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高考语法填空解题技巧[1] 2

Step 1 命 题 思 路 题型变化:

1 单项选择(句子) 语法填空(篇章) 2 客观题 主观题 3 题量 15 题 10 题 分值不变:15 分=10 X 1.5 分 Step 2 解 题 策 略 一 读懂首句,判断体裁,确定时态; 二 动脑思考,分析推理; 三

通读全文,验证所填的词. Step 3 考 查 范 围 1 语境(上下文) ; 2 语法:动词(时态、语态、非谓语形式) 、 名词、代词、冠词、介词、固定搭配、情态动词、 复合句、形容词和副词的比较级最高级及构词法、倒装等。 Step 4 语法填空(无提示词) 冠词:a, an, the 介词:in, on, at, with, as(作为), before, after, by, from, through, to, for 等 代词:one, another, other, both, none,I, we, you 等人称 连词: (1) and, or, but, however (两个完整的句子之间) (2) that, which, who, whom, whose, when, where, why (引导定语从句) (3) that, whether, if, whose, which, who, what, when, where, how, why (引导名词性从句) (4) when, before, after, until, while, because, so, if, unless, although, as (引导状语从句) (一)无提示词解题技巧: 技巧 1 缺主语或宾语,一定是填代词或名词(多考代词) [例 1] She did not hesitate for long : although her father smoked a pipe only once in a while, she knew that this was a present which was bound to please __38__. (2009 年广东高考) 解析:不定式后动词 please 缺少宾语,应填代词;又从文章和句子意思可知是给父亲买礼物,使 他高兴,确定填_____. (例 2)He asked his teacher, “Sir, the water was awful. Why did you pretend to like __38__‖ (2010 年广东高考) 解析:不定式后动词 like 缺少宾语,应填代词;又从前面句子可知是说这水很难喝,学生是问老 师为什么假装喜欢这水呢,确定填代词____代替这水。 [例 3] I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and __38 gets there almost in a second. (茂名一模) 解析:and 连接前后两个句子,and 后面的句子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合前一分句,不难推 知,―马上可到达那里‖的是 the message,替代 the message 用代词____。 技巧 2. 如果句子基本结构完整,名词前面无限定词(冠词、不定代词和形容词性物主代词) ,则 设在该名词前的空格很大可能填限定词。

[例 4] It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960—1279) was very anxious to help __33 rice crop grow up quickly. (2008 年广东高考) 解析:名词 rice crop 前还没有限定词,应当填限定词;根据句意,这个急性子人当然是急于使―他 的‖禾苗长得快,故填形容词性物主代词____。 练习 1: 1.All of them complained about the stone but not tried to remove 36 . 2.According to elderly people, every bride had to cry at the wedding. 36 , the bride‘s neighbors would look down upon 37 as a poorly cultivated girl and she would become the laughingstock of the village. 3.I love cigarette because __1__ makes me feel good and __2__(relax). I need cigarette to be happy and relaxed.” 4.Einstein __4__ (bear) in Germany in 1879. In 1914, young Einstein, already internationally famous, became a professor at an institute in Berlin. He had few duties, little teaching and unlimited opportunities for study. However, __5__ peaceful life was soon broken by the First World War. 5.In order to know a foreign language thoroughly, four things are necessary. Firstly, we must understand the language when we hear ______31________ spoken.

(例 5)Besides, shopping at this time of the year was not __33__ pleasant experience: … (2009 年广东高考) 解析:experience 句中意思为经历,可数名词单数,其前没有限定词;再根据句子意思―每年这个 时候购物不是一件让人很愉快的经历‖,确定填冠词___. [例 6] …the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to__35_small town some 20 kilometers away where there was a garage. (2007 年广东高考) 解析:因单数可数名词 town 前还没有限定词,应填限定词;根据句意,是指将车拉到离那里大约 有 20 公里远的一个小镇上去修理,表示―一个‖,用不定冠词,故填___。 (例 7)After the student left, the teacher let __36__ student taste the water. (2010 年 广东高考) 解析: student 为可数名词单数,前无限定词;根据句子意思―这个学生离开后,老师让?另一个‘ 学生尝这水‖,确定填不定代词_________. 技巧 3. 如果句子基本结构完整,名词或代词在句中既不作主语、表语,也不作动词的宾语时,其 前面的空格通常是填介词。 (例 8)When Jane got home, with her small but well-chosen present in her bag, her parents were already __39__ table having supper. (2009 年广东高考) 解析: :分析句子知道名词 table 在句中不作主语、宾语,也不作 were 的表语,空格处应填介词, 使 table 成为介词的宾语; 根据 having supper 确定应填介词___, 因为___ table 表示―在餐桌边, 在进餐‖,也是固定搭配。 练习 2: 1)In the center of the main road into the town, he placed 33 very large stone. Then

he 34 (hide ) behind a tree and waited. Soon an old man came along with his cow. 2)Among the few scientists who have had a great effect on science and history, Albert Einstein is perhaps the __1__ (great). An American university president once commented that Einstein had created __2__ new view of the universe. His theory has completely changed the way scientists understand time and space. 3)One day, about ten years ago, while working at the cash register in the gift shop at my University Museum of Natural History, I saw 31 elderly couple come in with a little girl in a wheelchair.

(例 9) The young man went home __35__ a happy heart. (2010 年广东高考) 解析:a happy heart 在句中不作主语、表语,也不作动词的宾语,空格处应填介词; 根据句子意 思―他怀着高兴的心回家了‖,确定填介词______. 练习 3: 1)With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide to determine what is suitable __40____ their children to see. 2)In short, I believe that it is 39 great use to keep a diary in English for 40 development of our writing skills. 3)This wasn’t 33___ first time Lina had taken too many pills. I knew she would sleep deeply for about twelve hours ____34____ the poison had stopped doing its harm. 4)Some people say that oldest children, 32 are smart and strong-willed, are very likely 33 (succeed). The reason 34 this is simple. 5)Healthy food is very good __6__ my health. It gives me a lot of energy and I feel very good. 技巧 4. 如果两个句子(即两个主谓结构)之间没有分号或句号,也没有关联词连接或引导,则填 并列连词或从属连词。 (例 10) He was very tired from/after doing this for a whole day, __37__ he felt very happy since the crop did ―grow‖ higher. (2008 年广东高考) 解析:两个句子间是逗号且无关联词连接,则空格处一定是填关联词;再根据前一句他感到 very tired 和后一句子的 very happy 得出前后为转折关系,确定填并列连词_______。 (例 11) Jane paused in front of a counter__35__ some attractive ties were on display. (2009 年广东高考) 解析: 两个句子间没有分号或句号, 也没有关联词连接或引导; 分析句子意思可知后一句为定语从 句,要填的词既引导了这个定语从句,又在此从句中作地点状语,确定填关系副词 _______. (例 12) I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days 32 I was to return to Guangzhou. (广州一模) 解析:因 I wanted to…是一个句子,I was to return…也是一个句子,这两个句子之间没有连词, 也没有分号或句号,一定是填连词;根据句意和两句之间的逻辑关系,可知―参观这个城市的尽可 能多的地方‖应是在―返回广州‖之前,故填________。 练习 4:

1)_______37_______we are satisfied with only a few rules we have memorized, we are not really learning the language. ―Learn through use‖ is a good piece of _____38______(advise) for those ______39______are studying a new language. 2)Dating sites also make 36 easy to avoid someone 37 you are not interested in. In the real world, 38 , ignoring someone you don’t like can be difficult. 3)However, the meaning of a hero __5__ (change) in the past fifty years, and a common man can __6__ be a hero. A person who has done a great job is a hero. A sportsman __7__ has set a new world record is one,certainly. 4)Something must be done without delay __8__(save) frogs. If we don’t punish those __9__ sell and kill frogs to make money, then one day all of us __10 ______(punish) by nature for failing to keep the balance of nature. 5) After __8__ seemed to be a hundred years, I found my audience applauding. I made it! From then on, my fear of talking before an audience disappeared. 6)Once there lived a rich man 31 wanted to do something for the people of his town. 32 first he wanted to find out whether they deserved his help. 技巧 5: 和 it 有关的一些特殊句型也是判断纯填空题的一个重要技巧。 A.根据 it 作形式主语或形式宾语的句型来判断空格处是否应填 it. (例 13) She remembered how difficult _31__ was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father. (广东高考) 解析:分析句子可知,宾语从句中真正的主语是后面的不定式 to choose…,空格处应填入作形式 主语的 it. B.根据强调句结构 ―It is/was+被强调部分+ that/who+句子剩下部分‖判断空格处填 it 还是 that. (例 14) … and __40__ was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’ t eat MSG. (广州一模) 解析:分析句子结构可知该句为强调句句型应填 it. 强调句判断方法: 去掉 it is/was…that 看句子结构是否仍然强调完整的方法来判断句子是否为强调句。 1) In many countries, ___31___ is not unusual for families of different backgrounds to live together in the shared space. ___32___, in the United States, this idea may still be considered odd(古怪的. 2)I love cigarette because __1__ makes me feel good and __2__(relax). I need cigarette to be happy and relaxed.

Exercise 1. It is very much 35 same in different places of the province. According to elderly people, every bride had to cry at the wedding. 36 , the bride‘s neighbors would look down upon 37 as a poorly cultivated girl and she would become the laughingstock of the village. In fact, there were cases 38 which the bride was beaten by her mother for not crying at the wedding ceremony.

2.There is a bottle full of water on the desk. _______ water is very dirty. 3.No one helped me. I did it all _______ myself. 4.Bob and Mary are going to see a movie _______ Christmas Day. 5.It was a pity that the great writer died _______ his work unfinished. 6.If you give your children the impression that they can never do anything quite right, then they will regard _______ as unfit or unable persons. 7.He is also an author, and _________ new book will come out next month. 8.He knew what he wanted. ____, he didn‘t know how to get it. 9.He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ________ he felt very happy since the crop did ―grow‖ higher. 10.This is the park ___________ they visited last year. 11.I still remember many of the games we played _________ I was about ten. 13.I would hear them talk about _____happened during their day. (二) 、给出提示词的解题技巧 1.动词: 1).给出的提示词为动词时,考生应首先分析句子结构,判断该动词在句中是谓语动词还是非谓语 动词,或者是否需要转换词性等,然后再具体解题。 (例 15) … people stepped on your feet or __34__ (push) you with their elbows, hurrying ahead to get to a bargain. (2009 年广东高考) 解析:提示词 push 在句中与 stepped 作并列谓语,要用一般过去时,填_________ 2). 如果一个句子没有谓语动词,或者提示词与已有谓语动词之间是并列关系时,所给提示词就是 谓语动词,此时要根据语境考察时态和语态。 (例 16) Her mother was excited. “You father has at last decided to stop smoking,” Jane __40__ (inform). (2009 年广东高考) 解析: 主句没有谓语, 考时态和语态; 根据文章意思可知 Jane 是―被‖她母亲告知父亲决定戒烟的, 确定应用一般过去时和被动语态,填 ______________. (例 17)After a long journey, the young man __33__ (present) the water to the old man. (2010 年广东高考) 解析: 主句没有谓语, 考时态和语态, 根据文章语境可知时态为过去时, 应填)______________. 3). 如果句子已有谓语动词,给出的动词提示词也不作并列谓语时,则考查非谓语动词,这时要根 据句子所缺成分和非谓语动词各自用法特点,选择动词 – ing 、动词– ed 和不定式,具体确定 方法如下: 提示词在句中作目的状语、only 后的结果状语、情感形容词或动词后的原因状语时,通常用不定 式。 (例 18) For example, the proverb, ― plucking up a crop __32__ (help) it grow‖, is based on the following story. (2008 年广东高考) 解析: 分析结构可知句子已有谓语 is based,help 在此为非谓语;根据句子意思,把禾苗拔高的 目的是帮助它们长高,确定用不定式作目的状语,填 。 4). 提示词给的是动词有时也会考查词类转换,考生须仔细分析句子结构,正确填词。 (例 19):But Jane knew from her past experience that her __36__ (choose) of ties hardly ever pleased her father. (2009 年广东高考)

解析:分析句子可知,choose 在同位语从句中作主语,且在形容词性物主代词 her 后,确定用名词 形式________. 2.形容词和副词 1).提示词为形容词或副词,重点考察它们的比较等级、形容词副词之间的词性转换,具体解题技 巧如下: 考察形容词和副词的比较等级。一般来说,如果有表示范围的 in/of 介词短语,用最高级;than 的前面要用比较级, 但考生要特别注意的是, 在特定语境中, ―than+ 比较对象‖和表示比较范围 的 of/in 短语常常被省略。 (例 20):He was very tired after/from doing this for a whole day, but he felt very happy since the crop did ―grow‖ __38__ (high). 解析: 由语境可知,他忙了一整天后很累,但是仍然感到很开心是因为庄稼被拔过后确实比之前 ―长‖的―高‖些了,这是省略了 than before 的隐性比较级,确定填________. The water was simply the container for an act of kindness and love. Nothing could be __39__ (sweet)‖ (2010 年广东高考) 解析: 由语境可知,这水是好心和爱的表现,没有什么比它更甜了,这是省略了 than the water 的隐性比较级,确定填__________. 2).形容词和副词之间的词类转换。修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式; 作表语、定语或补语,通常用形容词形式。 (例 22):We drank together and talked __38__ (merry) till far into the night. (2007 年广 东高考) 解析: 修饰动词 talked 要用 merry 的副词形式,确定填___________. (例 23): His teacher took a deep drink, smiled __34__ (warm), and thanked his student very much for the sweet water. (2010 年广东高考) 解析: 修饰动词 smiled 要用 warm 的副词形式,确定填 warmly 总 结 1 首先熟悉语境。 2 对于连词、介词、关系代词、关系副词等,不仅要理解它们的意思,还要熟记它们,在考试时 能准确、快速地提取它们。 3 对于动词,要掌握常用的时态、语态和非谓语动词的用法。 4 对于句子,要能够分析其结构,懂得在什么时候该用什么词性。 5 对于单词,不仅要背诵其意义和拼写,还好掌握基本的词形变换。

1) A: ? Have you heard the local newspaper The Times is closing down in three months’ time? B:? Then, that’s good news. That newspaper is terrible. I won’t miss it. A: ? do you mean? The Times is the best newspaper in the city. If that (close), we’ll only have the Pioneer and that City Journal, which is too awful for words. B: ? You only like The Times it takes up to 20 pages every day with sports. The City Journal is a great paper. And you don’t like it because it devotes less than 5 pages every day baseball results. A: ? This is a baseball city. We’ve got a great team. Why shouldn’t we read about it?

Where are we going to get the results now? B:? I think a newspaper needs to meet all the (need) of its readers, not just those like sports. A:--Then what about the Job Section in the Times? That was one of the most (use)parts of it. Every business, every store in the city knows if they want to employ someone, get someone (work) for them, they have to play some ads in The Times. Have all these people gone to get work now? This will (absolute) destroy the local economy. B: ? Destroy the local economy, will it?I admit the Job Section was pretty good in the Times, either one of the other two newspapers will just get the ads instead. That’s how things work. 2. Attention please,everyone! About 50 students from American will come to our school for the visit on October 4th, Sunday.Our class will greet them.We will meet at the school gate at 8∶40 am and giving them a warm welcome.They will arrive at 9∶00 am,and then we will show the American students to the schoolyard,the lab building or the teaching building.There will have a friendly basketball game on the playground at 10∶00.We will leave our schools at 11∶ 00.We should polite to our guests and talk with them in the English. That’s all.Thank you. 3. I often dream of become a teacher,I dream of standing on the platform in the classroom and give lessons to lovely boys and girls.I teach them,play with them,but watch them growing up.I am always young when I was staying with them.I know it is not easy be a teacher.You have to learn in order to teach.Without enough knowledges, you can never learn well.What is more,you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care of him.Only in this way can you are a good teacher and win respect from them.Though I am a student now, I will work as very hard to make my dream come true. 4. My classmate Liu Hong is an warm? hearted girl.She is good at studying, dancing and playing piano.After hear Sichuan earthquake , she felt very sad about it.She decided to do something to helping Sichuan people.First she calls her friends up and came up with having a benefit show.Then she handed out advertisement with her friends or put up signs asking people to watch.Luckily she did very good.A lot of people were moved and gave their hands to Sichuan people.At the last,she raised 5,000 yuan.She gave up all the money to the quake ? hit areas. 5) Dear Jerry, I’m glad to know that you have an interest in Chinese food.Here I’d like to tell you something about them.Chinese food is famous with its wide variety.The food in one area can be easy told from that in another.For example, Shanghai food, a little sweet, are different from Sichuan food that is rather hot.However,every kind of Chinese food is worth tried

because each has a delicious taste and good for health.Since the restaurant in China usually serves special dish of different areas,you can enjoy various Chinese foods whenever you are.I’m looking forward to meet you here so that I can tell you more about Chinese food at the table. Best wishes.


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