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英语阅读理解7选5答题技巧及练习


英语阅读理解七选五解题技巧

题型解读:在 2010 和 2011 年英语试卷中多个地区采用“七选五”型阅读理解题, 试题模式为:给出一篇缺少 5 个句子的文章,对应有七个选项,要求同学们根据文章结 构、内容,选出正确的句子,填入相应的空白处。《考试说明》对该题型命题目的的表 述为“主要考查考生对文章的整体内容和结构以及上下文逻辑意义的理解和掌握。 一.7 选

5 的考察要点 这一考查题型对阅读理解提出了更高层次的要求,即不仅要有阅读速度,要对所读 文章的主旨要义、具体信息要有所了解,尤其重要的是要掌握作者的写作意图、观点, 区分出论点和论据,并且能够把握文章的写作结构和脉络层次,只有了解了这一切,才 能比较准确地确定应该选择哪个选项。 不过,只要了解了这种新题型所考查的要点,出题位置,在阅读文章时有意识地加 强对文章写作思路和结构组织安排的理解,掌握英语文章常见的几种写作结构,对迅速 增强此类新题型的应对能力还是非常有帮助的。 1)出题位置 往往,段首,段中,段尾 ,缺 1 句或 1 个以上的句子。 该节分为两个部分:主干部分和选项部分。主干部分的原文约 300 词,其中 有 5 段空白处,空白处的位置可能在段首、段中、段未,选项部分为 7 段文字,每段可 能是一个句子,可能是两三个短句。其中 5 段文字分属于主干部分的空白处。要求考生 依据自己对文章的理解从选项中选择 5 段文字放回到文章中相应的 5 段空白处。 2)出题数量 非等额选项(题目 5 道,7 个选项) 3) 文章结构 (a)描述性结构(主要介绍事物、问题或倾向的特点,对人物的描述如传记,包括人 身体特征、家庭背景、成长过程、个性爱好、成就贡献等内容进行描述,因此时间、地 点往往是出题重点) (b)释义性结构(解释某一理论、学科、事物,主要用例子比喻类比阐述) (c)比较性结构(把两个人或事物功能、特点、优缺点进行对比) (d)原因性结构(这种结构主要分析事物的成因,客观的、主观的、直接的、间接的) (e)驳斥性结构(这种结构主要是先介绍一种观点,然后对其评论或驳斥,然后分析 其优点缺点、危害性、最后阐明自己的观点) 二.7 选 5 的解题步骤 1)快速阅读全文要点词句,包括首尾段、首尾句以及独立成段的句子和文章中带转 折词的句子等,目的是掌握文章的主要内容。 2)然后再边读边做题,重点阅读各个问题附近的句子,圈定线索词,然后从选项中 寻找相关的特征词,以确定答案。做题时可以采用代入排除法。如果一题做不出或拿不 准,可先放过,继续往下读,先做容易的能做出的题,直到读完整篇文章。至此,文章 的要点和主旨、各个段落之间的逻辑关系应基本清楚了。 3)重新阅读相关词句,重点做刚才没做出的题或不确定的题,此时可将已选出的答 案代入原文,利用排除法。同时检查核对已选出的答案,看文章从内容上是否语义连贯 合理,语篇结构上是否通顺连贯、具有一致性、合乎逻辑,写作思路是否清晰明了,格 式以及用语是否恰当贴切。如果所选的答案可以满足上述标准,则表明各个问题的答案 基本正确。

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4).比较两类关键词 :将 7 个选项的关键词与 5 个空的前后句中的关键词进行比较, 匹配的是正确答案。 具体方法:1. 阅读各个空的前后句,标记关键词 在阅读文章的开始部分、明确文章的基本话题以后,要阅读五个空自的前后句,并将前 后句中的解题线索,即关键词标记下来。关键词包括句中的核心名词或名词词组(如带 有形容词的名词词组),专有名词、时间数字、代词、连词等。 2. 阅读各个选项,尤其是选项的首句,标记关键词 3. 比较并匹配上述两类关键词,确定答案 4. 将确定的答案代入原文,看读起来是否通顺。 如:下面一篇文章 51 You don’t show your secret personality when you are awake because you can control your behavior, but when you are asleep,your sleeping position shows the real you.52.The important position is the one that you go to sleep in. If you go to sleep on your back, you’re a very open person. You normally trust people and you are easily influenced by fashion or new ideas.You don’t like to displease people.So you never express your real feelings.53 If you sleep on your stomach,you are a rather secretive person.You worry a lot and you’re always easily upset.You always stick to your own opinions or judgment,but you aren’t very ambitious(上进心).54.This means that you enjoy having a good time. If you sleep curled up, you are probably a very nervous person. You have a low opinion of yourself and so you’re often delusive.You’re shy and you don’t normally like meeting people. You prefer to on your own,You’re easily hurt. If you sleep on your side.yon have usually got a well—balanced personality.55.Yon’re usually careful. You believe in yourself. Yon sometimes feel anxious, but you don’t often get sad.You always say what you think even if it makes people rather angry. A. You’re quite shy and you aren’t quite sure of yourself. B.You know your strengths and weakness. C.Normally people seldom change their sleeping position D .Everyone has got two personalities—the one that is shown to the world and the other that is secret and real. E.Maybe you don’t want to make friends with a person who sleeps curled up. F .You usually live for today not tomorrow. G. In a normal night,of course,people frequently change their positions. 1.标记空前后句中的关键词 本文主要讨论各种睡眠姿势反映出的各种性格。各个空前后句的关键词标记如下: 51.空后:名词词组 secret personality ,don’t show
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52.空前 position 空后 important ,position, the one ,等。说明空中要填入的选项含 有此类词汇。 53.关键词:never express your real feelings 54.关键词:aren’t very ambitious(上进心)。空后,you enjoy having a good time. 55.空前句中的关键词:well—balanced ,空后为 careful 2.标记选项中的关键词 (A) 关键词 shy,aren’t quite sure 说明空的前一句可能提到过一种不敢干什么 (B) know your strengths and weakness 说明一个人性格是好的, 优缺点都知道而且能 调控。 (C) seldom change their sleeping position 说明前后一句可能提到数字,而且是很少 的。 (D) two personalities,shown secret (E) don’t want to make friends, sleeps curled up.(说明前面或后面肯定提到蜷着 身子睡觉的人的各种个性。 (F) live for today not tomorrow(活在当下,没抱负) (G) frequently change their positions. 3.比较两类关键词 将 7 个选项的关键词与 5 个空的前后句中的关键词进行比较,发现匹配的是: 51 与 D、52 与 G、53 与 A、54 与 F、 55 与 B。 4. 代入原文 将确定的选项代入原文,发现意义上与逻辑上都通顺,因此为正确答案。 七选五解题策略 七选五解题的关键是能娴熟地利用各种衔接手段。衔接手段分为三种:词汇衔接、 逻辑衔接、结构衔接(具体如下)。 一.词汇衔接又可以具体分为三种:代词、同义词/近义词、上下义词/同一范畴词 对应关系。 1. 代词 英语表达中的代词出现的频率极高,代词的作用是指代前面提及的名词或形容 词概念,巧妙利用这样的指代关系和根据代词的单复数差异可以准确而快速地解题。
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例题:…The new design was well received by the reception staff of the hotel chain._________ 正确选项句子为:They all believe that its introduction has led to a modern , more professional corporate image and greater confidence among them. 例题分析: 选项中的 they 是一个复数人数主格代词, 对应空格前句中的 staff。 staff 是一个集合名词(全体员工),是个复数概念。代词中有一类叫不定代词,常见的有: one, everyone, everybody, each, both, all, many, these, this 等,特别要注意它们所指代的名 词概念的单复数性质,考生如果对此比较敏感,对解题有很大的帮助。 例题:It is important, therefore, that we should know what people using our stores want of us.__________ During the past two years, we have been working hard to improve the standard of our products in both these areas. 正确选项句子为: The research made by the company shows that, above all else, customers expect fashion and value. 例题分析:空格后的句末 in both these areas 中 both 这个不定代词提示考生空格中 一定出现两个并列的名词概念,即 fashion and value。当然该题也可通过同义词对应解 题:选项中的 expect 对应空格前的 want,表“需求”。 2. 同义词/近义词 英语前言后语之间往往有同义词、近义词、近义表达语甚至相同词汇的重复使 用,这是我们解题的一个很好的判断线索。其实就其本质而言,上文讲的代词和下文将 涉及的上下义词和同一范畴词都是特殊的同义/近义词。 例题:Laura Ashley made a fortune by looking back to past centuries, searching for old designs to decorate a variety of clothes and household furnishings. _____. 正确的选项是:These traditional products created a huge wave of demand from the States and elsewhere. 例题分析:空格前句中的 old 和选项中的 traditional 是近义词,是很明显的同义对 应关系。 有的时候, 如果选项中出现空格前后句里相同的词汇, 尤其是实词 (特别是名词) , 这往往是很好的提示。这就是所谓的同词重复现象。 例题:51 You don’t show your secret personality when you are awake because you can control your behavior, but when you are asleep,your sleeping position shows the real you. 正确选项为 Everyone has got two personalities—the one that is shown to the world and the other that is secret and real.

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例题分析:空格后句和空格里都出现了 personality,secret,在读选项的时候很容易 注意到这个同词重复的解题线索。 3. 上下义词/同一范畴词 什么是上下义词和同一范畴词?举个例子你们就明白了。Fruit 和 apple 之间就 是上下义词,因为前者包含了后者,或可以说后者是前者的一个子集。Apple 和 orange 之间则是同一范畴的关系,都属于 fruit。利用前后句中这样的特殊的同义关系常常可以 很轻松地解题。 例题: A recently study by American management institute shows that the processing of documents takes up 60% of office works’ time, 40% of labor costs and up to 10% of business income. ______. 正确的选项是:These figures are hardly surprising since documents convey nine-tenths of all information. 例题分析:选项中的 these figures 提示我们前句一定出现了大于等于三个数字, figure/number/ data 等都是表示“数字、数据”的意思,空格前面出现了三个百分数,属于 数字的一种,是上下义词的关系。 例题:Certain key products have been subject to a thorough review, most notably menswear, where significant advances have been made in product design and manufacture. ____________.All of these have reported an increase in market share. 正确的选项是:Other areas where product innovation has been particularly effective are in lingerie, (女士内衣) gifts and home ware. 例题分析: 空格后句开头的 all of these 提示我们空格里面肯定出现大于等于三个 并列的名词概念,正是选项中的 lingerie(女士内衣), gifts(礼品)and home ware(家 居用品),这三个名词与前句中的 menswear(男士服装)属于同一范畴类的事物,都是百 货商店中的常见商品类别。从这道例题我们还能得出这样一个有用的结论:很多题目的 衔接可能不止一个,我们可以从不同的角度来解题或对答案进行验证。 4)数字线索 包括具体数字以及和数字相关的词汇诸如 numbers, rate 等等。作者列出数字,除了 和其他数字进行对比和比较之外,还可以用数据来说明一个观点。 Researchers analyzed the contents of 28 strawberry-flavored products sold in stores. 72 Of the 11 products that did contain strawberries, five of them contained less than one percent real fruit.In addition, each juice box contained nearly eight teaspoons of sugar. 正确答案为 They found that about 60 percent of them didn't contain any fruit at all.从数字 60 percent,空后 11 和空前的 28 可以推出此空与数字有关。再从空中的 them 和空后的 the 11 products 可以推测前面提到了 products.
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二.逻辑衔接根据前后句之间的逻辑关系又细分为:解释关系、例证关系、因果关 系、顺逆关系。 1. 解释关系 前后句之间含有解释的逻辑关系,这样的逻辑关系是很隐蔽的。 例题______that’s why I don’t wear a white coat.正确选项:He has tried to create an environment where people are not afraid 例题分析:后面说不穿白大褂,前面则为解释的原因。 2. 例证关系 前后句的某句是为了证明另一句而举的例子。例证的形式多样,但就其本质而 言无非是思维上的形象(例子、类比等)和抽象(观点)的辩证关系,用到的思维过程 无非就是基本的归纳(从例子到观点)和推理(从观点到例子)。 例题:Manager should provide regular feedback to their staff.______. 正确选项:For example, when good work has been done it must be praised. 例题分析:选项是对前句举了一个十分明显的例子。 3. 因果关系 前后句的逻辑是因果关系, 常见的逻辑表达有: because, for, since, as, the reason is that,result in/ from, be due to, be attributed to 等等。还有一些表示因果逻辑关系的表 达是比较隐蔽的,如:underlie(前者构成后者的基础,实际是前者是因,后者是果), 再如:in response to(前者作为后者的回应,即后者是因,前者是果)。希望考生在平日英 语学习中多作总结,这对高考的各个部分的解题都有好处。 例题:There is no doubt that, in an increasingly competitive trading environment, we are better equipped than ever to compete and to win and we feel increasingly optimistic.______. 正确选项:This is due to our now having a clear strategy (战略) with a focus on the customer, product improvement 例题分析:选项句中有一个非常重要的形容词 clear,这 个词足以说明该公司的 strategy(战略)是正确的, 一家公司有着清晰而正确的战略思想当 然会使其蒸蒸日上。空格前面一句正是讲的该公司踌躇满志,十分乐观。空格句开头的 this is due to 反映出这样的因果逻辑关系。 4. 顺逆关系 英语行文中后句对前句不是顺承逻辑关系就是逆转逻辑关系,这是显然的常 识。 如果空格前后两句话之间是逻辑上的逆转, 则空格处很有可能是个转折逻辑的句子。

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例题: know as Glasgow’s most fashionable dentist,正确选项 Jerome is keen to point out that he takes his work very seriously.:. 例题分析:空格前句作者用了一个 as 引起的 倒装表示尽管他是城里最时尚的牙医,但人家对工作可是(take seriously),不是绣花 枕头。 所以考生可以在备选项中搜寻转折逻辑的各种表达法, 很快就能找出正确的选项。 三:结构衔接(主要看文章结构和出题位置) 文章结构: a)描述性结构(主要介绍事物、问题或倾向的特点,对人物的描述如传记,包括人身 体特征、家庭背景、成长过程、个性爱好、成就贡献等内容进行描述,因此时间、地点 往往是出题重点) (b)释义性结构(解释某一理论、学科、事物,主要用例子比喻类比阐述) (c)比较性结构(把两个人或事物功能、特点、优缺点进行对比) (d)原因性结构(这种结构主要分析事物的成因,客观的、主观的、直接的、间 接的) (e)驳斥性结构(这种结构主要是先介绍一种观点,然后对其评论或驳斥,然后 分析其优点缺点、危害性、最后阐明自己的观点) 四:出题位置 1)如果问题在段首 (a)通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据段落一致性原则,查找同义词 或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。 (b)与后文是并列、转折、因果关系等。着重阅读后文第一两句,锁定线索信号 词,然后在选项中查找相关特征词。通常正确答案的最后一句与空白后的第一句在意思 上是紧密衔接的,因此这两句间会有 某种的衔接手段,尤其当选项是几句话时。比 如,如果选项中出现时间年代时,往往要注意与原文中年代的前后对应关系。 (c)段落间的过渡句。这时要前瞻后望找启示,即阅读上一段结尾部分,通常正 确答案与上一段结尾有机地衔接起来,并结合下一段内容,看所选的答案是否将两段内 容连贯起来。 2)如果问题在段尾 (a)空白前的一句或两句是重点语句,重点阅读以锁定关键词。 (b)通常是结论、概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论、总结等的信 号词, 如 therefore, as a result, thus, hence, in short, to sum up, to conclude, in a word 等词语, 选项中也可发现前文的同义词句。

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(c)与前文是转折或对比关系。此时要注意在选项中查找表示转折、对比的关联 词,同时注意选项中所讲内容是否与前文在同一主题上形成对立、对比关系。 (d)与前文是并列或排比关系。在这种情况下,通常是该段落要求补全说明本段 主题的其他细节,因此根据段落一致性原则,在原文和选项中找到相关的特征词,通常 在选项中会出现表示并列/递进关系的关联词或与前文类似的句式结构, 或出现同义词等 其他信号线索。前面的一句与正确答案的第一句是紧密相连的。要特别注意阅读这样相 连的两句,通常会找到关键的线索词句。 (e)所选答案是引出下一段的内容。如果在选项中找不出与前文之间的关联,此 时可考虑与下一段开头是否有一定的衔接。认真阅读下一段开头几句,看是否与选项的 最后一句紧密连接起来。 (f)如果第一段的段尾是空白,要认真阅读,看此处是细节还是主题。通常文章 第一段要提出文章的主题,如果在段尾提出主题,会用一些信号词如转折词引出来,正 确答案中应有这样的特征词。 英语文章绝大多数都是总分结构,无论是全篇的逻辑,还是每一个独立的意群(一 般以自然段的形式出现)的逻辑都是总分结构。利用总句和分句中可能存在的上述的各 种衔接关系可以迅速地解题。由于篇幅有限,这里就不举例说明了。 下面让我们来用上述总结的方法巧解咱们做过的几篇文章。 第二节(共 5 小题;每小题 2 分,共 10 分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填人空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为 多余选项。 Most drinks stating that they are fruit-flavored (水果味道的) contain no fruit at all, while most of the rest contain only a small quantity of fruit, according to a study carried by the British Food Commission. "Shoppers need to check the labels(标签)before buying drinks, though sometimes the actual content can be non-existent," said Food Commission spokesperson Lan Tokelove."Food production is highly competitive.___71 __ It will increase profits, and consumers won't always realize they are being tricked." Flavorings are focused on the flavors of natural food products such as fruits, meats and vegetables, or creating flavor for food products that do not have the desired flavors.Researchers analyzed the contents of 28 strawberry-flavored products sold in stores. 72 Of the 11 products that did contain strawberries, five of them contained less than one percent real fruit.In addition, each juice box contained nearly eight teaspoons of sugar. 73 Let's take jam as an example. Some strawberry-flavored jam was labeled as containing no artificial colors, flavors, or sweeteners, but it contained absolutely no strawberries at all. 74 Consumers have the rights to know clearly about what they have bought.Under current UK law. Food packages do no not have to distinguish between natural and artificial flavoring. "Describing a product as strawberry flavor and covering the surface of the packed with pictures of stawberries is misleading. 75 Unfortunatcly, it is also legal and widespread," Tokelove said.
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A.The products which contain real fruit are popular with people. B.Even products advertised as more natural often contained no fruit. C.They found that about 60 percent of them didn't contain any fruit at all. D.If companies can cut their costs by using flavoring, they are likely to do so. E.It is important and necessary to demand a small amount of flavoring in the products. F.Actually the product contains just a tiny percentage of strawberry or even no fruit at all. G.The Food Commission suggested all flavors used in a product should be listed on the packaging. 71 题解析 原题空格前后两句: "Food production is highly competitive. ___71 __ It will increase profits, and consumers won't always realize they are being tricked."正确选项: D.If companies can cut their costs by using flavoring, they are likely to do so. 分析:这是五题中最简单的一道。选项中的 costs 和 profits 都与金钱,属于同一范畴 概念。另一层对应是逻辑上的,空格前面讲到竞争力大,空后讲到能增加利润,又不让 顾客发现。所以他们会通过添加其他香料来节约成本。属于我们前面总结的解释型逻辑 关系。 72 题解析 原题空格前后两句: .Researchers analyzed the contents of 28 strawberry-flavored products sold in stores. 72 Of the 11 products that did contain strawberries, five of them contained less than one percent real fruit. 正确选项:C.They found that about 60 percent of them didn't contain any fruit at all. 分析:从数字 60 percent,空后 11 和空前的 28 可以推出此空与数字有关。再从空中的 them 和空后的 the 11 products 可以推测前面提到了 products.这属于数字线索。 73 题解析 原题空格前后两句: 73 Let's take jam as an example. Some strawberry-flavored jam was labeled as containing no artificial colors, flavors, or sweeteners, but it contained absolutely no strawberries at all. 正确选项:B.Even products advertised as more natural often contained no fruit.分析: 这道题是很明显的例证关系,由观点到例子的做题模式。从后句中的 was labeled as containing no artificial colors, but it contained absolutely no strawberries at all.可得出后面是 具体以草莓产品为例子, fruit 对应 strawberries, natural 对应 artificial, 也属于同一范畴类, 再从出题位置上,为段首,一般为总结性语言。所以,答案很好锁定。 74 题解析 原题空格前后两句:74 Consumers have the rights to know clearly about what they have bought. 正确选项:G.The Food Commission suggested all flavors used in a product should be listed on the packaging.分析:此题空后讲到顾客有权利,上面应该是权力机构 的要求。 也就是 Consumers have the rights 和 The Food Commission 是同一范畴词汇对应;
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第二层对应为: 选项中的空后的 clearly 和空中的 should be listed on the packaging.为对应 关系。 75 题解析 原题空格前后两句:"Describing a product as strawberry flavor and covering the surface of the packed with pictures of strawberries is misleading. 75 Unfortunately, it is also legal and widespread," 正确选项 F. Actually the product contains just a tiny percentage of strawberry or even no fruit at all.

分析:此题有两层对应。第一层对应是:空格后面的,strawberries 是和空中的 strawberries 第二层对应是:misleading 和空中的 Actually tiny percentage of strawberry 属 于例证关系。 利用代词线索范文 阅读下列短文,根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项 中有两项为多余选项。 On a typical hot August day in Xianyou County, Fujian Province, Zeng Demei, a retired worker in his seventies, hurries down a busy street.In his hand is a black leather bag.Zeng opens his bag, taking out two forms. 71_____. Each of the forms contains detailed information of a student.On his arrival two hours later a woman greets him and leads him to her office where another man is waiting.They are the two village officials.They inspect the forms handed to them by Zeng and immediately recognize the girls. 72 _____ ? "It’s a pity but it doesn't matter." says Zeng, who wastes no time in deciding to look for the remaining child, Su Qiuju. After half an hour, they stop outside a small house made of mud brick.A middle-aged man and a girl in a faded pink dress greet them. Su Qiuju is eight years old. She was forced to drop out of school after both her parents died.She is now living with her uncle who cannot afford his own children's education.However, the year of education Su Qiuju did complete was a successful one. 73 _____ . When they are about to leave, Zeng says, "I must find a supporter for this girl to sponsor her education . " Zeng has made it his retirement task to help children complete their schooling. Back in 1999, Zeng took part in a campaign started by the local women's organization to help students from poor families. 74 _ His task had begun and since then he has spent his time persuading his friends and neighbors and others to donate money."To me, children's education is the most important. 75 I have to find sufficient funding before the school opens in September." When asked how long he will keep up his vital work as the community's guardian angel, he has a simple reply." Not until my eyes can't see, and my feet can't move." A.They were having problems with their schoolwork B.These are for the two girls he's going to visit this morning C.They live in a small village not very far, though only one of the girls is still living at home D.She displayed a talent for handwriting, writing her three-character name neatly and beautifully E.The thought of students dropping out of school bothers me so much that I can't get to sleep
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at night F.Of course, some people question why I would want to give up my retirement to go to so much trouble G.He was so overcome by the tough situation of many poor children ?that he donated all his money to help out a girl 解析:71 题空前为 Zeng opens his bag, taking out two forms.关键词 two forms 正确选项 B.These are for the two girls he's going to visit this morning 中的 these,he 与上面名词 forms, Zeng 对应。 72. They inspect the forms handed to them by Zeng and immediately recognize the girls. 72 _? "It’s a pity but it doesn't matter. 空前的 girls, 空后 it’s a pity 与选项 C. They live in a small village not very far, though only one of the girls is still living at home 中得 they, only one of the girls 对应。 73. However, the year of education Su Qiuju did complete was a successful one. 73.空前 的 Su Qiuju 和选项 D.She displayed a talent for handwriting, writing her three-character name neatly and beautifully 中的 She 对应,而且 successful 和 talent 对应。 74. Back in 1999, Zeng took part in a campaign started by the local women's organization to help students from poor families. 74 空前的 Zeng,poor families 和 G 选项 He was so overcome by the tough situation of many poor children ,that he donated all his money to help out a girl 中的 He,poor 对应。 75"To me, children's education is the most important. 75 I have to find sufficient funding before the school opens in September."注意标点符号“”内的人称都是 I,所以与 E.The thought of students dropping out of school bothers me so much that I can't get to sleep at night 中得人称匹配。 下面再从逻辑关系上看一篇文章(2009 年高考英语辽宁卷阅读理解新题型样题) Taking good notes is a time-saving skill that will help you to become a batter student in several ways71 Second, your notes are excellent materials to refer to when you are studying

for a test. Third, note-taking offers variety to your study time and helps you to hold your interest. You will want to take notes during classroom discussions and while reading a textbook or doing research for a report.72 Whenever or however you take notes, keep in mind that note-taking is a selective process.73 The following methods may work best for you. ●Read the text quickly to find the main facts and ideas in it. ●Carefully read the text and watch for words that can show main points and supporting facts. ● Write your notes in your own words. ● 74 ● Note any questions or ideas you may have about what was said or written.
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As you take notes, you may want to use your own shorthand(速记). When you do, be sure that you understand your symbols and that you use them all the time.75 A. Use words, not complete sentences. B. There are three practical note-taking methods. C. You must write your notes on separate paper. D. Otherwise, you may not be able to read your notes later. E. you will also want to develop your own method for taking notes. F. That means you must first decide what is important enough to include in your notes. G. First, the simple act of writing something down makes it easier for you to understand and remember it. 答案:GEFAD 分析:这篇文章整体分为四个段落层次,每个段落均由几个语段构成相对独立地语 义单位,各段都围绕“Taking good notes”这样一个中心话题,形成了文章的线性结构。 第一段讲述的是做笔记是好学生在多方面的一项省时技巧,第二段讲述的是不管何 时、用何种方法做笔记,都要有选择性的做记录,第三段讲述的是做笔记的最佳方法, 第四段讲述的是要记住自己的速记符号,这就形成了文章的层次结构,这对下一步的做 题有了明确的整体方向。

【解题策略】 1.理清句际间意义的关系 文章的内容是根据各层各段的大意有机地组合而成,各个层次,各个段落之间不管 怎样错落有致,但它所表达的内容都是要围绕中心的,各句之间都有一定的语脉,从逻 辑意义上来看,语段的句际关系可分为平列、顺序、层递、转折、总分、解释、因果等 关系。构成语段的各个句子之间有时可以包含一种以上的句际关系。因此,理解阅读材 料时一定要把握语脉,理清句际间的关系,进而理解语段或全文的内容。 如上述 2009 年高考英语辽宁卷阅读理解新题型样题中,第一段的第一句 “Taking good notes is a time-saving skill that will help you to become a batter student in several ways”与下面几句是解释关系,解释关系是指后面的句子对前面的句子作解释、引申、 例证,使意思更加明了、具体。后三句之间是平列关系,平列关系指句与句之间处于平 等并列的地位, 互不相属, 而只是组合在一起共同说明一个问题。 平列关系组合的语段, 在次序上并不固定,如果局部改变句子的相互位置并不改变整个语段的意思。
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第二段的第一句与第二句是层递关系,层递关系是一种固定的顺序关系,但又不同 与顺序关系,顺序关系指构成语段的各句子只能按事物发展的过程由先而后地顺序排 列,不可随意改变次序,通常在记叙文或描述固定的操作程序的说明文中用得普遍,而 层递关系组合的语段是按语意的轻重、认识的深浅作由轻到重、由浅入深的排列。第三 句与第四句是解释关系,第一、二句组合为一个语段,第三、四句组合为另外一个语段, 语段与语段之间是总分关系,总分关系是指前面的句子陈述两个过两个以上的对象,后 面的句子紧接着分别对它们加以说明。 用这种方式组合的语段能够前呼后应, 彼此配合, 使语脉清楚, 条分缕析, 如“Whenever or however you take notes”一句与前两句前呼后应, 彼此配合,为前句选“E. you will also want to develop your own method for taking notes. ” 埋伏了一笔,逻辑性很强。 第三段的第一句与下面几句是解释关系,而后列举的方法是平列关系。 第四段的最后两句是转折关系,转折关系指句与句之间存在意义的转折,通常表达 对比或对照的意思。

2.找出句子之间的连接性的词语 文章的语句间的组合,除了从语句间的意义关系分析外,还可借助句子之间的连接 性词语来把握,因为连接性词语能表明这个语段句与句之间、层与层之间的基本关系是 承接关系(如 so, therefore, thus, hence, accordingly, consequently, as a result 等) 平列关系(如 first, second, third…; firstly, secondly, thirdly…; first, next, then…; in the first place, in the second place…; for one thing, for another thing…;to begin with, to conclude 等) 。比如文章中的选项 71,由 Second、Third 得知应选表示平列关系的句子 G.项。 转折关系(如 however, nevertheless, nonetheless, still, though, yet, in spite of, at any rate, in any case, whoever, whatever on the contrary, in contrast, by contrast, in comparison, by comparison, conversely, otherwise 等) 。比如选项 75,与前句构成了转折关系,故应选 D 项答案。 层递关系 (如 also, further, furthermore, likewise, similarly, moreover, in addition, what’s more, too, either, neither, not…but…, not only…but also 等) 。如 72 选项,与前句组合为 层递关系,故应选包含 also 的 E.项句子。

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