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NETWORK PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT SERVICES DESCRIPTION FOR THE AREA PAGING

Abstract This document describes the requirement and actions for a paging performance analysis in a Network

Performance Improvement (NPI) service project. The paging performance is a part of the accessibility performance area within the NPI service packages.

Table of Contents
1 SPECIFICATION............................................................................................... 2 1.1 DESCRIPTION................................................................................................. 2 1.2 PURPOSE ....................................................................................................... 2 2 PREPARATION ................................................................................................. 3 2.1 PREREQUISITES ............................................................................................. 3 2.2 TOOLS ........................................................................................................... 3 2.3 PREPARATION ACTIVITIES ............................................................................. 3 3 DESK ANALYSIS .............................................................................................. 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 WORK FLOW.................................................................................................. 3 USED FORMULAS ........................................................................................... 4 HOW TO ANALYSE ......................................................................................... 5 RESULTS ....................................................................................................... 6

ON SITE ACTIVITIES...................................................................................... 7 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 7 PREPARATION ............................................................................................... 7 ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 7 RESULTS ....................................................................................................... 8

5

REPORT.............................................................................................................. 8 5.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 8 5.2 REPORT CONTENTS ........................................................................................ 8 5.3 PAGING PERFORMANCE (EXAMPLE) .............................................................. 9

6 7

REFERENCES.................................................................................................. 12 REVISION HISTORY ..................................................................................... 13

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1
1.1

Specification
Description
The investigation of paging performance shall include the following measurements: MSC level measurements: ? Total first page attempts per day. ? Global page rate. ? Repeated page rate. ? Successrate first page. ? Paging success rate. Location Area (LA) level measurements: ? Total page attempts busy period. ? Repeated page rate. ? Paging success rate. The performance shall be measured in 1h files on a daily basis during the whole measurement period. MSC level statistics shall be presented as values calculated over the whole measurement period. Total values shall be transformed to an average value for one day. LA level statistics shall be presented as values calculated over the selected busy period for the whole measurement period. Total values shall be transformed to an average value for one hour.

1.2

Purpose
The main purpose of the paging analysis is to check the paging success rate and paging load in the system. A good paging performance is necessary to assure that the mobile subscribers always can be reached by incoming calls. The analysis shall also recommend actions to found problems.

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2
2.1

Preparation
Prerequisites
STS data according to Data Collection Instruction (DCI) [1] with object types: ? On BSC Level: BSC ? On MSC/VLR Level: Paging (PAGING). ? On Location Area Level: LA level statistics (LOCAREAST). STS shall be used to measure the paging statistics 24 hours per day during the decided measurement period (e.g. 5 days). Maps with the LA areas shown are needed. Latest SW tools (see Chapter 2.2) with formula sheet including the paging formulas. Printouts according to the DCI [1] .

2.2

Tools
The necessary tools, if a PC is used, are SPOS, Turtle, the Turtle MS Excel Macro, MS Excel and IPOS. If OSS is used, CNA, SRP and ApplixWare can be used.

2.3

Preparation activities
Check the DCI [1] to see that it contains the necessary object types and commands. Install the latest tools and formula versions.

3
3.1

Desk Analysis
Work flow
The following procedure should be used as a basis for a desk analysis of the paging performance: 1. 2. 3. Use IPOS (or CNA in OSS) for easier analysis of the system parameters. Post process the STS files with the PC tool SPOS. Store the files for each day in separate directories. Post process the STS statistics together with the latest user formulas in the PC tool Turtle to calculate the paging performance for the whole measurement period. Create files in Turtle per day for MSC level and per busy period for LA level. Store the files in separate directories.

4.

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5. 6. 7.

Use the report printout from Turtle to analyse the result. Calculate benchmarking values. If on-site activities were included in the service and the paging performance can not be considered as good due to reasons other than coverage, actions need to be taken to improve the performance (see Chapter 4). Summarise the result of the analysis and the improvement actions in a report.

8.

This work flow is applicable for both, PC based tools and for OSS.

3.2

Used formulas
The following formulas according to [7] can be used on BSC level for Ericssons GSM System R7:
PAG_FAIL: Number of Discarded Paging Messages due to Paging Congestion of all Paging Messages Received from the MSC.

The following formulas according to [2] can be used on LA level for Ericssons GSM System R7:
PL_TOT: Total Number of Page Attempts (First and Repeated Pages). Repeated Page Attempts of Total Number of First Page Attempts.

PL_2-1:

PL_SUC-1:

Successful First and Repeated Page Attempts of Total Number of First Page Attempts.

The following formulas according to [2] should be used on MSC level for Ericssons GSM System R7:
P_1_TOT: P_1_GL: P_2_TOT-1: P_1_SUC-1: P_12_SUC-1: Total Number of First Page Attempts. Global First Page Attempts of Total Number of First Page Attempts. Repeated Page Attempts of Total Number of First Page Attempts. Successful First Page Attempts of Total Number of First Page Attempts. Successful First and Repeated Page Attempts of Total Number of First Page Attempts.

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3.3

How to analyse
Use the parameter values and the report from Turtle as input to the analysis. Do the analysis in conjunction with the analysis of the Location Updating (LU) performance and CP load. Some useful guidelines are given below. Check the following: ? Paging Congestion in the MSC (command COFLP;). ? Paging Congestion in the BSC (Statistics). ? The paging performance with regards to load and success rate. See [3]. ? The average CP load (from the CP load analysis). ? BSC parameters affecting the paging performance e.g. T3212, MFRMS, AGBLK, BCCHTYPE, ACCMIN, ATT and MAXRET against the recommended parameter values. ? MSC parameters affecting the paging performance e.g. BTDM, GTDM, TDD, PAGTIMEFRST1LA, PAGTIMEFRSTGLOB, PAGREP1LA, PAGREPGLOB, PAGTIMEREP1LA, PAGTIMEREPGLOB, TMSIPAR and TMSILAIMSC against the recommended parameter values.. ? If the paging success rate is low check if there are any areas with bad coverage? Study maps together with the Dropped call analysis. On site MRR can be used to get coverage information. The paging performance indicators described in Chapter 1.1 (see also Chapter 3.2) shall be calculated and presented against available benchmarking values. A bad paging performance is often due to coverage problems e.g. an attached mobile out of coverage will not be able to receive or respond to a page. It is also important to check the parameter setting of the network. Especially if coverage is not the main problem, a different parameter setting might improve the paging performance. The time between periodic registrations, the function Implicit IMSI detach, the number of LAs and the size of the LAs are the key areas. It is very important to do the paging analysis together with the LU analysis. If for example the time between periodic registrations is decreased the paging success rate will most likely improve but the overall LU load will increase in the network. If the LU load is increased, cells with high SDCCH load e.g. cells close to LA borders will get even higher SDCCH load. Another example on how the LU load can get higher is if the number of LAs within a BSC is increased for instance with the purpose to lower the BTS paging load. A high paging- or LU load will affect the CP load in concerned MSC and BSC nodes. Paging congestion can occur in the MSC, in the BSC and in the BTSs. In the MSC the amount of maximum possible paging individuals is dependent on the CP load and on the number of paging individuals defined by the user for the block MPAG. The main related SAE (SAE 500 block MPAG) is supervised and congestion can be found with the command COFLP;. Other SAE might cause paging problems if congested. For further information see [8]. Paging congestion in the BSC can be detected by monitoring the user-formula PAG_FAIL. Every Paging Message received from the MSC which can not be

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processed, due to that the paging queue in the BSC is full, will step the related STS counter TOTCONGPAG. Paging congestion in the BTSs is dependent on what paging strategy is used in the different LAs, which is decided by the parameter setting in the MSC. For RBS200 and RBS2000 there exist an paging queue but even so it is not recommended to use cells with combined BCCH/SDCCH in LAs with high paging load. For the BSC the paging capacity can be estimated through formula calculations. Guidelines for paging capacity calculations is given in reference [3] and [4]. BTS paging congestion should only be analysed as an on-site activity. Please also note that paging problem and/or location update performance problems generated by the LA-planning can not be solved within a normal standardised NPI service. Such problems should be handled by a special NPI service with focus on these areas (to perform such service could be a recommendation in the report.

3.4

Results
If there exist problems with the paging performance the result of the desk analysis is overall recommendations on how the performance could be improved. The following are independent examples on recommended actions for the operator that can be the result of the analysis: ? Too less paging individuals defined in the MSC. ? The CP load in the MSC/BSC is high due to paging. ? High paging load or even paging congestion in one or more BSCs. Avoid unnecessary paging e.g. by using the IMSI detach function. If paging congestion in the BSC is discovered and the paging strategy is not to be changed, it might even be necessary to move cells or to recommend to add a new BSC. ? Low paging success rate. Is coverage problems the reason? Check with the recommended parameter setting: Is the function Implicit IMSI detach turned on? Can T3212 be decreased? The time between periodic registrations (T3212 and BTDM) can be decreased if the paging load is high and there is no problem with LU capacity. This will increase the total SDCCH load in the network which is a drawback. ? The mobile power consumption is regarded to be high in the network. Consider to increase the number of paging groups. ? The call set-up time is regarded to be long in the network. Consider to decrease the number of paging groups. ? Location Area Dimensioning causes bad paging performance. Recommend an RNI with focus on Location Area Dimensioning. ? Paging congestion in the BTS can not be excluded or bad paging performance without an obvious reason, recommend an RNI with focus on Paging Performance. The result of the paging analysis should focus on possible reasons to why the performance is bad i.e. if it is bad. The recommended actions must be coordinated with the actions recommended for the LU performance.

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4.1

On Site Activities
General
On Site Activities are activities which can be performed in addition to the desk analysis. Anyway, all actions described for the desk analysis need to be performed and all information collected for the desk study need to be available before on site activities can be started.

4.2
4.2.1

Preparation
Tools Additional to the tools described in Chapter 2.2, the software DVT (Debugging and Verification Tool) or OMT2 might be used to check individual base stations.

4.3
4.3.1

Analysis
Workflow It is very important to also consider the LU performance in the result. Additional actions to the work flow in Chapter 3.1 are: ? ? Study a map of the network indicating the LAs. Calculate the average paging rate per second during busy period and compare with applicable maximum guideline values for BSC and BTS. See [3] and [4]. Perform necessary changes, e.g. the time supervision parameters. Use STS to verify changes to the network. Measure the LU- and paging performance, SDCCH load and CP load before and after the changes. Calculate and/or measure the paging load.

? ?

4.3.2

How to analyse Use the parameter values and the report from Turtle as input to the analysis. Do the analysis in conjunction with the analysis of the Location Updating (LU) performance and CP load. Some useful guidelines are given below. Additional to Chapter 3.3 check the following: ? ? ? ? ? Analyse the MSC parameter setting of the system e.g. the paging strategy used. See [3], [5] and [6]. Analyse the BSC parameter setting of the system e.g. idle mode behaviour. See [3], [4] and [5] The paging load distribution between the different LAs. Problem cells e.g. cells with combined BCCH/SDCCH which suffers from a high paging level. Check paging congestion in one BTS belonging to the LA with the highest paging traffic.

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4.4

Results
If there exist problems with the paging performance the result of the on-site analysis is an acceptable performance. The following are independent examples on actions possible to perform to improve the performance as result of the analysis: ? High paging load or even paging congestion in the BTS. Removal of combined BCCH cells and changed parameter values for MFRMS and AGBLK. ? TMSI used for the first page instead of the IMSI. ? High load only in the BTSs (and not in the BSC or MSC). Adding of a new LA. ? Adjust of LAs after analysis. More LAs in the BSC increase the paging capacity. Smart definition of the LAs avoided an increase of the LU load.

5
5.1

Report
General
The report examples shown below are related to services without any on-site activities. In case of services including on-site activities the parts describing the performance can be kept. Recommendations shall not exist in such report. Instead it is expected that the recommendations, such as parameter changes, are already performed on-site, that the performance of the different changes is well documented (e.g. by comparison of the performance of the different settings) and that a conclusion is drawn in the report, what the problem has been and how it was solved. In opposite to a service without an on-site activity, the configuration of a network might be changed during a service with on-site activities. The best configuration found during the on-site activity will be left in the system, when the service is finished.

5.2

Report contents
The report shall present the measurements made and the result from the analysis. The following shall be presented in tables: ? The parameters and exchange properties related to paging. ? The performance indicators listed in Chapter 1.1. If the paging load is a concern this can be shown in a graph with the paging rate per second for the investigated LAs. The results must be well explained so the reader understand the reasons for a bad performance. Do not explain every parameter and function in detail but refer to documentation available to the customer. Any recommendation must be co-ordinated with other investigated areas especially the LU performance.

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5.3

Paging Performance (example)
MSC999 is covering two LA areas, LA1 (BSC1) and LA2 (BSC2). LA2 is covering down town GSM-city. In Table 5-1 and Table 5-2 some of the most important BSC and MSC parameters for paging are given. For details about the parameters please see [5] and [6]. The data was collected February 4.

Parameters MFRMS

BSC1 5

BSC2 5

Explanation Number of multiframe periods between pages to the same paging group No. of reserved access grant blocks Type of BCCH Time-out, MS periodic LU Attach-detach allowed Max. retransmission at access Cell reselect hysteresis

AGBLK BCCHTYPE T3212 [Deci hours] ATT MAXRET CRH [dB]

1 NCOMB 240 YES 4 4

1 NCOMB 240 NO 4 4

Table 5-1 BSC parameters related to paging, 980204. Some cells in the western region of LA1 (BSC1) have combined BCCH channels. Parameters BTDM GTDM TDD
[min] [min] [days]

Setting 1440 10 1 4 7 2 0 2 7 1 0

Explanation Base Time Duration, implicit detach Guard Time Duration Automatic de-registration supervision time Time supervision for the first page in one LA Time supervision for the first global page Repeated paging in one LA (2 = repeated with IMSI) Repeated global paging (0 = global paging not repeated) Time supervision for the repeated page in one LA Time supervision for the repeated global page TMSI master parameter (1 = TMSI allocated on encrypted connection) New TMSI at changing of LA (0 = no)

PAGTIMEFRST1LA [s] PAGTIMEFRSTGLOB [s] PAGREP1LA PAGREPGLOB PAGTIMEREP1LA [s] PAGTIMEREPGLOB [s] TMSIPAR TMSILAIMSC

Table 5-2 MSC parameters and exchange properties related to paging, 980204.

LVR/P-97:0463 Rev B 1999-02-23 ? Ericsson. For limited internal use only

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Paging Performance 980212 - 980216, 24h Average total first page attempts per day ? ? ? ? Global first page of total first pages Repeated page of total first pages Successful first pages of total first pages Success rate all pages of total first pages Table 5-3 Paging performance on MSC level.

MSC999 312 400 1.9% 16.1% 72.9% 75.6%

The overall paging success rate for MSC999 is beyond acceptable levels. One reason is the long time between periodic registration. See [5] for details regarding the periodic registration process. Recommendation 4.1 Investigate if the BSC parameter T3212 can be decreased from 24h to 2h. IMPORTANT: BTDM in the MSC should be set to at least this value. Check and monitor the paging performance on BSS level.

Paging Performance 980212 – 980216, 15:00 - 18:00 Average total page attempts per hour ? ? Repeated page of total first pages Success rate all pages of total first pages

LA1 82 000 14% 75.6%

LA2 64 000 17% 77.2%

Table 5-4 Paging performance on LA level for busy period. The paging success rate for LA2 is 77%, which is low, but understandable since the implicit detach function is switched off. Recommendation 4.2 Turn on the function Implicit detach for BSC2 (ATT=YES).

LA1, i.e. BSC1, has a paging success rate of about 76% which is low as well. LA1 is covering the outskirts of Baj-Maj and the reason for the low paging success rate is bad coverage.

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Recommendation 4.3 Consider to improve the network coverage in the area east of the suburb of Banj.

The paging load in BSC1 is around 23 pages per second which is high even if APZ 212 11 is used. 141 cells and almost 400 TRXes are controlled by BSC1 which would give an estimated maximum paging capacity of around 25 pages per second. This will most likely cause problems during paging peaks even if the BSC have a paging queue. Recommendation 4.4 Consider to split LA1 into two new LAs. The low traffic area west of Baj-Maj with many combined BCCH cells should form a new LA.

Use STS to verify the changes to the network. Measure the paging performance before and after the changes.

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Data Collection Instruction for NPI services, LVR/P-98:0038 Rev. B MSC STS User Formulas, Ericsson GSM System R7, LV/R-98:0614 Rev. A Location Area and paging analysis for Radio Network Investigations, LVR/P-97:001 Rev. A Location area dimensioning guideline, the Ericsson GSM System R7, 11/100 56-HSC 103 12 Uen Rev. A User Description, Idle mode behavior, 2/1553-HSC 103 12 Uen Rev B Mobile Telephony Data Changeable Exchange Adaptation, 2/155 181/APT 210 25/2 Uen Rev. B BSC STS User Formulas, Ericsson GSM System R7, LVR/R-98:0376 Rev. A Application Information: Mobile Telephony Paging Changeable Exchange Information, MPAG: Mobile Telephony Paging, 2/155 18CNT 293 0074 Uen A

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Revision History
Revision Rev. A Date 97-12-17 Remarks Document responsible: Anders Liljegren, LVR/PO. Review meeting 971203 see LVR/P97:0500. Document responsible: Stephan Trzeciak, LVR/PO.

Rev. B

99-02-23

Date: Author: Checked: Approved: 990223 990223 990223

Signature: (erastep) (eraludv) (erasta)

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