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高一英语阅读理解专讲专练含答案及解析七[1]


高一英语阅读理解 7
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高一英语阅读理解专讲专练含答案及解析七 高中英语阅读理解解题技巧
江苏省张家港市乐余高级中学 [摘要] 林惠芳 邮编:215621 针对高中英语阅读理解这一题型,有的学生解题能力弱的问题,笔者提出 了几点技巧。 [关键词] 阅读理解、解题技巧

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阅读理解题在高考英语试题中始终是分值最高的一个题型, 随着近几年高考改革的不断 深入, 阅读理解题更多地强调对阅读速度、 知识面和理解能力的考查, 试题变得越来越灵活, 形式更加多样化,涉及政治、经济、文化、历史、人物、科普、新闻、广告甚至图表。2005 年高考英语考试大纲要求考生应能(1)理解主旨要义(2)理解文中具体信息(3)根据上 下文推断生词的词义(4)作出简单判断和推理(5)理解文章的基本结构(6)理解作者的 意图和态度。因此,考生在扩大视野、拓展知识面的同时,有必要掌握一些阅读理解解题技 巧,这样才能在考试中在阅读理解这个重头戏中一锤定音。经过多年的教学与总结,笔者总 结了以下几点阅读理解解题技巧,供大家参考。 一:多练习多比较,熟悉文章设题手法 常有学生说文章看懂了,题目却做不对。这大致有两种原因:一是只理解了文章表面 意思,未能深层理解。二是未能透彻理解题目。目前阅读理解题目可以粗分为两类:考查整 体理解水平的主旨题和考查细节理解水平的细节题。 其中主旨题占半数以上。 细节题学生也 应注意其选项并非与文章完全对应,而经常换一种表述方式,或根据“弦外之音”考查学生 对隐含细节的理解。对题目选项的设计,学生要注意它经常分为两类:本身意义成立的选项 和本身意义不成立的选取项。前者包括答非所问、文不对题、超出范围等手法。后者包括偷 换概念、张冠李戴、细节含糊等手法。所以学生要注意去除迷惑选项,确定最佳答案。 二:重视文章标题,找准全文主题句,把握文章主旨。 阅读文章的标题往往是全文的主题,它能给我们启发和想象,帮我们理解全文的内容 和走向。所以,审视标题, 有利于文章的理解, 提高解题的效率。主题句往往对全文起提示、 启迪、概括、归纳之作用。根据主题句既可以知道文章描述的是谁或什么,也可以知道作者 希望读者了解主题方面的哪些内容。 主题句一般出现在文章的开头或结尾。 用归纳法写的文 章主题句一般是文章的最后一句。 作者往往一开始先陈述事实与细节描绘, 最后依据上文的 细节描绘推出结论或建议, 归纳要点与共性。 用演绎法写的文章主题句一般是文章的第一句, 作者遵循从一般到个别的写作程序, 在一开头就提出了全文的论点即主题, 而在下面几小节 针对这一主题,从不同的方面加以论述、论证。即从概述开始,随之辅以细说。高考对阅读 文章主旨题的考查侧重深层理解,目的在于考查学生的整篇文章主题或局部段落的概括能

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高一英语阅读理解 7

力,经常出现的题目类型有: What’s the purpose of writing this passage? What’s the best title for the text ? What’s the main idea of the passage ? What’s the article mainly about ? 对这些题型同学们要熟悉找答案的诀窍,即刚才所说的找主题的方法。 三:细读文章,注意文章细节理解。 除了主旨题以外,细节理解题也是阅读理解题中的基础题,它主要考查学生对文中的 具体事例、数字、情节、人物等的理解。经常出现排序题(按事情发展顺序排序)、图表题 (按文章内容找出正确图形)、正误题(依据文章内容对所列的陈述进行正误判断)如: Which of the following statements is TRUE/WRONG? 对于这种题型,同学们必须细读文章, 对文章的内容和细节做到胸有成竹, 对事态的发生、 发展有深入的了解, 才能动手选择答案。 同学们必须知道,作者提出了一话题以后,必定会花很大的篇幅围绕这一主题展开细节,这 些细节对于理解全文内容至关重要, 同时也是归纳和概括文章中心思想的基础, 因此不可忽 视。但记住无论细节题如何变化形式,立足点都应是从文章中找出相应词句作为依据。 四:先看问题,再读文章,掌握正确解题思路,提高阅读速度 《大纲》要求中学生阅读速度达到每分钟 70-80 个单词,而阅读理解做题参考时间限为 35 分钟,这把做题时间也算在内了。考生必须在十分有限的时间内领会文章主旨,理清文 章脉络。所以要掌握正确的解题思路即:看题目---阅读---解题---有选择的再阅读---再解题。 先把文章所给问题浏览一遍,带着问题去阅读,这样那些表层理解的题目,在初读时就可以 迅速选定。然后对剩下的深层理解的题目再回原文去找依据。因为已读过一遍,去哪一段, 哪几句找依据,已心中有数,所以不必再从头至尾读一遍而只需找与题目有关的依据。 五:理解文章结构,掌握作者意图。 英语文章讲究使用主题段与主题句,段与段之间通常有过渡词语连接,承上启下,使 文章行文连贯。有时文章还会在时间顺序、空间顺序或逻辑推理上运用较高级的组篇手段。 如果希望准确、深刻地理解文章,必须对文章的结构有所了解,把握全篇的文脉,即句内、 句间和段落间的修辞手段或逻辑关系。 每篇文章都有一个特定的写作目的, 或是向读者传递 某个信息,或是愉悦读者,或是讲授某个道理。而这些信息通常并不是明确表达出来,而是 隐含在文章之中。 作者往往在构思语篇之前总要进行预先设定: 读者知道什么, 不知道什么; 读者可能与自己共同拥有什么样的生活经验、 思想见地和需求欲望等; 然后设计一些隐藏在 语篇深层的“潜台词”因此,这类试题要求考生在理解文章总体内容的基础上,透过隐藏在 语篇深层的逻辑线索去真正领悟作者的言外之意。 六:多读多背,扩大词汇量,掌握猜词技巧。 根据 05 年考试大纲与说明, 要求学生做阅读理解题时, 能以每篇 6 分种的速度阅读并做 完五篇词汇量共计约 2500 字并有 3%生词率的各种体裁的文章。而每篇文章都至少有 6 个

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高一英语阅读理解 7

生词。学生普遍认为生词是主要障碍之一。由于当今的阅读文章题材广泛,体裁多样,经常 出现一词多义,甚至出现没学过的词汇。许多学生感到生词特别集中,困扰很大,有的甚至 烦躁得难以坚持阅读下去。要解决阅读中的生词问题,一要扩大英语词汇量,二要学习并掌 握一些猜测生词词义的方法。如:利用同义、反义、上义、下义、词的集合、词的搭配等关 系;利用照应、替代、省略、定义、举例等情境关系;利用词缀、转化、合成等构词法;利 用后置定语或同位语等语法结构,如:carpenter is a person, who makes and repairs the wooden parts of buildings and other structures of wood. ” Carpenter” 一词可通过定语理解 词义为 “木匠” ; 利用前后对比或因果推理法, 如: A soldier must have armaments, just as a writer must have pens.。作家必须有笔,与之对应,可以猜出战士必须有武器。 七:运用语法,抓住结构,化整为零,逐个击破长句难句。 目前高考趋势之一就是难句增多,句型多变,对学生的智力水平和心理素质都是严峻 的考验。长句是一些并列句、复合句、或者有多种形式的定语、状语、插入语复合而成。但 再长的句子,只要能抓住结构关键词,即分句、意群的引导词或起始词,找到引导词就能明 确主、谓语,从而理清各个层次,用化整为零的办法各个击破。如例句:When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously, but , as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar. 此句并列与从属过程同时并用,句型更加复杂。 but 引导前后两个并列句,前一句中有 when 引导化的时间状语从句,that 引导的同位语从句, 后一句中有 as 引导的时间状语从句,for 引导的原因状语从句,who 引导的定语从句,全 句 54 个词,有 5 个分句,这样分解后就化难为易了。 阅读理解的技巧无论有多合理,都必须在实践中才能得到掌握和完善,所以学生在平时 的练习中,如能运用所学的技巧多阅读、多琢磨,能力必有提高。

Passage A 阅读理解

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高一英语阅读理解 7 Our children and grandchildren may not have a chance to visit many of the most famous places around the world. War, weather, age, traffic and pollution damage these famous places. Looking after these places often costs more than one country can afford. ① In the early 1970s, world governments decided that if they joined together, they would be able to preserve (保护) our history. If every country paid some money, they said, it would be possible to look after important historic places. Also, if they discovered that a monument needed urgent (紧急的) help, they would have money for repairs. For these reasons, countries around the world united to form the World Heritage Organization in 1972. Today, the organization helps to maintain (维护) and restore the most important places from our history. However, one of the biggest problems for historic places is vandalism. People sometimes enter the sites and destroy or damage the buildings. At some sites, such as Stonehenge ② in England, governments have built high fences to protect the site from vandals. There are many different ideas about how to solve the problem of vandalism. Some experts say that if guards patrolled (巡逻) the sites, vandals would not be able to get in. Some experts say that if they fixed more television cameras, they would not need so many guards. Other experts say that the best solution is education. If people learned to respect history, they would not destroy or damage it. They would also want to spend money looking after old places. For this reason, the World Heritage Organization helps to spread information about the value of historic sites. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案: 1. Why did countries all over the world unite to form the World Heritage Organization? A. It would be able to keep our history. B. It would be possible to take care of important historic places. C. They would have money to do some repairs if a monument needed help. D. All of the above. 2. Which of the following shows us the action of vandalism? A. People enter the sites and destroy or damage the buildings. B. Governments build high fences to protect the site from vandals. C. Guards patrolled the sites and they fixed more television cameras. D. They also spend money looking after old places. 3. What's the best way to solve the biggest problem of vandalism? 4

高一英语阅读理解 7 A. Every country spends more money looking after these places often. B. To form the World Heritage Organization. C. Too many guards are needed to prevent vandals getting in. D. To make people know information about the value of historic sites. 难句注释 ① Looking after these places often costs more than one country can afford. 照看这些地方的费用通常不是一个国家能负担得起的。 Total words:265 Reading time:____ Reading speed: ____ ② Stonehenge 英国南部索尔兹伯里附近的一组史前巨石柱群,可上溯到公元前 2000-1800 年。 Passage B 阅读理解 The kings of ancient Egypt planned strong tombs (坟墓) to keep their bodies safe after death and to hold their treasures (财宝) . The Great Pyramid was built thousands of years ago for a king called Khufu. It stands on the west bank of the Nile River not far from Cairo. In fact all the pyramids along the Nile are on its west bank. The ancient Egyptians compared the rising of the sun to the beginning of life and the setting of the sun to the end of life. This is why their dead bodies were buried (埋葬) on the west bank of the Nile.① The people of Mexico also built pyramids. They did not build the pyramids for tombs. They used to build a pyramid and then a temple on top of it. The pyramids of Mexico are not as high as the pyramids of Egypt, but they are big. Each of the pyramids has a wide stairway (阶梯) that goes from the bottom to the top.② More pyramids were built in the Americas than in Egypt. About 90 pyramids are known to have stood in Egypt, while several hundred small pyramids are scattered (分散) across Central and South America. The biggest pyramid in Mexico is almost 2,000 years old. Scientists think it took 10,000 men more than ten years to build it. On the top they built a temple of the sun. The temple is no longer there but people still called it the Pyramid of the Sun. Near it is another huge pyramid, the Pyramid of the Moon. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案:

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高一英语阅读理解 7 1. In ancient Egypt pyramids were built____ . A. for visitors to seeB. for kings to live in C. as the kings ? tombs D. for king Khufu 2. All the pyramids along the Nile are on its west bank, because in ancient Egypt people thought ____. A. they died in the west B. the sun sets in the west C. the end of their lives was like the setting of the sun D. they would go to the west after death 3. The pyramids in ancient Mexico were built____ . A. for the kingsB. for the people C. for wars D. for the gods 难句注释 ① This is why their dead bodies were buried on the west bank of the Nile. 这就是他们的尸体葬在尼罗河西岸上的原因。 Total words:266 Reading time:____ Reading speed: ____ ② Each of the pyramids has a wide stairway that goes from the bottom to the top. 每座金字塔都有一个从底部到顶端的宽阶梯。 Passage C 阅读理解 The Taj Mahal (泰姬陵) is considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian architecture.① It is at Agra in northern India. It lies beside the River Jumna in the middle of gardens with quiet pools. The Taj Mahal was built by the Mogul emperor (皇帝) Shah Jehan, who ruled India in the seventeenth century. It is in memory of his favorite wife, Arjumand Banu Bagam, known as 6

高一英语阅读理解 7 Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1631. The building, which was completed between 1632 and 1638, was designed by a local Muslim architect (建筑师) Ustad Ahmad Lahori. The whole building, with gardens and gateway structures, was completed in 1643. The Taj Mahal stands at one end of the garden tomb with marble (大理石) path. The room is softly lighted by the light that passes through double screens of carved marble set high in the walls. The building now is kept in good condition.② The Taj Mahal took 22 years to build. Shah Jehan planned a similar building, but in black instead of white, to lie on the other side of the river. But before it could be built, Shah Jehan was imprisoned (监禁) by his son and buried next to his wife in the Taj Mahal. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案: 1. The Taj Mahal was built for____ . A. Mumtaz B. Shah C. Either Mumtaz or Shah D. Both Mumtaz and Shah 2. Why do you think Shah Jehan was buried next to his wife? A. His own tomb hadn't been built. B. He hoped to be buried there. C. King and Queen should be buried together. D. He liked Mumtaz all his life. 3. The passage mainly tells us____ . A. why the Taj Mahal was built B. the love story between Shah and Mumtaz C. some information about the Taj Mahal D. the Taj Mahal—the pride of Indians 4. Form the passage we can learn that____ . A. the Taj Mahal looks more beautiful than before.

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高一英语阅读理解 7 B. the Taj Mahal doesn't exist now. C. the Taj Mahal has completely changed. D. the Taj Mahal has become a place of interest. 难句注释 ① The Taj Mahal is considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian architecture.泰姬陵被认为是世界上最美丽 Total words:221 Reading time:____ Reading speed: ____ 的建筑之一,是印度建筑后期样式的最好实例。 ② in good condition 处于良好的状况 Passage D 完形填空 In the past,most American mothers were at home to take care of their children during the day. Now, 1 , many mothers are working. More than half of the American women 2 young children have 3 outside the house. American families solve the child care 4 in different ways. Some parents allow 5 children to stay at home alone after school. The parents 6 make sure that their children, usually not younger than 10 years old , understand 7 rules and can deal with emergencies (紧急情况). ① Other parents say they would 8 allow their children to be at home alone. They usually 9 someone to take care of the 10 . Some parents in the U.S. find their own ways to 11 the cost of child care. They join child care 12 . Each person in the group 13 for the children of other group 14 at different times. Some parents ask local 15 , schools and social organizations to help16activities for the children .These child care choices often cost 17 or no money. Many American parents, however, still 18 with the problem of 19 good child care at a 20 price.② 根据文章内容,选择正确答案: 1. A. thereforeB. otherwiseC. thusD. however 2. A. like B. as C. with D. form 8

高一英语阅读理解 7 3. A. children B. jobs C. houses D. money 4. A. problem B. question C. chance D. choice 5. A. older B. younger C. sicker D. happier 6. A. can B. must C. may D. ought 7. A. dangerous B. safety C. funny D. true 8. A. rather B. certainly C. always D. never 9. A. tell B. stop C. pay D. invite 10. A. house B. neighbors C. old D. children 11. A. protect B. end C. cut D. increase 12. A. schools B. groups C. clubs D. hospitals 13. A. cares B. sends C. asks D. pays 14. A. strangers B. members C. officials D. teachers 15. A. shops B. markets C. churches D. restaurants 16. A. have B. offer C. play D. join 17. A. much B. little C. enoughD. a great deal 18. A. enjoy B. discuss C. quarrel D. struggle 19. A. taking B. finding C. losing D. suffering 20. A. high B. low C. reasonableD. real 难句注释 ① The parents must make sure that their children, usually not younger than 10 years old , understand safety rules and can deal with emergencies. 父母们必须确保他们那些通常不小于 10 岁的小孩懂得安全规则,能够处理紧急情况下发生的事情。 ② Many American parents, however, still struggle with the problem of finding good child care at a reasonable price. 然而许多美国父母们仍然在不懈斗争,争取用合理的价格雇佣到好的小孩 看护。 Passage A 9

高一英语阅读理解 7 本文阐述了世界文化遗产所面临的危机,以及人类对这些问题所采取的补救措施。着重讲述了人类及世 界文化遗产组织对故意破坏文化遗产的行为所采取的防范措施。 1. D. 由第二段可知。 2. A. vandalism 由下文可知是故意破坏艺术的行为。 3. D. 由最后一段可知。 Passage B 本文介绍了建造古埃及金字塔与墨西哥金字塔的缘由,并对比了两地金字塔的特点。 1. C. 根据文章第一句可知。 2. C. 根据“The ancient Egyptians compared the rising of the sun to the beginning of life and the setting of the sun to the end of life.”得出。 3. D. 根据“They did not build the pyramids for tombs.”,“They used to build a pyramid and then a temple on top of it.”,“On the top they built a temple of the sun.”可知在金字塔上建庙 目的是敬神。 Passage C 泰姬陵是莫卧尔王朝第五代皇帝沙贾汗为其爱妻泰姬?玛哈尔修建的陵墓,是世界闻名的印度建筑的代 表作。这是一座全部用白色大理石建成的宫殿式陵园,是一件集伊斯兰和印度建筑艺术于一体的古代经典 作品。 1. A. 根据“It is in memory of his favorite wife.”可知应选 A。 2. A. 根据该文最后一句可得出。 3. C. 本文主要讲述有关泰姬陵的一些信息。 4. D. 其他三项的信息文中并没有提到或涉及,用排除法可选 D。 Passage D 本文主要讲述了现今的美国妇女有了小孩后仍然出去工作, 只能花钱请人照顾孩子而由此产生的一些问 题。 1. D. however 表示转折,意为“然而”。 2. C. 有孩子的美国妇女。 3. B. 根据前文“ many mothers are working” 得出。

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高一英语阅读理解 7 4. A. problem 常与 settle 或 solve 搭配,意为“解决问题”。 5. A. 根据下文内容应为“年龄较大的”。 6. B. must 表示“必须”。 7. B. safety rules 意为“安全规则”。 8. D. 根据下文可判断这里应是否定句。 9. C. pay sb. to do sth. 应为“花钱雇人做某事”。 10. D. 本文讲的是照顾孩子的问题,其他三项与内容无关。 11. C. 降低照看小孩的成本。 12. B. 下一句有提示。 13. A. care for 意为“照顾”。 14. B. other group members 意为“其他小组成员”。 15. C. church 是一个慈善机构,可帮助照顾孩子。 16. B. offer 意为“提供”。 17. B. 根据下文“or no money”来判断应选 little。 18. D. struggle with 意为“争取解决”。 19. B. 此空格意思上应是“找到”。 20. C. reasonable 意为“合理的”,low 意为“低的”,比较起来 reasonable 为较好答案。 1. Near it is another huge pyramid, the Pyramid of the Moon. 在它的附近是一个巨大的金字 塔,月亮金字塔。(Last line, Passage B) 当句首为表示地点的介词短语时,常将谓语(通常是不及物动词)提至主语之前,构成倒装语序。如: At the factory gate stood a guard. 厂门口站着一个卫兵。 Under the tree sit some students. 树下坐着一些学生。 South of the river lies a small factory.河的南面有一家小工厂。 注:注意谓语动词的数。另外,当主语是代词时,则不用倒装。如:

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高一英语阅读理解 7 Behind the desk he stood. 他站在桌子的后面。 2. The Taj Mahal is considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. 泰 姬陵被看成是世界上最美丽的建筑之一。(Line 1, Passage C) be considered to be “被看成……”。英语中表示“把……看成……”的表达法比较多,常见的还有: Titanic is regarded as his best film so far. 《泰坦尼克号》被认为是到目前为止他拍得最好的影 片。 I used to look on him as a friend. 我以前把他看作是一位朋友。 He treated his mistake as a joke. 他把他的错误当作玩笑看待。 I have long thought of it as the most interesting novel. 我一直认为这是一本最有趣的小说。 He saw man as the product of society. 他把人看成是社会的产物。

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