动词时态和语态 高中阶段的英语学习要求掌握 11 种时态. 包括：一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成 时、现在完成进行时、一般过去时、过去进行时、过去完成时、过去将来时、一般将来时、 将来进行时和将来完成时。 时态 主动 被动 一般现在时 am/is/are; am/is/are+done do/does 现在进行时 am/is/are+doing am/is/are+being
done 现在完成时 现在完成进行时 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去将来时 一般将来时 将来进行时 将来完成时 have/has done have/has +been doing was/were; did was/were+doing had done would be/do will/shall be; will/shall do will be doing will have done have/has +been done / was/were+done was/were+being done had been done would be done will/shall be done / will have been done
【用法讲解】 1. Every few years, the coal workers ______ their lungs X-rayed to ensure their health. A. are having B. have C. have had D. had had 2. When he was at school, he ________ to the library every day. A. goes B. was going C. has gone D. went 3. Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across the open sea, which ______ the Pacific, and we met no storm. A. was called B. is called C. had been called D. has been called 4. When he ________ back this afternoon, I will tell you about it. A. is coming B. comes C. will come D. came 5. The plane ______ at 7:00 p.m., so I have to be at the airport by 6:40 at the latest. A. leaves B. is about to leave C. will have left D. has left Conclusion: 一般现在时 1). 经常反复发生的动作或者存在的状态，通常与 always, often, usually, every day, sometimes 等连用； 2). 表客观事实或者真理； 3). 时间状语和条件状语从句中用一般现在表示将来；
4). 飞机、火车等交通工具按照时刻表运行 6. In 1942, Columbus ______ on the one of the Bahama islands, but he mistook it for an island off India. A. lands B. landed C. has landed D. had landed 7. Excuse me, I ________ I was blocking your way. A. didn’t realize B. don’t realize C. haven’t realized D. wasn’t realizing 8. He ________ the army for two years. Now he is a governmental employee. A. has joined B. had joined C. has been in D. was in 9. In the last few years thousands of films ______ all over the word. A. have produced B. have been produced C. are producing D. are being produced 10. —I didn’t ask for the name list. Why ______on my desk? —I put it there just now in case you needed it. A. has it landed B. does it land C. will it land D. had it landed Conclusion: 一般过去时和现在完成时 1). 一般过去式强调动作发生在过去，与现在没有联系，一般与过去具体时间连用； 2). 现在完成式表示动作或状态从过去一直延续到现在，或者是动作发生在过去，却与现 在有联系并对现在产生影响。 11. —Joan, what ______ in your hand? —Look! It’s a birthday gift for my grandma. A. had you held B. are you holding C. do you hold D. will you hold 12. — Did he notice you enter the room? — I don’t think so. He＿＿to the radio with his eyes shut. A. listened B. was listening C. has listened D. had listened 13. I will not go to see my teacher at about eight tomorrow morning, for _________ a lesson at that time. A. he will be giving B. he is going to give C. he will give D. he would give 14. —I have been waiting for her for a long time, but she hasn’t turned up yet —I have been used to it. She ____________ something. A. forgets B. had forgotten C. is always forgetting D. has forgotten Conclusion: 进行时(现在、过去、将来) 1). 表示在某个时间正在做某事(只强调那时正在做，是否完成并不知道)； 2). 与 always, forever, constantly, continually 等连用，含有感情色彩。 15. Up to now, the program ________ thousands of children who would otherwise have died. A. has saved B. saves C. had saved D. would save 16. It is the most instructive lecture that I ________since I came to this school. A. attended B. had attended C. am attending D. have attended 17. I was just going to cut my rose bushes but someone ________ it. Was it you? A. has done B. had done C. would do D. will do 18. By the time Jack returned home from England, his son ______ from college. A. graduated B. has graduated C. had been D. had graduated 19. On the next birthday, Ann ______ married for twenty years.
A. is B. has been C. will be D. will have been 20. —I am sure Andrew will win the first prize in the final. —I think so. He _____ for it for months. A. has prepared B. prepared C. had been preparing D. has been preparing 21. —Hi, Tracy. You look pale. — I’m too tired. I ________ the living room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted Conclusion: 完成时(过去、现在、将来) 现在完成时与现在完成进行时：现在完成进行时强调动作或状态从过去一直延续到现在并 且有向下发展趋势，也可以表示从过去某时开始，一直延续到说话的时候，刚刚结束的 动作，并仍与现在有关联。 22. —What do you think of store shopping in the future? —Personally, I think it will exist along with home shopping but __________. A. will never replace B. would never replace C. will never be replaced D. would never be replaced 23. I didn’t know you were coming this morning. I______ you _______ tomorrow. A. thought; would come B. think; will C. have thought; have come D. didn’t think; would come 24. —Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday? —I______, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did 25. —You've left the light on. — Oh, so I have. I _____________. A. will turn it off B. I turn it off C. am going to turn it off D. to turn it off 26. When he the door, he found his keys were nowhere. ks5u A. would open B. opened C. had opened D. was to open ks5 27. —How long _______ in Paris? —I’ll be there for just two days and have to be back for an interview next Sunday. A. have you stayed B. are you staying C. do you stay D. will you have stayed Conclusion: 将来式： will/shall do: 指一般的将来，强调临时兴起的念头； be going to do: 表示计划、打算，或者有迹象要发生的； be doing: 表示意图、安排，常见动词有 come, go, start/begin, do, leave, arrive, get, stay, reach, return 等； be to do: 表示按计划或安排将要发生的事情，含有责任、义务、命中注定，注定要发生； be about to do: 不与将来时间连用，表示下一刻即将要做的事情。 【解题步骤】 1. 找出题干中的时间状语或者是暗示时间的谓语动词； 2. 理解句意，注重语境； 3. 弄清是主动还是被动； 4. 排除错误或无关选项； 5. 仔细斟酌，选择恰当的时态。
练习：2012 年全国各地高考单选时态语态题 1. —Did you ask Sophia for help?【2012 全国卷 II】 —I ______ need to – I managed perfectly well on my own. A. wouldn’t B. don’t C. didn’t D. won’t 2. The manager ______ the workers how to improve the program since 9 a.m.【2012 全国卷 II】 A. has told B. is telling C. has been telling D. will have told 3. In order to find the missing child, villagers ______ all they can over the past five hours.【2012 安徽】 A. did B. do C. had done D. have been doing 4. Grace doesn’t want to move to New York because she thinks if she ______ there, she wouldn’t be able to see her parents very often.【2012 安徽】 A. lives B. would live C. having asked D. were to live 5. Walmart, which is one of the largest American supermarket chains, ______ some of its store open 24 hours on Mondays through Saturdays.【2012 安徽】 A. keeps B. keep C. have kept D. had kept 6. After school we went to the reading-room to do some reading, only to be told that it ______. 【2012 安徽】 A. was decorated B. had decorated C. had been decorating D. was being decorated 7. —Kevin, you look worried. Anything wrong?【2012 重庆】 —Well, I____ a test and I’m waiting for the result. A. will take B. took C. had taken D. take 8. Food supplies in the flood-stricken area ______.We must act immediately before there’s none left.【2012 重庆】 A. have run out B. are running out C. have been run out D. are being run out 9. ―Life is like walking in the snow‖, Granny used to say, ―because every step ______.‖【2012 全 国】 A. has shown B. is showing C. shows D. showed 10. I had been working on math for the whole afternoon and the numbers ______ before my eyes. 【2012 全国】 A. swim B .swum C. swam D. had swum 11. George said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he ______.【2012 北京】 A. wouldn’t B. didn’t C. hasn’t D. hadn’t 12. —Have you heard about that fire in the market? 【2012 北京】 —Yes, fortunately no one _____. A. hurt B. was hurt C. has hurt D. had been hurt 13. Our friendship _____ quickly over the weeks that followed.【2012 北京】 A. had developed B. was developing C. would develop D. developed 14. Don’t handle the vase as if it ______ made of steel.【2012 北京】 A. is B. were C. has been D. had been 15. —When did the computer crash? 【2012 福建】 —This morning, while I ______ the reading materials downloaded from some websites. A. have sorted B. was sorting C. am sorting D. had sorted 16. —Can I call you back at two o’clock this afternoon? 【2012 陕西】 —I’m sorry, but by then I _____ to Beijing. How about five? A. fly B. will fly C. will be flying D. am flying
17. After Jack had sent some e-mails, he ______ working on his project. 【2012 山东】 A. had started B. has started C. started D. starts 18. The manager was concerned to hear that two of his trusted workers ______.【2012 山东】 A. will leave B. are leaving C. have left D. were leaving 19. Don’t worry. The hard work that you do now ______ later in life. 【2012 湖南】 A. will be repaid B. was being repaid C. has been repaid D. was repaid 20. Close the door of fear behind you, and you ______ the door of faith open before you. 【2012 湖南】 A. saw B. have seen C. will see D. are seeing 21. ―The moment _____ soon,‖ he thought to himself, waiting nervously. 【2012 湖南】 A. came B. has come C. was coming D. is coming 22. —I remember you were a talented pianist at college. Can you play the piano for me? —Sorry, I _______ the piano for years. 【2012 湖南】 A. don’t play B. wasn’t playing C. haven’t played D. hadn’t played 23. The letters for the boss _____ on his desk but he didn’t read them until three days later. 【2012 天津】 A. were put B. was put C. put D. has put 24. The three of us _______ around Europe for about a month last summer.【2012 天津】 A. traveled B. have traveled C. had traveled D. travel 25. —Look! Somebody ______ the sofa. —Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. 【2012 江西】 A. is cleaning B. was cleaning C. has cleaned D. had cleaned 26. I feel so excited! At this time tomorrow morning I _____ to Shanghai. 【2012 辽宁】 A. will be flying B. will fly C. have been flying D. have flown 27. Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I ____ on Friday.【2012 辽宁】 A. get paid B. got paid C. have paid D. had been paid 28. —Did you catch what I said?【2012 四川】 —Sorry. I ______ a text message just now. A. had answering B. have answered C. would answer D. was answering 29. They are living with their parents for the moment because their own house ______. 【2012 四 川】 A. is being rebuilt B. has been rebuilt C. is rebuilt D. has rebuilt 30. Peter had intended to take a job in business, but _______ that plan after the unpleasant experience in Canada in 2010.【2012 浙江】 A. had abandoned B. abandoned C. abandon D. will abandon 31. —Alvin, are you coming with us? 【2012 浙江】 —I’d love to, but something unexpected _______. A. has come up B. was coming up C. had come up D. would come up 32. The manager is said to have arrived back from Paris where he _____ some European business partners. 【2012 江苏】 A. would meet B. is meeting C. meets D. had met 33. The president hopes that the people will be better off when he quits than when he ______. 【2012 江苏】 A. has started B. starts C. started D. will start