?t studied your lesson. 你的错 误使我确信你没有学习功课。

convince vt. “使确信;使信服” convince sb. of sth. / that ... Scientists are convinced _____ the possible effect of laughter _____ physical and mental health. A. of; at B. by; in C. of; on D. on; at

by coincidence 碰巧, 由于巧合 what a coincidence!多么凑巧的事情啊! What a coincidence to meet you here. 真巧在这儿碰到你。 I met him by coincidence. I didn?t know he was here. 10.a great/ good deal 大量; 大量 Ever since the reform and opening, China has changed a great deal. (adv. 修饰 v.) A great deal has been studied and this is considered the best way to solve the difficult problem.(n.) He ran a great deal faster than me.(修饰比较级) a great/good deal of 为 adj,修饰[U] A great deal of money was spent on the project. 那个项目花费了大量金 钱。 1)修饰可数名词: many a few a good/great many A great many buildings have been built along the street.

a large/ big/ great/ / small number of Many a +单数名词 More than one +单数名词 2)修饰不可数名词: much a good/great deal of a large amount of (谓语动词用单数) large amounts of (谓语动词用复数) 3)修饰可数和不可数名词 a lot of/lots of plenty of a large quantity of (谓语动词用单数) large quantities of (谓语动词用复数) 练习: 1.____ the students in our school go to college in their teens. A good many C. A great deal of B. A great many of D. A lot of

2. He is ____ better now. Don?t worry about him. A.more C. a number of B. a great deal of D.a great deal

13.The impressionists were the first artists to paint outdoors. He is always the last one to leave the classroom.



v.①企图,试图;努力 ②试图,尝试:努力去执行,做或完成 attempt doing 反复尝试做 attempt to do 企图做 attempt to do/doing = try to do/doing The second question was so difficult; I didn?t even attempt it. 第二道题 太难了,我连试都没试。 I attempted to speak but was told to be quiet. 我想开口说几句,但有人 叫我别做声。 I attempted to read the entire novel in one sitting. We attempted the difficult maneuver without assistance. 1 2 n. ○企图或努力 ○袭击;攻击 an attempt on someone's life.对某人生命的攻击 Shelly had prepared carefully for her biology examination so that she could be sure of passing it on her first_________ . A) intention desire B) attempt C) purpose D)

make an attempt to do sth at doing sth

She made an attempt to cook the dinner. 她试着做这顿饭。 The prisoner made an attempt to escape/ at escaping but failed. at one’s attempt one’s first attempt 练习: 1) 他试图行走直到摔倒。 He______________________________ 2) 他参加过考试,可是失败了。 He________________________ but failed. 3) 我企图说话,可是有人要我安静点。 I ________________ but was told to be quiet. attempted walking until he fell over. attempted the examination attempted to speak 在 sb 尝试下 初次尝试

18.On the other hand 另一方面,相当于一个副词。常与 on one hand 连用。 On one hand??on the other hand 一方面??另一方面 This job is not well paid, but on the other hand, I don?t have to work long hours. On one hand, I need a computer, but on the other hand, I don?t have enough money.

At hand 在手边,在附近 By hand 用手的,手工的 Go hand in hand with 与??共同行动 19.Predict 1)v.预言,预测 后面加名词做宾语或接 that 从句/wh-从句。 Nobody can predict what will happen in the future. It is still not possible to accurately predict the occurrence of earthquakes. 现在还不可能准确预测地震的发生。 2) n. Prediction 预言,预测 Her prediction turned out to be correct.她的预言证明是正确的。 20.Specific 明确的,详尽的,具体的,特有的 Can you be a bit more specific when you talk about your plan? 当你谈及你的计划时,你能说的再具体点吗? Each organ in our body has its specific function. 我们体内的每个器官都有自己独特的作用。 This kind of disease is specific to houses.这种病只有马才会得。 21.figure 1) 外形;体形;人影 I saw a figure in the darkness. 2) 体态;风姿 She has a slender figure. 3)人物;名人 He has become a figure known to everyone. 4) 数字 Where did you get those figures? 5)His work now commands huge figures.

22.delicate He is a delicate child.纤弱的,娇弱的,瘦弱的 Be careful with those wine cups—they are very delicate.容易的 In such a delicate situation I have to weigh my words. 需要小心处理的; 微妙的;棘手的 在这样微妙的情形下,我必须权衡一下我的话。 What a delicate work of art!精妙的 delicate china.精美的瓷器 23.1)aggressive adj. 敢作敢为的;有闯劲的;侵略性的;好斗的 He is very aggressive. 他生性好斗。 We regarded the Iraq War as an aggressive one. 我们认为伊拉克战争是 侵略战争。 an aggressive salesman 一干劲很大的售货员 aggressive weapons 攻击性武器 2)aggressively adv. 气势汹汹地 3)aggression n.侵略(行动)aggressor n. 侵略者 练习: If you want to become a successful businessman, you must ______ _______ . 如果你想做一个成功的商人,你必须积极进取。 _____ __________ must be destroyed. 必须要销毁攻击性的武器。 be aggressive

Aggressive arms 24.In the flesh 活生生,本人,亲自 Flesh n.肌肉; 肉 Have you ever seen Jay Chou in the flesh?你见过周杰伦本人吗? He wouldn’t believe until he saw in the flesh 他直到亲眼目睹才相信。 Flesh and blood 肉体,血肉之躯 Though he is a hero, he is still flesh and blood. Lose flesh 减肥 Gain/put on flesh 增肥 Flesh-eating 食肉的 25.preference - prefer 1)更加的喜爱,偏爱[U][C][(+for)] A window seat is my preference.我喜欢靠窗的座位。 We dress simply by preference.首先, 最好 2)偏爱的事物(或人)[C] Which is your preference, tea or coffee?你喜欢喝哪一样,茶还是咖啡? 3)偏袒[U][(+for)] Parents should not show preference for any one of their children. 父母不应流露出对任何一个孩子的偏心。 4)优先(权);优惠权[U][C] in preference to 优先于 Have a preference for 偏爱 I have a preference for classic music.我更喜欢古典音乐。

We had a preference for sweet food.我们特别喜欢吃甜食. in preference to? 优先于

I?d choose the small car in preference to the larger one. 我宁可选择那辆 小的汽车而不要那辆大的。 She chose to learn the violin in preference to the piano. 她愿学小提琴而 不学钢琴. 26.Appeal vi. 1)呼吁,恳求 appeal to sb for sth. He appealed to me for help. 2)诉诸,求助[(+to)] We will appeal to a variety of sources of information. 3)有吸引力,迎合爱好[W][(+to)] The idea appealed to Mary. 4)【律】上诉[(+to/against)] He appealed against the five-year sentence he had been given. 27.fragile adj.精细的;易碎的;脆弱的; As he broke up with his girlfriend, his heart was fragile. 由于他同女朋友分手了,他的心很脆弱。 Reputation n. 1 ○名誉,名声[(+for)] The store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing. 该店买卖公平,声 誉极佳。

He has a reputation for cheating in the exam.他以考试作弊而享有盛名。 have a reputation 享有盛名 2 ○好名声,声望;信誉 This restaurant has a fine reputation. 这家餐厅信誉很好。 Cheating at the game ruined that player‘s reputation. 比赛时作弊败坏 了那位选手的声望。 live up to one’s reputation 不负盛名 lose one’s reputation win a high reputation 失去盛名; 赢得很高的声誉

You must live up to your promise. 你必须实践自己的诺言。 They are always exhorted to deliver results and to live up to their parents' high expectations 他们无时无刻被提醒要考取好成绩,实现父母对他们的高度期望。 28.、The museum displays more than just the visual delights of art. 博物馆展示的不仅仅是视觉上的乐趣。 more than+名词意为 “不仅仅” more than just 相当于 not only, not just , 的意思。如: Jason is more than a lecturer; he is a writer, too. 詹森不仅是一名讲师, 他还是一个作家。 Modern science is more than a large amount of information.现代科学不 仅仅是大量的信息。

1) more than+数词, “超过” 意为 相当于 over, 其反义词组为 less than。 如 There are more than two hundred people in the park. 公园里有 200 多 人。 2)“more than+形容词/副词”是“很”或“非常”的意思。如: I am more than content with what you said. 我对你的讲话十分满意。 She was dressed more than simply. 她穿着太朴素了。 3) 在 “more ... than ...” 结构中, “more” 肯定 后面的内容而否定 “than” 后面的部分,常译为“是?? 而不是??” 或 “与其说??不如 说??” 。如: Hearing the loud noise, the boy was more surprised than frightened. 听到这巨大的声响,男孩与其说是害怕不如说是感到很惊讶。 句型: 1. The Impressionists were_________________________________. 印象派画家是第一批室外写景的画家。(P2) 序数词 the first/the second/the last(+ sb.) + to do 是一种常见结构, 表示“最早、第二、最后做某事的人” ,其中的不定式作后置定语; 如果主语和不定式之间有被动关系,不定式应使用被动结构。 My monitor is always the first to come to school and the last to leave. 我的班长总是第一个到校、最后一个离开。 To tell the truth, he was the last person to be met with by the manager. 说实话,他是最后一个被经理接见的人。

She was the first woman to win the gold medal in the Olympic Games. 她是在奥运会上第一个获得金牌的女选手。 2. __________________so many great works of art from the late 19th century to 21st century are housed in the same museum. 令人吃惊的是, 在同一家博物馆里竟能容纳下 19 世纪后期到 21 世纪 的如此众多的名家巨作。 It is amazing/surprising/astonishing/shocking that...是一种常见句型,表 示“……令人吃惊、震惊、惊讶等”,其中 it 是形式主语,that 引导名 词 性 从 句 作 句 子 的 真 正 主 语 。 这 种 句 型 可 以 用 to one's amazement/surprise/astonishment/shock 这些短语作状语来改写。 It is surprising that children who are seven years old don't know how to brush one's teeth. 令人吃惊的是,七岁的孩子还不知道怎么刷牙 To our shock, the terrorist explosion caused over one hundred deaths. 令我们震惊的是,这次恐怖爆炸造成了一百多人死亡。

语法: 虚拟语气 1.虚拟语气用于条件句、其它句型中 与 现 在 事 实 相 反 时 从 句 用 过 去 时 (did/were) , 主 句 用 would/should/could/might+动词原形 How nice it ________ if I ________ a sister like you!

A.was; had

B.would be; had had

C.would have been; had

D.would be; had 【解析】 题干表达与现在事实相反的内容,根据规则选 D 项 2. 与 过 去 事 实 相 反 时 从 句 用 过 去 完 成 时 (had done) , 主 句 用 would/should/could/might+ have done —Were you in time for the lecture? —If I ________ told earlier, I would have. A.had been B.was C.were to be D.should be

选 A。 由问句看出与过去事实相反,因而从句中使用过去完成时。 3. 与将来事实相反时, 从句中可用三种形式, 即动词的过去式/should +动词原形/were to+动词原形。 This printer is of good quality. If it ________ break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense. A.would B.should C.could D.might 分析:后一句实际上使用了与将来事实相反的虚拟语气,从句中使用 should 表示“假如;万一” ________ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. A.Would you be B.Should you be C.Could you be D.Might you be 【解析】 前一分句实际上使用的是虚拟语气,与将来事实相反从句 中使用 If you should be fired,可以省略 if 而把 should 提前到主语之

前。 4. 虚拟语气用于错综时间条件句:条件句和主句的动作发生的时间 不一致, 主句和从句的谓语要根据各自不同的时间选择适当的动词形 式。 5. 虚拟语气用于含蓄条件句:句中没有条件从句,其内容暗含在短 语或上下文中。 But for the help of my English teacher, I________the first prize in the English Writing Competition. A . would not win D.would have won but for(要不是??)引导的短语在句中作状语时,句子的谓语部分常 用虚拟语气;此处表示与过去事实相反,因而使用“would 6. wish 后的宾语从句中:与现在事实相反时用 were 或动词的一般过 去时;与过去事实相反时用 had+过去分词;与将来事实相反时用 would/could/might+动词原形。 How I wish every family ________ a large house with a beautiful garden! A.has B.had C.will have D.had had B . would not have won C . would win

wish 后的从句如果表示与现在事实相反,应使用动词的过去形式。 7. 在 suggest, order, insist, demand, require, desire, command, request, recommend 等表示建议、命令、要求、愿望的词后面的宾语从句中; 在与 suggestion,order,request,advice,demand 等有关的表语从句、 同位语从句中;以及在 It +be+ suggested/ordered/requested/ insisted

/desired/required that...句型中用“(should)+动词原形” 。 The doctor recommended that you ________ swim after eating a large meal. A.wouldn't B.couldn't C.needn't D.shouldn't

recommend 表示“建议”时,其后的宾语从句中的谓语用“should + 动词原形”,should 可省略。 . His suggestion is that the harvest ________ in before the rainy season comes. A.get B.should get C.be got D.will be got

suggestion 之后的 that 从句是表语从句,其中谓语用“should+动词 原形” ,should 省略。 8. 在 It's (high) time that...句型中,谓语动词用过去时或 should+动词 原形(should 不能省略),表示“早就该??” It's no use envying others their success. It's time that you ________ hard. A.must work B.were to work C.work D.worked

It's time that...句型中使用动词的一般过去时 9. as if/as though(好像,似乎)之后的方式状语从句中;if only 句型表 示“要是……多好啊”中,与现在事实相反时动词用一般过去时;与过 去 事 实 相 反 时 用 had + 过 去 分 词 ; 与 将 来 事 实 相 反 时 用 should/would/could/might+动词原形。 When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ________. A . breaks B . has broken C . were broken

D.had been broken

Unit 2 词汇和结构: 1.convey v. 传达;运送 Others try to ________certain emotions. 某种情感的。(P10) Please convey my best wishes to her. 请代我向她表示最良好的祝 愿。(朗文 P413) convey ...to... 把??运到?? convey ...to sb. 向某人传达/表达(思想、感情等) convey one's feelings 表达感情 2. transform v. 转化;转换;改造;变换 Getting that new job has completely transformed her.她得到了那份 新工作以后,人全变了。(朗文 P1871) In only 20 years the country has been transformed into an advanced industrial power. 这个国家只用了 20 年时间就变成了一个先进的工业强国。(朗文 P1871) transform...into 把某人/物改变成?? transform ...from 从??中转变、转化?? 3. appropriate adj. 适当的;正当的 而有些诗则是为了传达









___________ending. Your clothes are hardly appropriate for a job interview. 你的服装不太适合求职面试时穿。(朗文 P76) It is appropriate that he (should) make an apology to us. 他向我们道歉是合适的。(文馨 P87) The house is not really suitable for a large family. 这所房子确实不适合大家庭居住。 be appropriate to/for... 对??适合;适宜 It is appropriate/proper that... (should) do... ??是合适的 be suitable for/to... 适合的;适宜的 be fit for... 适合;胜任?? 注意 appropriate 指适合于特殊的人及场合、地位等;suitable 指适

合某种情况或安排;fit 指大小适合或胜任某职位;appropriate 等于 very proper。 4. exchange n./v. 交换;交流;调换;兑换 If there had not been an __________programme, he would not have found a sponsor to help him study abroad. 要是没有一个交流项目的话, 他就不可能找到赞助者帮助他到国外学 习。(P13) He gave me an apple in exchange for a piece of cake. 他给我一个苹果,来换我的一块蛋糕。(朗文 P589)

I exchanged seats with Bill. 我和比尔换了座位。(朗文 P589) exchange sth. for sth. 拿??交换?? exchange sth. with sb. 与某人交换某物 exchange money 兑换钱币 in exchange for... 交换;调换 do an exchange 作一下交换 cultural exchange 文化交流 exchange rate/programme 汇率/ 交流项目 5.sponsor n. 赞助人;主办者;倡议者 v. 发起;举办;倡议;赞 助 The baseball match is being sponsored by a cigarette company. 棒球赛是由一家烟草公司赞助举行的。(朗文 P1702) If I'm going to go and live in the US, I must get an American sponsor. 如果我去美国并在那里居住,必须有美国人作担保。(朗文 P1701) sponsor the celebration 主办庆祝会 sponsor sb. 资助某人 sponsor a plan 倡议计划 become one's sponsor 成为某人的赞助人/担保人 6. load n. 负担;负荷物 v. 装载;给??负荷

The good news has taken a load off my mind. 这好消息使我如释重负。(文馨 P1098) Supporting her family has been a heavy load for her. 养家对她来说是很大的负担。(文馨 P1098) take a load off one's mind 使卸下心上重负;使某人如释重负 have a load on one's mind 放心不下 carry a heavy load 负重载 loads of= a load of 许多?? 7. take it/things easy 轻松;不紧张;从容 Just take it easy and tell us what happened. 别急,告诉我们发生了什么事。(朗文 P597) There's no need to rush back— just take your time. 不要急着赶回来,——慢慢来吧。(朗文 P2103) take one's time 别着急,慢慢来 take sb./sth. seriously 认真对待某人/事 take...for granted 对??想当然,认为??理所当然 8. run out of 用完,用尽 The truck has run out of gas again. 卡车的油又用完了。(朗文 P1731) Our supplies soon ran out. 我们的补给很快就耗尽了。(朗文 P1731) run out 用完,耗尽

give out(物)用完,耗尽;(人)筋疲力尽;发出;分发;宣布 use up 用完;用光 run out=give out 是不及物短语, 通常以物作主语; out of =use run up 是及物短语,多以人作主语 9. make up of 构成,组成(用于被动) Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is a poem made up of five lines

Women make up only 30% of the workers. 女性占劳动力的 30%。(朗文 P1189) I'm trying to make up for the time lost while I was away. 我正在设法弥补我不在期间耽误的时间。(朗文 P1189) We didn't make it to the party in the end. 我们最终还是没能参加那个聚会。(朗文 P1187) be made out of 由??制成;用??改造而成 make up 组成;编造;化妆 make up for 弥补?? be made of/from 由??制成 be made into 把??制成 be made in(某物)产于某地 make it 获得成功;准时到达 make out 看清;分清;辨认清楚 make the bed 整理床铺

10. try out 测试;试验 I think I will __________his way too some time. 我想将来某个时候也尝试一下他的方法。(P15) The idea sounds fine, but we need to try it out in practice. 这个主意听起来不错,但我们要在实践中试验一下。(朗文 P1887) They were let out of prison last week. 他们上周从监狱里放出来了。(朗文 P1000) I am counting on you to support me; don't let me down. try out for... 参加竞争?? try on 试穿 try one's best 尽力 try one's luck 试试运气 try one's skill/strength 考验自己的技术/体力 let out 发出;放走;泄露;加宽;加大衣服 let in 让??进来;放进 let down 放下;使失望 let off 开(枪);放(烟火);释放;让某人下车 句型 1.There are various _______________people write poetry. 人们写 诗有着各种各样的理由。(P10) 用法:...reason(s) why 意为“??的原因” ,why 等于 for which 引 导定语从句,修饰先行词 reason。reason 后也可以接 that 引导定语

从句,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语;that 也可以引导同位语从句, 说明 reason 的内容。 The reason why he died young was his inattention to health. 他英年早逝的原因是他不注意自己的健康。 I don't know the reason why he failed the final chemistry exam. 我不知道他期末化学考试不及格的原因。 We don't believe the reason that you gave us. 我们不相信你给我们的理由。 We are not going for the simple reason that we can't afford it. 我们不去的理由很简单,我们负担不起。 【对比】 下列句型: This is why... 这就是??的原因。(强调结果) This is because... 这是因为??。(强调原因) The reason why...is/was that...(??的原因是??)句型中,一般用 that 引导表语从句,而不用 because。 单项填空 (1)He didn't go by bike with me. That's ________ there was something wrong with his bike. A.because 2. With choose so B.why many C.how D.when different forms of A poetry to

from students may eventually want to write poems of

their own.

有了这么多可供选择的诗歌类型,学生们最终也许想自己作诗了。 (P11) 用法:句中 with 结构表示原因,置于句首,可替换为 because 引导 的原因状语从句,即等于“Because there are so many different forms of poetry to choose from,,该结构中的不定式表示动作尚未 ” 发生,有时这一结构还可以表示条件。 With so much homework to do this evening, I can't go to the concert. 因为今晚有很多作业要做,我不能去参加音乐会。 With a local guide to help us, we will have no difficulty in finding the temple. 如果有一名当地的导游帮助我们,我们找到那座庙宇将不会有困难。 单项填空 (2)With so many tough problems ________, the manager feels a little worried. A.solve B.solving C.to solve D.settled

语法: it 用法与强调句 1. 用作形式主语,代替由不定式、动名词或各种从句所表示的真正 主语。 ________ worries me the way he keeps changing his mind.

A.This B.That C.What D.It 【解析】 it 代替后面的名词短语 the way...作形式主语。 2.作形式宾语,代指不定式、动名词或从句所表示的真正宾语 He didn't make ________ clear when and where the meeting would be held. A.this B.that C.it D.these

【解析】 it 代替后面的 when and where 从句作形式宾语。 The chairman thought ________ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. A.that B.it C.this D.him

【解析】 it 代替后面的不定式作形式宾语。 3. 表示“喜欢、恨”等心理方面的动词,后面接 it,然后再跟从句, it 代指从句所表达的内容。 此类动词有 hate, dislike, enjoy, appreciate 等。 I'd appreciate ________ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. A.that B.it C.this D.you

【解析】 it 代指后面的 if 从句所表达的内容。 4. it 用来指代上文提到的事物、情况等 Being a parent is not always easy, and being the parent of a child with special needs often carries with ________ extra stress. A.it B.them C.one D.him

【解析】 it 代指 being the parent of a child with special needs 这 一意义。 5.强调句的基本句型:It is /was +被强调部分+that+从句。被强调 部分是人时可用 who/whom 代替 that,强调时间、地点、原因状语 时,通常只使用 that,而不使用 when,where,why。被强调的部分 一般是主语、宾语、各种状语。用 is 还是 was 取决于原句谓语动词 的 时态,如原句是现在或将来各种时态,用 It is...that...;如原句是过去 时态,则用 It was ... that...。 It was along the Mississippi River________ Mark Twain spent much of his childhood. A.how B.which C.that D.where

【解析】 分析句子结构看出,题干使用的是强调句型,因而使用连 词 that。 6. 强调句的复杂结构形式: ① 强调句用于 not...until 结构:It is/was +not until...+that +其他 部分。 ②强调句用于一般疑问句:Is/Was+被强调部分+that+其他部分。 ③强调句用于特殊疑问句:被强调的通常是疑问代词或疑问副词,其 强调结构是:疑问词(被强调部分)+is/was+ it+ that+其他部分? It was not until midnight ________ they reached the camp site. A.that B.when C.while D.as

【解析】 句中强调了时间状语 not until,连词使用 that。

Unit 3 词汇: 1.abuse n./v. 滥用;虐待 The officials are always reminded not to abuse their power. 官员们总是被提醒不要滥用权力。 It's our duty to provide help for the abused children. 给被虐待的儿童提供帮助是我们的职责 drug abuse 吸毒 be badly abused 被虐待 abuse of power 滥用权力 personal abuse 人身攻击 shower abuse on sb. 大骂某人 receive abusive treatment 受到虐待 单项填空 (1)—What are you worried about? —The fact that many children are still being ________. A.managed B.abused C.questioned D.founded B

2. stress n. 压力;重音 v. 加压力于;使紧张 He laid particular stress on the need for discipline. 他特别强调纪律的重要性。(朗文 P1979)

She has been under a lot of stress since her mother's illness. 她自从母亲病倒后一直忧心忡忡。 (朗文 P1979 lay/put/place stress on 把重点放在??上;强调 under stress 在压力之下 under the stress of 为??所迫 in the stress of the moment 一时紧张 stress the importance of 强调??的重要性 单项填空 Things can easily go wrong when people are under ________. A.stress B.weight C.load D.strength 3. ban v. 禁止;取缔 n. 禁令 Do you think smoking should be_________ 你认为应该禁止吸烟 吗?(P17) After the accident, he was banned from driving. 事故发生后,他被禁止 驾车。(朗文 P110) There is a ban on smoking in the theatre. 剧场内严禁吸烟。 be banned from doing sth. 被禁止做某事 there be a ban on... 禁止;禁令 declare a ban on... 宣布禁止?? put a ban on 禁止?? remove the ban on 解除对??的禁令 under a ban 受禁止;被查禁

4. quit v. 停止(做某事);离开 I was addicted in all three ways, so it was very difficult to____. I wish you would all quit complaining. 我希望你们都别抱怨了。(朗文 P1611) He was glad to be quit of the troublesome job. 他很高兴能摆脱那个麻烦的工作。 (朗文 P1611) quit doing sth. 停止做某事 quit office/one's job 离职 quit oneself of sth.=be quit of sth. 摆脱某事 stop doing sth. 停止做某事 give up doing sth. 放弃/停止做某事 get rid of 摆脱?? rid oneself of 使自己摆脱?? 注意 quit 后接动名词,但不接不定式 单项填空 (4)He decided to ________ the position after quarreling with the manager. A.stop B.block C.loosen D.quit

5. effect n. 结果;效力 When I was young, I didn't know much about the harmful _________of smoking. 在我年轻的时候,关于吸烟的危害我知道得并不多。(P18)

The advertising campaign didn't have much effect on sales. 广告宣传对销售影响不大。(朗文 P548) The old system of taxation will remain in effect until next May. 旧税制在明年五月前仍然有效。(朗文 P548) have a good/bad effect on 对……有好/坏的影响 be of no effect 没效果;无用 take effect(法律)生效;(药)奏效 bring/put ...into effect 实施 come/go into effect 生效 in effect 事实上;在实施;生效 side effect 副作用 完成句子 The new medicine quickly ________(奏效). What a teacher says often________ (很有影响) junior students. 6. desperate adj. 不顾一切的;绝望的 If you feel_________,you might like to talk to a doctor or chemist about something to help you. 如果你的确没办法,你还可以找一个医生或药剂师来谈谈,帮你想点 办法。(P19) They were sold by families desperate for money to buy food. 它们是由极需钱来购买食品的家庭出售的。(双解 P551) be desperate for 极需要??;极向往??

be desperate to do sth. 非常想做某事 do sth. desperately 拼命地做某事 in desperation 绝望地;不顾一切地;拼命地 介词填空 Having been out of work for three years, she is desperate ________ work. Knowing his son was locked in the burning house, he kicked the door ________ desperation. 7. disappointed adj. 失望的;沮丧的 Do not be_____________ if you have to try several times before you finally stop smoking. 即使你非得经过多次戒烟才能最后把它戒掉,你也不要失望。(P19) She was deeply disappointed about/at losing the race. 比赛输了,她很沮丧。(朗文 P484) I was disappointed to hear that they weren't coming. 听说他们不来我很失望。(朗文 P484) be disappointed about/at/in... 对??感到失望 be disappointed to do 做某事失望 be disappointed that... 感到失望?? be disappointing 令人失望的 disappoint sb. 使某人失望 to one's disappointment 令人失望的是

a disappointment 令人失望的人/事 运用上述词汇完成下列情景 (9)Today, I went downtown with several of my good friends. However, the weather was really ①__________ because it was raining. I told my friends that we wouldn't be ②________. Arriving at a park, we were ③ ________ to find it was not open today. Then we left the park to a nearby restaurant for lunch. To our ④________, the restaurant was closed, too. We had no choice but go home. What a ⑤________ outing it was! 【答案】 ① disappointing ② disappointed ③ disappointed ④



8 ashamed adj. 感到惭愧;羞耻的 If you weaken and have a cigarette, do not feel_________. 如果你因意志削弱而又抽烟了,也不要觉得难为情。(P19) Barry was ashamed that he had lost his temper. 巴里因自己发脾气感到很惭愧。(朗文 P88) I was ashamed of having lied to my mother. 我为自己向母亲撒谎感到内疚。(朗文 P88) be ashamed that... 对??感到羞耻;感到羞愧的是 feel/be ashamed of 对??感到惭愧 feel/be ashamed for sb. 替某人感到羞愧 be ashamed to do sth. 耻于做某事 be ashamed of oneself 为自己感到惭愧

It's a shame that... ??遗憾 What a shame that... ??多么遗憾 She felt ________ of doing that and tears ran down her cheeks. A.shame B.ashamed 9.due to 由于?? The flight was cancelled due to the fog. 航班因雾停飞。 The meeting isn't due to start until three. 会议预定要到 3 点才开始。(朗文 P584) Have you been paid the money that is due to you? 你得到应得的钱了吗?(朗文 P584) be due to do sth. 预期做某事 be due for sth. 应有;得到 be due to (doing) sth./ sb. 归因于(做)某事/某人 注意 due to 表示原因时只用来作状语或表语,不置于句首。 (Her efforts led to her success while his failure ____________ his laziness and carelessness. A.leads to B.due to C.led to D.was due to A C.sorry D.disappointed B

10. be/become addicted to 对……有瘾 During adolescence I also smoked

and_______________________________ 当我还是一个十几岁的孩子时,我也吸烟,而且还上了瘾。(P18)

It doesn't take long to become addicted to these drugs. 服用这些毒品不用多久就会上瘾。(朗文 P17) Never addict yourself to so much online games. 千万不要迷恋于如此多的网上游戏。 addict oneself to 沉迷于;醉心于 addiction to... 对??上瘾;习惯于 a video game addict 游戏迷 注意 be addicted to 中的 to 是介词,后接名词或动名词。 11. be/get/become accustomed to 习惯于…… This means that after a while your body

______________________having nicotine in it. 这就是说,过一段时间以后,你的身体习惯了香烟里的尼古丁。(P18) I'm not accustomed to getting up so early. 我不习惯这么早起床。(朗文 P14) It took a while for me to accustom myself to all the new rules and regulations. 我花了一段时间才逐渐适应了所有的新规章制度。(朗文 P14) accustom sb./ oneself to (doing) sth. 使某人/自己习惯于(做)某事 be/get/become used to (doing) sth. 习惯于(做)某事 单项填空 (13)—Sorry to have kept you waiting. —It doesn't matter. I'm accustomed to ________.



C.be waiting D.have waited

12. decide on 对??作出决定;选定 ____________a day to quit. 确定一个开始戒烟的日子。(P19) I'm eighteen now and I have a right to decide my own future. 我现在 18 岁了,有权决定自己的未来。(朗文 P485) What was it that finally decided you to give up your job? 是什么使你最终决定放弃那份工作的?(朗文 P485) decide sth. 决定某事 decide what/when/how to do... 决定什么/何时/如何做?? decide (not) to do sth. 决定(不)做某事 decide sb. to do sth. 使某人决定做某事 It is decided that... 决定?? make a decision 作出决定 make up one's mind (to do) 决心(做某事) 介、副词填空 They have decided ________ the date for the wedding. At last she made ________ her mind to tell her parents the truth. 13. feel like (doing) 想要(做)??;感觉自己像 Every time you __________smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a nonsmoker. 每当你想要吸烟的时候,你就提醒自己你已经是不吸烟的人了 Do you feel like a cup of coffee?

你想来一杯咖啡吗?(朗文 P624) I don't feel myself today. 我今天不舒服。 feel sorry for 为??感到难过、遗憾 feel at home 感到自在;不拘束 feel badly about 对??感觉难过 feel like oneself 心情好;自觉健康 feel as if... 感觉好像、仿佛 feel one's way 摸索着前进 You should make your guests feel _at_______ home. You may not feel ___like_____ going to bed on such a beautiful night. 14. in spite of 不顾;不管 ______________all his efforts he failed. 是失败了。 We went out in spite of the rain. 尽管下着雨,我们还是出去了。(朗文 P1921) She loved her husband in spite of the fact that he drank too much. 虽然丈夫喝酒很凶,但她仍然爱着他。(朗文 P1921) despite=in spite of 尽管??(后接名词、代词) despite/in spite of the fact... 尽管,不管(同位语从句) regardless of... 不管,不顾?? 注意 despite 和 in spite of 是介词;而 although 和 though 是连词, 引导从句。 尽管他已经竭尽全力,他还

__ C ______, she came to school to attend the important lecture. A.Though being ill D.Despite he was ill 15.take/run a risk/ risks 冒险 We must stop the rumours; the firm's reputation is at risk. 我们必须制止这些谣传,公司的名誉有受损的危险。(朗文 P1705) There was some risk that fire would break out again. 大火有再次烧起来的危险。(朗文 P1705) at risk 处境危险;遭受危险 at the risk of 冒??的危险 at one's own risk 自担风险 at all risks 无论冒什么危险 run/take the risk of 冒??的危险 risk it 冒险试一试 risk doing sth. 冒险做某事 He got well prepared for the job interview, for he couldn't risk ________ the good opportunity. A.to lose B.losing C.to be lost D.being lost B.Although illness C.In spite of illness

16. get into 陷入;染上(习惯);开始对??感兴趣 Of course the best way to deal with these drugs is not to _get into the habit in the first place!当然, 解决吸毒问题的最佳方法就是首先不要染 上这一习惯。

I'm sorry if I got you into trouble. 如果我给你添了麻烦,我十分抱歉。(朗文 P725) Our teacher is clever, but not very good at getting his ideas across get into trouble 陷入困境 get into the habit of 染上??的习惯 get into panic 陷入恐慌 get (sth.) across (to sb.) (使某事)为人理解 get along/on with 进展;相处 get over 克服 get around/about 四处走动 get through 接通;完成 get in 收割;募集(捐款) 单项填空 I used to quarrel a lot with my parents, but now we ________ fine. A.look out B.stay up C.carry on D.get along

句型: 1. I _________so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. 我的确希望你把烟戒掉,因为我希望你能像我这样活的健康长寿。 (P18) “do/does /did+动词原形”这一结构表示“的确;确实;真的” ,用

于肯定句和祈使句中,起加强语气的作用,有人称和时态的变化。 Do come early tomorrow morning. 明天早晨一定要早来。 The manager does think highly of your suggestion. 经理确实很看重你的建议。 I did tell the monitor about the exact result of the test. 2. Do not be disappointed if you have to try several times before you finally stop smoking. 即使你非得经过多次戒烟才能最后把它戒掉,你也不要失望。(P19) before 引导时间状语, 除了表示 “在??之前” 以外, 还可以表示 “?? (之后)才;(不多久)就;不等??就” 。多用于下列句型中: It will take/takes/took sb.some time+ before 花费时间才?? It is/was long before... 过了??时间才 It won't be long before... 不久就?? It will be long + before... 过??多久才 It won't be long before you recover from the illness. 不用多久你就会痊愈。 It will take three or five years before the city is rebuilt. 需要三至五年时间这个城市才能重建。 单项填空 The American Civil War lasted four years ________ the North won in the end.

A.after B.before C.when D.then

语法: 常用并列连词 1. 表示并列的连词:and,as well as,not only...but also,both...and, neither...nor。 The artist was born poor, ________ poor he remained all his life. A.and B.or C.but D.so

【解析】 前后句之间是并列关系,因而使用 and 连接。 2. 表示 转折意 义的 连词 : but , while( 而,然 而) , whereas( 而) , nevertheless(然而)。 —I wonder how much you charge for your services. — The first two are free ________the third costs D|S30. A.while B.until C.when D.before 前后两个分句之间是并列关系,表示对比意义“而,然而” ,因而使 用连词 while。 3. 表示因果的连词:for,so,then;表示条件或结果的连词:and, or 等。 He found it increasingly difficult to read,________his eyesight was beginning to fail. A.though B.for C.but D.so 【解析】 空格后部分用来解释前一句的原因,因而使用连词 for。

4. 表示选择的连词:or,either...or,otherwise You have failed twice. You'd better start working harder, ________ you won't pass the course. A.and B.So C.but D.or

【解析】 祈使句与后面的陈述句所表达的内容是对立关系,因而用 or。 I grew up in Africa, ________ at least I should say that I spent much of the first ten years of my life there. A.and B.or C.so D.but 根据句意,此处应使用 or 表示选择,意为“或者” 。 用适当的并列连词填空 1.One more week, ________ we will accomplish the task. 2.Information technology is taught in most schools, ____________ we have entered the information society. 3.Don't drive too fast, ________ you will have an accident. 4.They wanted to chargeD|S5, 000 for the car, ________ we managed to bring the price down. 1.and 2.for 3.or 4.but

Unit 4 词汇: 1. phenomenon n. pl phenomena 现象

An eclipse of the moon is a rare phenomenon. Bankruptcy is a common phenomenon in an economic recession. 2. glance vi. look quickly at (sb./sth.) n. a quick look glance at = take a glance at 匆匆一看;扫视 stare at 盯着看;凝视 glare at 瞪着眼看;怒目而视;怒视 She glanced shyly at the young fellow from behind. They stood glaring at each other as if they were enemies. 3. decrease vt.&vi. become smaller or fewer;diminish;reduce decrease/reduce…to/by…减小,降低到(了) ;反义 increase Student numbers have decreased by/to 500. Interest in the sport is decreasing. 4. exist vi. 存在 existence n.存在 生存 came into existence 产生 Does life exist on other planets? Few of these monkeys still exist in the world. Pakistan came into existence as an independent country after the war. 5.. supply sb. with sth. = supply sth. for/to sb.提供/供应某物给某人 provide sb. with sth. = provide sth. for sb. offer sb. sth. = offer sth. to sb. 1) The school supplies books for/to the children. 2) We are here to provide a service for the public.

6. compare…to…把……比作 compare…with…把……和……比较 compared with/to 与……相比(在句中常作状语) compare with 与某人/物相比 People often compare children to flowers. If you compare her work with his,you?ll find hers is better. Compared with/to many women, she was indeed very fortunate This can?t compare with that. 7. come about 发生 come across 偶然遇到 come out 出版, (花)开 Please tell me how the accident came about,I?m still in the dark. 8. build up 树立,逐步建立;增加;增进(健康) ;集结 build up one?s health 增进健康 build up a good reputation/fame 树立良 好的声誉;Traffic is building up.车辆在增多 1) This built up my hope after the interview. 9. keep on sth/doing sth 继续/坚持做某事 表动作的反复,有停顿 keep doing sth 一直不断地做某事 表动作的持续,无停顿 1) Though it was raining, they kept on working until it was finished. 2) I kept standing in the train all the way. .keep ….from…. stop…. (from)…. prevent…(from)…. You should clean your room to keep it from getting dirty.你应该打扫房

间以保持干净。 Keep doing 继续 keep out 挡住使进不去 keep up with 跟上 What do you think green house gases do?你认为温室气体有什么作用 呢? 10.. on the whole = in the main =in the abstract 大体上, 基本上, 总的来 说 as a whole 总体上,作为一个整体看待 On the whole, I am in favor of the idea. 11. make a difference 有关系,有影响,有重要性 make some/no/any/not much/a great deal of difference(to…) 颇有 /没有/有些/没有多大/有很大影响(关系) The rain didn?t make much difference to the game. It makes no difference whether you go today or tomorrow. 12. make sense (of)有道理;有意义;讲得通;明白;是明智的 1) This sentence doesn?t make sense. 2) Can you make sense of the poem? 3) It makes sense to buy the most up-to-date version. 13. put up with = stand = bear = stand for 忍受, 容忍 1) We had to put up with the inconvenience. 10. so long as = as long as 只要;既然,由于

1) You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean. 2) So long as there is a demand for these drugs, the financial incentive for drug dealers will be there. 14. up to as many as 多达;up till 直到;胜任;正在干,从事着 1) I can take up to four in my car. 2) Up to now he has been very quiet. 3) He?s not up to the job. 4) What?s she up to? 15.consume v.---- consumer (n.). 1 消耗,花费;耗尽 She consumed most of her time in reading. 2 吃完,喝光 The kids soon consumed all the food on the table. 孩子们一会儿功夫便 把桌上的食品全部吃光。 3 使全神贯注,使着迷+with The boy was consumed with curiosity. 那男孩充满好奇心。 16.as … as one can = as … as possible Please come here as soon as possible.= Please come here as soon as you can.. as many as 多达 as long as 长达,只要 as far as 远至,就…而论

as well as 和…一样好,也,和 as early as 早在 17.compare compare to/ with: 与…相比 Compared to/with many women, she was indeed very fortunate. compare A with B:相比(不同) If you compare her work with his, you will findhers is much better. compare A to B:把 A 比作 B Poets have compared sleep to death. A teacher's work is often compared to a candle. The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poems. Compared to ten years ago, the carbon dioxide content over this decade has gone up rapidly. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is compared to the glass of greenhouse. Compared with is similar to People often compare teachers to gardeners. 人们经常把老师比做园丁。 That probably doesn?t sound very much to you or me but it is a rapid increase. compared to most natural changes 18.There is no doubt that …. 与大多数的自然变化相比


There is no doubt that he can come on time. doubt 的宾语从句,肯定句 whether / if / that 否定句 that

He doubted whether they would be able to help. He never doubted that they would win the game. beyond / without doubt 无疑地 It is human activity that… 原句:My teacher did the experiment in the lab yesterday morning with me. 强调主语:It was my teacher that did the experiment in the lab yesterday morning with me. 强调宾语 It was the experiment that my teacher did in the lab yesterday morning with me. 强 调 时 间 状 语 It was yesterday morning that my teacher did the experiment in the lab with me. 强调地点状语 It was in the lab that my teacher did the experiment yesterday morning with me. 强调方式状语 It was with me that my teacher did the experiment in the lab yesterday morning. not …until… I didn?t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses. It was until she took off her dark glasses that I didn?t realize she was a famous film star.(错) It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a

famous film star.(对) 强调句的一般疑问句句型:Is/Was+被强大的部分+that/who/whom+句 子的其他部分? 特殊疑问句强调句句型的构成:特殊疑问词+be+it+that+句子的其他 部分(用陈述语序)例如: Did he help you with your English study last week? Was it he that helped you with your English study last week? When did you receive the gift? When was it that you received the gift? 19. Without the ?green house effect?, earth would be about thirty-three the degrees Celsius cooler than it is.如果没有温室效应,地球会比现在冷 33℃ ▲这是一个含蓄虚拟条件句 =If there were no “green house effect”, the earth would be about thirty-three degrees Celsius cooler than it is. But for electricity (= If there were no electricity),there would be no modem industry. 要是没有电,就不会有现代工业。 He was having a meeting with his students;otherwise he would have come. 他当时正与他的学生进行讨论,否则的话他就来帮我们了。 He felt very tired yesterday, or he would have attended the party.

他昨天很累, 不然他就参加那个聚会了。 20. quantity 1) He likes reading and always buys books in quantity. 他喜欢阅读,总是 成批地买书。 2)He prefers quality to quantity when food is concerned. 在吃的方面, 他 重质而不重量 3A large quantity of air-conditioners has been sold since the temperature began to rise.自从气温升高,大量的空调已经被卖出去了。 a large quantity of/large quantities of;大量的…,许多的… in quantity;成批地,大量地 a large quantity of/large quantities of 之后接可数或不可数名词。 注 意 :a large quantity of… 作 主 语 , 谓 语 动 词 用 单 数 形 式 。 large quantities of…作主语,谓语动词都用复数 Quantities of food were on the table. Huge quantities of CO2 are added to the atmosphere. Huge quantities of fossil fuels are burned to produce energy. As a result of burning fossil fuels, a large of carbon dioxide ___ added to the atmosphere. A. number; is C. number; are 语法: 常考的强调句结构是it 引导的句子。 B. quantity; is D. quantity; are

一、It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。此结构强 调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。 It is from the sun that we get light and heat. It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true st ate of affairs. Karl bought Marva a bicycle on her birthday.卡尔在玛瓦生日那天给她 买了一辆自行车。 It was Karl that/who bought Marva a bicycle on her birthday. (强调主 语) It was Marva for whom Karl bought a bicycle on her birthday. (强调间 接宾语) It was a bicycle that Karl bought Marva on her birthday. (强调直接宾 语) 注意区别强调句中的that/who分句与定语从句: It was the student that/who asked the silly question. 是一个学生问了这 么一个愚蠢的问题。 (分裂句) He was the student who asked the silly question. 他就是问了这么一个愚 蠢问题的学生。 (划线部分是定语从句) 二、not ... until ... 的强调形式: It is not until + 被强调部分 + th at ... “直到…才…” 主要用于强调时间状语的强调句型。 ,

We did not begin studying French until we entered university.我们进了 大学才开始学法语。 要强调until we entered university,就成了:

It was not until we entered university that we began studying French. ______ the 18th century that man realized that the whole of the brain wa s involved in the workings of the mind. A. During B. In C. It was until D. It was not until D对。直到十八世纪,人们才意识到:心理活动与整个大脑有关。 三、强调句的疑问句句型 1.强调句的一般疑问句句型: Is / Was +it +所强调的部分+that / who/ whom +其它? 2.强调句的特殊疑问句句型: 特殊疑问词 + is/was it that / who/ whom+其它 ? Why is it that you hate winter?你究竟为什么不喜欢冬天? How was it that you missed such a wonderful lecture?你怎么会错过这 么精彩的报告? When was it that they went abroad?他们什么时候出国的? 四、判断强调句的方法 判断是否是强调句是,可把 It is / was …that 去掉,剩余部分在不 增减任何词的情况下还是一个完整的句子,那么这种句子是强调句。 It was in the street that I met her father. →In the street I met her father. It was because she was ill that they didn?t ask her to do the job. →Because she was ill, they didn?t ask her to do the job.

Unit 5 1. appoint v. 任命;委派;约定;指定 I a volcanologist working for

the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory twenty years ago. 作为一名火山学家,20 年前我被派到夏威夷火山观测站工作。(P34) She's appointed as sales director. 她被任命为销售部经理。(朗文 P66) I've been appointed to run the overseas section. 我被指派经营海外部。(朗文 P66) appoint sb. to be/as... 任命/指派某人成为?? be appointed as/ to be... 被任命/指派为?? appoint sb. to do sth. 委派某人做某事 appoint a committee 任命/组建一个委员会 appoint the date for... 确定??的日期 by appointment 按照约定 make an appointment (with) 与??约会 运用上述词汇完成下面的情景

(1)I have got the news that they will ①________ a new school secretary to help the principle. It is said your cousin will be ②________ the secretary. I have made an ③________ with him. ④________ appointment we will meet this evening. 【答案】 ①appoint 2.match,fit,suit match 用作及物或不及物动词,表品质、颜色、设计等方面匹配,即 表示“与??相配,和??一致”;fit 既可用作及物动词也可用作不 及物动词,多指衣物等尺寸大小“合适,合身”;suit 表示“适合”, 强调衣服的颜色、式样、质地等适合某人,也指“合乎需要、口味、 性格、条件和地位”等。 Your tie matches your suit well. 你的领带非常适合你的套装。 The afterschool programme suits the needs of most of the children. 课外活动适合绝大多数孩子的需要。 Not every shoe fits every foot. 并非每只鞋都合脚。 —How about eight o'clock outside the cinema? —That ________ me fine. ②appointed as ③appointment ④By

A.fits 3.




unconscious adj. 失去知觉的;未察觉的

I rushed down stairs only to see my hostess lying unconscious on the floor, surrounded by her guests.我急忙跑下楼梯,结果看到我主人躺在 那里昏迷不醒,周围是她的客人。(P37) He wasn't conscious of having offended her. 他没有意识到已经冒犯了她。(朗文 P363) She was conscious that he disliked her. 她意识到他不喜欢她。(文馨 P397) be unconscious of 未觉察到;未意识到?? fall/become unconscious 失去意识;不省人事 become conscious 清醒过来 be conscious of 意识到?? be conscious that... 意识到;觉察到 She was not ________ of the manager's presence in the hall. A.accused B.proud C.conscious D.valuable 4. anxious adj. 忧虑的;不安的 I was so and couldn't move at first.

我如此焦虑不安,开始时走不快。(P38) Helen is anxious about travelling on her own. 海伦对自己一个人出门旅行感到担心。(朗文 P67) She caused her parents great anxiety by running away from home. 她离家出走使父母非常忧虑。(文馨 P77) be anxious about 担心;焦虑 be anxious to do sth. 急切干某事;渴望做某事 be anxious that... 担心?? be anxious for 盼望;渴望 anxiety about/over 对??的担心 anxiety for 对??的担心 anxiety to do sth. 渴望干某事的急切心情;做??的渴望 The parents will be ________ unless they know that their children are safe and sound. A.eager B.nervous C.anxious D.conscious

5. panic v./n. 惊慌;恐慌 I felt very nervous and had to force myself not to _______. 我感到很紧张,只好迫使自己不要恐慌。(P38)

She got into a real panic when she thought she'd lost the ticket. 她十分惊慌,以为自己已把入场券丢了。(朗文 P1417) Shoppers fled the street in panic after two bombs exploded in central London. 两枚炸弹在伦敦市中心爆炸之后, 购物者们惊慌失措地逃离了那条街 道。(朗文 P1417) get into a panic 惊慌失措 be in a panic 处于恐慌,惊恐中 in panic 惊慌地 panic sb. into doing sth. 使某人因惊慌而做某事 panic over 对??感到惊慌 in a state of panic 处于惊恐状态 注意 panic 的过去式和过去分词都是 panicked;现在分词是 panicking。 Hearing a man following her, she ________ and ran as fast as she could. A.feared B.panicked 6.guarantee v. 保证;担保 Don't forget to drop a coin into the clear blue water to __ love will be as deep and lasting as the lake itself. ___your C.afraid D.frightened

别忘了投一枚硬币到清澈的水中,以确保你们的爱情像湖水一样深 厚、持久。(P39) Even if you complete your training, I can't guarantee you a job. 即使你完成了培训,我也无法保证你能有工作。(朗文 P868) Can you give me a guarantee that the work will be finished on time? 你能向我保证工作会按时完成吗?(朗文 P868) guarantee (sb.) sth. 保证(某人)某事物 guarantee that... 保证、担保?? guarantee to do 保证做;担保做 be guaranteed to do sth. 肯定做某事 be under guarantee 在保修期内 give sb. a guarantee (that) 向某人保证 There is no guarantee of... /that... 不能保证?? (7)Your watch will be repaired free if it's still ____________(在保修期 内). (8)The car club couldn't ________ (保证满足) the demands of all its members. 【答案】 (7)under guarantee (8)guarantee to meet

7. make one's way 前往;向前;慢慢成功 It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly _____________to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. 穿着这些衣服走起路来实在不容易, 但我们还是缓缓往火山口的边缘 走去,并且向下看到了红红的沸腾的中央。(P35) We made our way down the hill towards the town. 我们顺着山坡往下朝城里行进。(朗文 P2247) The crowd stepped aside to make way for the riders. 人群避到一旁,让路给骑马的人。(朗文 P2247) feel one's way 摸索着前进 fight/push one's way 推/挤着前进 wind one's way 蜿蜒前进 force one's way out/in 挤出去/进来 lose one's way 迷路 keep one's way 一直前进 make way for 给??让路 Work hard while young and you will ________. A. make its way B. make a way C. make your way D. make the way

8.vary from...to 由??到??不等 The height of the land level 700 meters above sea

over 2,000 meters and is home to a great diversity of rare

plants and animals. 这里地面的高度从海拔 700 米到 2000 米不等,是多种多样稀有动植 物的生长地。(P39) Teaching methods vary greatly from school to school. 各个学校的教学方法大不相同。(朗文 P2206) His mood seems to vary according to the weather. 他的情绪似乎随天气而变化。(朗文 P2206) vary in sth. 在??方面不同;有差异 vary with 随??变化 lack variety 缺乏多样性 a variety of=varieties of 种种的;各种各样的 注意 variety n.变化;多样性;varied adj. 种种的;多姿多彩的; various adj. 种种的(接复数名词或作表语)。 (10)We are told that rooms ________ in size but all have televisions and telephone. A.change B.turn C.vary D.different

句型 1. I ____________________back to sleep bedroom became as bright as day. 我刚要再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。(P34) 句中 be about to do...when...表示“正要??这时”,when 引导的从句 有“突然”之意,还可以用于下列句型中: be doing ...when;be just about to do...when;be on the way to...when; be on the point of doing sth. ...when;had just done...when I was about to go out when there was a knock on the door. 我正要出门,这时有人敲门。 He was walking in the street when he caught sight of a car racing towards him. 他正走在街上,突然看见一辆汽车朝他冲了过来。 He was on the way home when a stranger stopped him. 他正在回家的路上,这时有个陌生人拦住了他。 She was on the point of jumping off the building when a policeman came. 她正要跳楼,警察突然拦住了她。 I had just gone to bed when the telephone rang. suddenly my

我刚上床睡觉,这时电话响了。 2. _____it is said that___this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. 据说,这个男孩就是满族人的祖先,具有语言天赋和很强的说服力。 (P39) 句中 It's said that... 表示 “据说??” 可以替换为 , “Sb./It is said to...” , 其中的不定式可以有多种形式(一般时、完成时、被动语态)。 It is said that another typhoon will come soon.= Another typhoon is said to come soon. 据说又要来台风了 It is said that his fatherinlaw has been infected with AIDS.= His fatherinlaw is said to have been infected with AIDS. 据说他岳父感染了艾滋病。 类似句型还有: It's reported/announced/supposed/hoped/believed that... 据报道/已宣布/ 大家认为/大家希望/人们相信 It is wellknown that... 众所周知?? It has been decided that... 已经决定??

It is suggested that... 有人建议??(从句中用 should+动词原形, should 可省略) It must be remembered that... 务必记住??

语法: 动词不定式的特殊用法 1. 不定式的时态:不定式的一般式 to do 所表示的动作与谓语动作

同时或之后发生;进行式 to be doing 表示动作正在进行;完成式 to have done 所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前。 The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported ________ the world record in the 110meter hurdle race. A.breaking D.to break 【解析】 句中不定式动作发生在谓语动作之前,因而使用不定式的 完成时。 (2009· 天津)________ the project in time, the staff were working at weekends. A.Competing B.Having completed C.To have completed D.To complete B.having broken C.to have broken

【解析】 分析句子结构可知,空格部分为动词不定式作目的状语; 该动作在谓语动作之后发生,因而使用不定式的一般式。 2. 不定式的语态:不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语是该不定式动

作的承受者。 (2009· 安徽)The play ________ next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture. A.produced B.being produced C.to be produced D.having been produced 【解析】 空格部分作后置定语,且表示将来的动作,逻辑主语和非 谓语动词之间有被动关系,因而使用不定式的被动形式。 That novel is said ________ into over twelve languages by the end of last year. A.to be translated B.being translated C.having been translated D.to have been translated 【解析】 逻辑主语 novel 与 translate 之间是被动关系,句末时间状 语 by the end of 暗示使用不定式的完成时。 3. 不定式的省略:有时为了避免重复,可用 to 来代替前面提到的

不定式。如果在省略不定式结构中有 be,have,have been 时,这些 词要保留。

—I'll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat? —Not at all. ________. A.I've no time B.I'd rather not C.I'd be happy to D.I'd like it 【解析】 I'd be happy to=I'd be happy to look after your cat. (2009· 江苏)—What' s the matter with Della? —Well, her parents wouldn't allow her to go to the party, but she still ________. A.hopes to B.hopes so C.hopes not D.hopes for 【解析】 hopes to 是省略形式,不定式符号后省略了“go to the party”。

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