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?He laughs best who laughs last.


?Heaven helps those who help themselves. 天助 自助者。 ?He that climbs high falls heavily. 爬得越高,摔得越重。 ?He who does not go to the Great Wall is not a true man 不到长城非好汉。 ?Only those who endure (忍耐) the most become the highest. 吃得苦中苦,方为人上人。


定语从句(the attributive clause)
形容词 在复合句中,充当_______ 用的从句是定语从句
☆ 被定语从句限定的词是_______ ,引导定语从 “先行词” 句的词叫做 “关系代词” “关系副词” ________ 或 _________。 ☆ 关系代词和关系副词有三大作用,即连接 (连接定语从句和主句)、替代(替代前面的 先行词)、成分(在定语从句中要充当一定的 句子成分)。

The Restrictive Attributive Clause

定 语 从 句


The Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause


定语的从句被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词叫做 “ 先行词”;引导定语从句的词叫“ 关系词 ” ? Discuss and fill in the form: 定语从句的种类 定语从句的特征 限制性定语从句 先行词+关系代词/副词+从句 非限制性定语从句 用逗号隔开,起补充说明作用


Zhang Meili who is regarded as the most (限’定 beautiful teacher is from Heilongjiang province

Zhang Meili, who is regarded as the most beautiful teacher, is from Heilongjiang province (非限’定’)

1.that与which 2. 对关系副词的考查 考 3.介词+关系词 点 4. as与which的使用 5. 部分关系词的特殊情况 6.综合考查(定语从句与强调句,同 位语从句和表语从句的区别)

Task 1: 回顾做题技巧:

定语从句三步曲: 第一找出先行词;(n, 代词) (做主语,宾语,状语) 第二看先行词在定语从句中的成分 第三选择合适的关系代词 或关系副词

Task 2: 回顾关系词及其意义
归 纳 总 结 指代人 who, whom, that, as 指代事物 which, that, as 所属关系 whose 关 指地点 where 系 指时间 when 副 指原因 why
词 关 系 代 词

1)This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world.(指人) 2)The room whose windows face the east is mine. (指物)

考点一:that 和 which
以下情况,引导词用that,不用which。 1.先行词为不定代词 everything,little, much, all,anything,nothing, none, few时, 2.先行词同时指人和指物时,

3. 在以which / who 为疑问词的特殊疑问句中
4.在there is / here is / it is 句型中

5. 先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词修饰时, 先行词被 all, any , every, little, much, no, some, the only,the very, the last 修饰时,


1. 当先行词是不定代词:all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one(指物) 时
that Do you have anything ______ you want to say for yourself? that You should hand in all ______ you have.


2. 当先行词前面有:only, any, few, little, no, all, very等词修饰时
This is the very book ______ I am looking that for. that The only thing _______ we can do is to give you some money.

只用that,不用which 3. 当先行词是形容词最高级或它的前面有形容 词最高级修饰时

This is the best ______ has been used that against pollution. that This is the most interesting film ______ I’ve ever seen.

只用that,不用which 4. 当先行词是序数词或它前面有序数词修饰时 that This train is the last ______ that will go to Suzhou. What is the first American film ______ you that have seen? 5. 当先行词既有人又有物时 that Do you know the things and persons _____ they are talking about?

只用that,不用which 6. 当主句的主语是疑问词who或which时 that Which is the bike _____ you lost? Who is the boy ______ won the gold medal? that 7. 有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词已用 了which, 另一个宜用that. They secretly built up a small factory which that produced things _______ could cause pollution.

只用that,不用which (8)被修饰词为数词时,只用that。如:
? He brought two cats yesterday. Now I can see the two that are playing in the garden.

(9)主句是there be结构,先行词为物 的定语从句用that。如:
? There is a book on the desk that belongs to Frank.


1.引导非限制性定语从句时, 其先行词可是 一个词,也可是整个主句或主句的某一部分。

2. 先行词是物,紧接在介词后面时
3.句子中同时有两个定语从句,其中一个 已经用了 that 引导时


1. 在非限制性定语从句中,当先行词是物,或 代指前面整个主句时,只能用which
Beijing, which is the capital of China, is _____ very beautiful. He failed in the exam, which made him very _____ sad.

只用which,不用that 2. 关系词前面有介词,而且先行词是物时,只 能用which. which This is the school in _______ you will study. 3. 有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词已经 用了that, 另外一个最好用which. Let me show you the book that I borrowed from the library ______ was newly open to which us.
Remember:Which 在这三种情况下即使在句中作宾语也



1. 当先行词是one, ones, anyone, those表人时

Do you know the one ______ gave me the who book? Is there anyone ______ is absent today? who


1. 当先行词是one, ones, anyone, those表人时

Do you know the one ______ gave me the who book? Is there anyone ______ is absent today? who

只用who,不用that 2. 有两个定语从句时,当代指人时,一个已经 用了that, 另一个宜用who The girl that you met yesterday is an English teacher _____ teaches well. who 3. 在there be 句型中 先行词为人 There are many young people ______ are who for him.


当先行词是I,you,he,they等时(常 用于谚语之中)。如:

? He who plays with fire gets burned. ? He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。


它常用在the same…as…,such…as…,so…as…等句型中,as不能

(1)Such teachers as know Tom think him bright.(指人,作主语)

(2)I’ll buy the same dictionary as you have.(指物,作宾语)


一、当先行词中有so, such等修饰语时; 如:

This is so good a book as I can hardly tear myself

away from.

Never promise such things as you can’t achieve.
as This is so good a movie _______ we all wish to see. that This is so good a movie _______ we all wish to see it.

二、当定语从句置于句首时; 如: As is known to all, the earth travels around the sun once every year.

As we had expected, the students who had cheated in the
exams were punished.

____ is known to all that the earth travels around the sun
once every year. A. As B. It C. That √ D. What

三、当先行词中有the same 修饰时,有时用that也有时用as来 引导定语从句。二者意思稍有不同。 如: This is the same shirt as I wore yesterday. (这件衬衣和我昨天

This is the same shirt that I wore yesterday. (这是我昨天穿的 那件衣服。同一件衣服。) The students in New York are using the same textbooks as we are using.

考点三:关系代词 as 的用法 1.直接引导定语从句: 作用相当于which He was late, as / which is often the case. 2.与such 连用, 引起定语从句

There are no such writers as you mention. It gave him such a shock that his face turned white. 如此 …… 以至于
3.与same 连用, 引起定语从句 ☆ the same … as 表示同一类人或物; the same … that 指同一个人或物

关系副词 指代 所充当的句子成分

when where why

time place reason

时间状语 地点状语 原因状语

在限定性和非限定性从句中,when的先行词是时 间名词,where的先行词是地点名词,why的先 行词是原因,分别在定语从句中做状语。 e.g.1. After living in Paris for 50 years he returned to the small town where he grew ______ up as a child. 2. I will never forget the days ______ we when stay together. why 3. This is the reason ______he went to school late. 4. But the fact is that in every society, where ______ birth conditions are so much different,... (9月月考)

Fill in the blanks. that/which 1. I still remember the day _________ we spent in the forest. when/on which 2. I still remember the day ____________ I first came to Beijing. 3. The factory _________ we will visit is large. that/which where 4. The factory ___________ his father works is large. when/at which 5. I’ll never forget the time _____________ we work on the farm. where/in which 6. This is the house ____________ we lived last year. 归纳:关系副词when指时间,关系副词where指地点, 在定语从句中作状语。即使先行词是时间地点,若 作从句中的宾语,只能用关系代词that, which.

介词+关系代词的情况 1

The man

whom you spoke to

was a scientist.

The city

which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right?

The man

who/whom you spoke to was a scienti

The city

that/which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?


The man

The city

who/whom you spoke was a scienti in that/which she lives is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?

The man

The city

to who/whom you spoke was a scienti in that/which she lives is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?


The man

who/whom you spoke in

was a scienti

The city

that/which she lives

is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?

The man to who/whom you spoke ×

was a scienti

The city in that/which she lives ×
可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后

is far away.



1. Do you like the book on which she spent $10? 2. Do you like the book for which she paid $10? 3. Do you like the book from which she learned a lot? 4. Do you like the book about which she often talks? through which he could study the skies. 5. He built a telescope 6. There is a tall tree outside, under which stands our teacher. 7. China has a lot of rivers, the second longest of which _______ is the Yellow River. 8. The tower from which _______ people can have a good view is on the hill. to whom 9. The man ________ I spoke on the phone last night is very good at wrestling. 10. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. most ______

1、关系代词作从句的主语时,从句中谓语动 的人称和数要与先行词保持一致;先行词是句 子时,从句的谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。 如:
? The recorder that has been given to me is homemade.

?I, who am your classmate, will share the work with you.

2、“one of +复数名词”位于关系代词前作先行词 时 , 从 句 的 动 词 通 常 要 用 复 数 ; 当 one 前 有 the (only), the (very)等修饰时,从句的谓语动词要用单 数。如: ?He is one of the students who have made great progress. ? Mr Wang is the only one of my friends who has been invited to have dinner with us.

4. Please take the second chair_______is over there. A. where B. which C. who D. that
5.Is oxygen the only gas __ helps fire burn? A. that B./ C.which D.it 6.Finally, the thief handed everything _____ he had stolen to the police (NMET98’) A. which B. what C. whatever D. that

7. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those ____ in the forest. A. once the grew B. they grew once C. that once grew D. once grew.

8. I don’t like ____ you speak to her.
A. the way B. the way in that

C. the way which D. the way of which

9. The weather turned out to be very good,

____ was more than we expected.
A. what B. which C. that D. it 10. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten

Windows, most of ____ hadn’t been
cleaned for ten years.

A. these B. those C. that D. which

Underline the attributive clauses: Don’t forget the things that once you owned. Treasure the things that you can’t get. Don't give up the things that belong to you and keep those lost things in memory. 曾经拥有的,不要忘记。不能得到的, 更要珍惜。属于自己的,不要放弃。 已经失去的,留作回忆。

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