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2014暑假班新高三学案--M5U4U5Grammar讲解


2014 步步升教育暑假班新高三学案---M5 U5Grammar-省略句讲解 为了使讲话和行文简洁,句中某些成分有时可省略。省略可分以下几种情况: Read the sentences below. (It) Looks like rain. Hi. (It is) Nice to see you again. (Have you) Forgotten my name? (Yo

u can ) Just call me Peter. I’m a doctor and my wife (is) a teacher. I’m not as strong as I was (strong). What a beautiful umbrella (it is)! They are sentences with ellipsis. Now find some sentences with ellipsis in the text. Ellipsis is the omission of some words for avoiding repetition and achieving textual cohesion. What is ellipsis? Often the illness or injury is not serious, but there are other times when (the illness or injury is serious and ) giving first aid quickly can save lives. Burns are called first (degree burns), second (degree burns) or third degree burns … These affect both the top (layer of the skin) and the second layer of the skin. 一)简单句中的省略 1、省略主语:祈使句中主语通常省略。其它省略主语多限于少数现成的说法。 e.g. (I) Thank you for your help.(括号内为省略的词语,下同) (I) See you tomorrow. (It) Doesn’t matter. 2、省略主谓语或主谓语的一部分。 e.g. (There is) No smoking. (Is there) Anything wrong? Why (do you) not say hello to him? 3、省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保留 to。e.g. ---- Are you going there? ---- I’d like to (go there). He did not give me the chance, though he had promised to (give me the chance). (动词:want, wish, expect, hope, like, love, try, forget, decide,prefer, mean, intend, plan, refuse…等动词宾语。 tell, ask, want, expect, warn…等动词的宾补。 形容词: glad, happy, pleased, delighted, …短语:be going to, be about to, be able to, have to, used to, ought to, …) 注意:如果该宾语是 be 动词或完成时态,则须在 to 之后加上 be 或 have。 e.g. ---- Are you an engineer? ---- No, but I want to be. ---- He hasn’t finished the task yet. --- Well, he ought to have. 4、省略表语。e.g. ---- Are you thirsty? ---- Yes, I am (thirsty). 5、感叹句根据上下文的省略。e.g. What a wonderful film (it is)! (It’s) Simply impossible! 6、介词的省略:e.g. The old man had no difficulty (in ) finding his house. 一些固定词组: have a hard time (in) doing sth. waste time (in) doing sth., spend …(in) doing sth. prevent/stop…(from)…, be busy (in) doing…, be engaged (in) doing…, there’s no use (in) doing…,… He failed (in) the game.The war lasted (for) four years. (但在句首和与 walk 等连用不可) Come and see me (at) any time you like. (in, on, at, by) He stayed (at) home all day. He walked (for ) three li. (表示距离的状语中) (In) This way you will succeed. 7、名词所有格后面的名词,如果是表示住宅,店铺,教堂或者上下文已经暗示或明确指出过的事物时常省略。 e.g. At her sister’s (house), she spent a pleasant weekend. 8、 连词的省略:not only… but (also)…, whether… (or not), so (that) 9、情态动词 should 的省略 insist, order, command, suggest, propose, advise,demand, require, request, ask. It’s necessary/important/impossible/strange/ natural/a pity… 10、同时省略几个成分。e.g. Let’s meet at the same place as (we met) yesterday. ---- Have you finished your work? ---- (I have) Not (finished my work) yet. 二)并列句中的省略,两个并列分句中,后一个分句常省略与前一分句中相同的部分。 e.g. My father is a doctor and my mother (is) a nurse. I study at college and my sister (studies) at high school. 三)主从复合句中的省略 1、主句中有一些成分被省略 e.g. (I’m) Sorry to hear that you are ill. (It is a) Pity that he missed such a good chance. 2、省略了一个从句或从句的一部分,用 so 或 not(切不可用 it 或 that)代替。 e.g. ---- Is he coming back tonight? ---- I think so. ---- Is he feeling better today? ---- I’m afraid not. 这种用法常见的有:How so? Why so? Is that so? I hope so. He said so 及 I suppose not. I believed not. I imagine not. I expect not. I hope not. I guess not 等。 (但 I don’t think so 比 I think not 更常用) 。 四)其它省略 1、连词 that 的省略:①、宾语从句中常省略连词 that,但也有不能省略的情况 be+某些形容词( afraid, sure, sorry, certain, glad…);两个(或两个以上)宾语从句并列时; He said that, if he could manage it, he would come for dinner. ②、在定语从句中,that 在从句中作宾语/表语/There be 结构的主语时可省略。 I’m not the man (that) I was when you knew me first. This is the fastest train (that) there is to Beijing. This is the best way (that) we should choose. I don’t like the way (that)/in which he talks to his parents. ③、引导主语从句、同位语从句等的连词 that 一般不可省略。在表语从句中偶尔可省略。 What they want to do is (that) they go to play basketball. 2、不定式符号 to 的省略①、并列的不定式可省去后面的 to。
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e.g. I told him to sit down and wait for a moment. To be for the plan or to be against the plan doesn’t matter. ②、当不定式作表语时,如果前面主语中出现实义动词 do 及各种形式,则不定式可省略。 What he wants to do is (to) go home. ③ 、某些使役动词(如 let, make, have)及感官动词(如 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, look at 和 listen to 等)后面作宾语 补足语的不定式一定要省去 to,但在被动语态中须把 to 加上。 e.g. ---- I saw the boy fall from the tree. ---- The boy was seen to fall from the tree. ④、介词 but/except/besides 前若有动词 do,后面的不定式不带 to。e.g. The boy did nothing but play. 3、在某些状语从句中,从句的主语(或 it)与主句主语一致时,可省去“主语 + be”部分或从句的主语 it。 Look out for cars when crossing the street.Fill in the blanks with articles where necessary. She worked extremely hard though still rather poor in health. 在比较状语从句中,than 或 as 后面的部分可省略。 Tom plays football as well as, if not better than, Jack.(=Tom plays football as well as Jack does, if he doesn’t play better than Jack does.) We should think more of our class than of ourselves. 4、连词 if 在部分虚拟条件句中可省略,但后面的语序有变化(参见“倒装句”有关部分) 5、主句与从句各有一些成分省略。e.g. The sooner (you do it), the better (it will be). [高考真题] 省略句: 1. The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if _____ regularly, can improve our health. (2010 浙江) A. being carried out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 2. It sounds like something is wrong with the car’s engine. _____, we’d better take it to the garage immediately. (2011 江苏) A. Otherwise B. If not C. But for that D. If so 3. Some of you may have finished unit one. _____, you can go on to unit two. (2009 江西 ) A. If you may B. If you do C. If not D. If so 4. Every evening after dinner, if not ____, I will spend some time from work walking my dog . (2009 湖南 ) A. being tired B. tiring C. tired D. to be tired 5(2011 全国卷 II)13.Jane won’t join us for dinner tonight and . A.neither won’t Tom B.Tom won’t either C.Tom will too D.so will Tom 6(2011 江苏卷)33.It sounds like something is wrong with the car’s engine._______ , we’d better take it to the garage immediately.A.Otherwise B.If not C.But for that D.If so ★单项填空:Choose the best answers. 1.—Is it going to rain tomorrow? —____. I’m planning to go climbing with my uncle. A. I hope so B. I don’t hope to C. I hope it not D. I hope not 2. —Xishuangbanna is supposed to be a wonderful place, but we haven’t been there. — _____. A. Neither have we B. Neither we have C. Neither did we D. Neither we did 3. —Alice, why didn’t you come to my birthday party yesterday?—I _____, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did 4. She planned to go for a picnic, but her mother told her ______. A. not to do B. not to C. do not to D. to not 5. —Will Li Lin go biking this weekend?—I don’t know. If he ____, I’ll go with him. A. will want to B. wants to C. wants to do D. will want 6. — I can’t go shopping with you this Sunday.— Pardon? But you _____. A. promised to do B. promised to C. promise to D. would promise 7. — I’ll be away on a holiday for about two weeks. Would you mind taking care of my cat? — Not at all. ______. A. I’ll go to B. I’d rather not C. I’d love it D. I’d be happy to 8. ---Tomorrow is a holiday. Why are you doing your homework? ---I am doing these exercises now so that I won’t have _____ on Sunday. A. it B. them C. for D. to 9. ---Shall I invite Ann to my birthday party tomorrow evening? ---Yes. It’ll be fine if you ______. A. are B. can C. invite D. do 10. --- Aren’t you the manager? --No, and I ______. A. don’t want to B. don’t want to be C. don’t want be D. don’t want 11. --- I’ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat? ---Not at all. ______. A. I’ve no time B. I’d rather not C. I’d like it D. I’d be glad to 12. --- Won’t you have another try? --- ________. A. Yes, I will have B. Yes, I won’t have C. Yes, I won’t D. Yes, I will 13. --- I won’t do it any more. ---_______? A. Why not B. Why don’t do any more C. Why not do D. Why don’t 14. ---Do you think it will snow tomorrow? ----______? A.I don’t think B. No, I don’t think C. I don’t think so D. No, I don’t so 15. ---Have you fed the cat? ---No, but ______. A. I’m B. I am C. I’m just going D. I’m just going to
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2014 暑假班新高三学案--M5U4 Grammar Inversion 倒装 英语句子的自然语序是主语在前,谓语动词在后。把谓语动词提前,就叫倒装。如果把全部谓语放在主语之前,叫全 部倒装;如果只把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前就叫部分倒装。倒装结构通常用于下列场合: I. 全部倒装 1. 用于 there be 句型。例如:There are many students in the classroom. 2. 用于“here(there,now,then)+不及物动词+主语”的句型中,或以 out,in,up,down,away 等副词开头的句子里, 以表示强调。例如: ① Here comes the bus. ② There goes the bell. ③ Now comes your turn. ④ Out went the children. 注意:代词作主语时,主谓语序不变。例如:⑤ Here it is⑥ Here he comes. 3. 当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,也常常引起全部倒装。例如: ① South of the city lies a big steel factory. ② From the valley came a frightening sound. 4. 表语置于句首时,倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语” 1)形容词+连系动词+主语 Present at the meeting were Professor White,Professor Smith and many other guests. 2)过去分词+连系动词+主语 Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people. 3)介词短语+be+主语 Among the goods are Christmas trees,flowers,candles and toys. 5. 用于以 so,nor,neither 开头的句子,表示重复前句部分内容。原句的谓语应与前句谓语的时态、形式相一致例如: ①He has been to Beijing. So have I.②Li Wei can’t answer the question. Neither can I. 6. 为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或使上下文紧密衔接时 ①They arrived at a farmhouse,in front of which sat a small boy. ②Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and queens and long passages to these rooms. Ⅱ. 部分倒装 1. 用于疑问句。例如:Do you speak English? 2. 省略了 if 的条件句中,were,had 或 should 可提到句首构成部分倒装例如: ①Were I not so busy,I should go with you. ②Had he been here yesterday, he would have come to watch the football match. 3. 在 so...that(如此……以致于)句型中,若 so...提至句首,则构成部分倒装 ①So carelessly did he drive that he almost killed himself. ②So loudly did he speak that people in the next room could hear him. 4. 用于“形容词(或名词、动词)+as(though)”引导的让步状语从句中。例如: ①Pretty as she is,she is not clever.②Try as he would,he might fail again. 注意:1)在 as(though)引导的让步状语从句中,如果主语较长. 也可实行全部倒装。例如: Difficult as was the chemistry homework,it was finished in me. 2)如果从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词例如:Child as he was,he had to make a living. 5. 用于 no sooner... than...,hardly...when 和 not until 句型中,no sooner,hardly,not until 置于句首时,句子倒装。例如: Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework. 6. 用于以 never,hardly,seldom,scarcely,barely,little, often not only,not once 等词开头的句子 例如:①Never shall I do this again. ②Little did he know who the woman was. 7. 用于 only 开头的句子(only 后面为副词、介词短语或句子)例如: ①Only this afternoon did I finish the novel. ②Only in this way can you master English. 如果 only 后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装,例如:③Only Wang Ling knows this. 8. 如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语是代词时,一般不用倒装: 例如:“Let’s go,”said the man. 9. 用于某些表示祝愿的句子:例如: ①May you succeed!祝你成功!②Long live the people!人民万岁!③May you all be happy!祝你们幸福! 【典型例题】 1. Not only ____ interested in football but ____ beginning to show an interest in it. A.the teacher himself is;all his students are 2. —David has made great progress recently.
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B.the teacher himself is ;are all his students

C.is the teacher himself ;are all his students D.is the teacher himself ;all his students are

—____,and ____. 3. Only in this way ____ to make improvement in the operating system. A.you can hope B.you did hope C.can you hope D.did you hope 【语法专练】 1. In no city of China ______ little about the economic development. A.the government cares C.doesn’t the government care A. you can B. people can B.does the government care D.the government doesn’t care C. can one D. can it

2. In no place other than Britain ____ experience four seasons in a single day. 3. _____ that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere. A. So successful her business was C. So her business was successful A. Not until recently A. Flew it away 【高考零距离】 1(2012?江苏卷 I? T32)32.Never before A.had she B.she had C.has she seen anybody who can play tennis as well as Robert. D.she has having a holiday abroad. D. did he consider it was the same place he’d been in last year. D.did he realize D. do they reach it was the same place he’d been in last year. D.did he realize D. Meanwhile C. he considered B. Not recently B. Away flew it B. So successful was her business D. So was her successful business C. Until recently C. Away it flew D. Recently until D. Flew away it

4. _______ was leisure generally considered a waste of time. 5. The child tiptoed quietly to the bird, _____ into the forest when he was about to catch it.

2(2012?辽宁 I? T32)32. Not until he retired from teaching three years ago A. he had considered A.he realized A. they reached A.he realized A. However B. had he considered 3.(2011?全国卷 I? T28)Only when he reached the tea-house B.he did realize C.realized he B. did they reach C. they reach

4.(2011?湖南卷? T32)Only after they had discussed the matter for several hours _____ a decision. 5.(2011?新课标全国卷? T28)Only when he reached the tea-house B.he did realize C.realized he B. Nevertheless C. Besides

6.(2010· 辽宁卷· T23)Jim went to answer the phone. _______, Harry started to prepare lunch. 7.—Is everyone here? (2010· 江苏卷· T33) —Not yet……Look , there_______ the rest of our guests! A. come B. comes C. is coming D. are coming 8.(2010· 江西卷· T33)Not until he left his home ______ to know how important the family was for him. A did he begin A. voices had come 10.(2009· 陕西卷)Little A. did Rose care A.is lying B had he begun B. came voices B. Rose did care B.there lies C.does lie C he began C. voices would come C. Rose does care D.lies D he had begun all shouting together. D. did voices come D. does Rose care 9.(2009· 福建卷)For a moment nothing happened Then

about her own safety, though she was in great danger herself.

11. (2011· 郑州一模)At last they climbed up the mountain, on the top of which ________an old temple dating back to 1500 BC. 12.(2010· 上海春招)Never________Lisa would arrive but she turned up at the last minute. A.did we think B.have we thought C.we thought D.we have thought 13.(2010· 重庆诊断二)When I got home last night,I was frightened to find that in front of my door________. A.was seated a large dog B.sat a large dog C.was a large dog seated D.did a large dog sit 14.(2010· 潍坊检测)Seldom________computer games ever since he entered college. A.did he play A.down did it roll B.has he played C.he played B.down rolled it D.he has played D.down it rolled 15.The bus hit against a tree in the fog and________to the deep valley,with ten passengers killed and twenty wounded. C.it down rolled
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【2012 江苏卷】25. There is little doubt in your mind that he is innocent, _____________? A. is there B. isn't there C. is he D. isn't he B. he even gives B. there is C. C. will he even give C. is it D. it is D. he will even given 【2012 重庆卷】33. The headmaster will not permit the change in the course, nor______ it a thought. A. does he even given A. is there 强调句 (2013 全国卷 II)10. It was only after he had read the papers to complete. A. when A. that A. who 倒装句 (2013 全国卷 II)12. Only by increasing the number of doctors by 50 percent A. can be the patients A. I doubted A. occurred it A. had he realized A. I will speak A. they actually broke properly in this hospital. D. treated can be the patients B. can the patients be treated C. the patients can be treated B. do I doubt B. it did occur C. I have doubted C. it occurred C. he realized D. did I doubt D. did it occur D. he had realized B. that B. where B. that C. why C. when C. which (2013 天津卷)11. It was not until near the end of the letter Mr. Gross realized the task before him was extremely difficult D. what she mentioned her own plan. D. when D. how 【2012 四川卷】5. This is not my story, nor ______ the whole story. My story plays out differently. 2013 年高考真题英语单项选择分类汇编 特殊句式(强调句、倒装句、祈使句等)

(2013 重庆卷)27. It was with the help of the local guide ________ the mountain climber was rescued.

(2013 江苏卷)27. “Never for a second,” the boy says, “______ that my father would come to my rescue.” (2013 湖南卷)35. Not once ________ to Michael that he could one day become a top student in his class. (2013 福建卷)34.Not until he went through real hardship _____the love we have for our families is important. B. did he realize B. will I speak (2013 江西卷)25.Only when he apologizes for his rudeness ____to him again. C. do I speak D. I speak D. they had actually broken (2013 辽宁卷)26. At no time ________the rules of the game. It was unfair to punish them. B. do they actually break C. did they actually break 2014 年全国各地高考英语单项填空分类汇编 1. [14 大纲]26. _____ the nurses want a pay increase, they want reduced hours as well. A. Not do only A. if not A. where B. Do not only C. if any C. that C. Only not do D. if so D. what C. you kept C. what C. has Mo Yan D. did you keep makes life happy. D. who D. Mo Yan has D. Not only do , reaching 300C in summer. 2. [14 福建]28. The climate here is quite pleasant, the temperature rarely, B. if ever B. why

3. [14 福建]29. It was the culture, rather than the language, ____made it hard for him to adapt to the new environment abroad 4. [14 湖南]29.Only when you can find peace in your heart _____good relationships with others. A. will you keep A.that A. had Mo Yan A. why B. who B. you will keep B. which B. Mo Yan had C. where D. that 5. [14 湖南]33.It’s not doing the things we like, but liking the things we have to do

6. [14 陕西]17. No sooner ________ stepped on the stage than the audience broke into thunderous applause. 7. [14 四川]3. Was it because Jack came late for school ______ Mr. Smith got angry?

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