高中定语从句详细讲解 【摘要】 定语从句是一种形容词的关系从句。 它由关系代词或关系副词引导 （1） 。 初中英语中的定语从句仅限于限制性定于从句，但对初中生来说，定语从句既是 一个重点，也是一个难点。 【关键词】定语从句 先行词 关系代词 关系副词 一、英语中的定语从句与汉语中的定语位置不同。 在复合句中， 修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。英语中的定语从句始终 要放在被修
饰的词之后，而汉语中的定语则放在被修饰词之前。如： The man who / that I saw at the school gate yesterday is my English t eacher. 先行词 定语从句 昨天我在校门口看见的那个人是我的英语老师。 二、英语从句中的句型结构比较复杂，有先行词、关系代词或关系副词。被定语 从句修饰的词叫先行词， 引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词或关系副词。限制性 关系分句和它的先行项的所指意义有着不可分割的联系（2）。关系代词或关系 副词放在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用， 关系代词或关系副词在定语从句中 要充当一个成分。关系代词在句中可作主语、宾语或定语，关系副词在句中作状 语。如： I am waiting for the boy who /that is wearing a red coat. （主语） 先行词 关系代词 我正在等穿着红色外套的那个男孩。 The dictionary that / which my sister gave me last Sunday is very ex pensive.(宾语) 先行词 关系代词 我姐姐上周星期天给我的那本字典很贵。 The woman is his mother whose name is Linda Brown. (定语) 先行词 关系代词 那个是他的母亲，名叫琳达·布朗。 That is the house where my father used to live.(状语) 先行词 关系副词 那是我父亲曾经居住过的房子。 三、初中英语中的定语从句关系代词或关系副词的具体用法。 1. who 指人（也可用 that），在定语从句中作主语，也可作宾语。如： Yesterday I helped an old man who / that lost his way. （主语） 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 Mr Wang is the man (who / that / whom )you met in the zoo this mornin g.(宾语) 王先生就是今天早上你在动物里遇到的那个人。 注意：关系代词 who 指人,作宾语时，可用 whom 代替；作宾语时，关系代词可省 略。作其它成分，关系代词则不能省略。 2. whose 指人，也可指物。在定语从句中作定语。 The boy whose mother is ill is staying at home to look after her toda y.
其母亲生病的那个男孩今天呆在家里照顾她。 I have a story book whose cover is red. 我有一本封面是红色的故事书。 3. which 指物（也可用 that），在定语从句中作主语，也可作宾语。如： Football is a game which / that is liked by most boys. （主语） 足球是被大多数男孩喜欢的运动。 I don’t believe the news which / that Tom won the game. (宾语) 我不相信汤姆赢得这场比赛的消息。 四、 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时，可以和介词一起放在先 行词与定语从句之间。如： That is the place in which I lived for five years. =That is the place which / that I lived in for five years. 那就是我住过五年的地方。 Mr Zhang is the man for whom I am looking. =Mr Zhang is the man who / whom / that I am looking for. 张先生就是我正在找的那个人。 五、具体使用关系代词或关系副词需要注意的问题。 1. 先行词是地点时，如果该先行词做了定语从句的主语或宾语时，关系代词用 that 或 which. 如： The school that / which I used to study in is becoming better and bet ter. (the school 作了介词 in 的宾语。) 我过去曾经学习的那所学校变得越来越好了。 先行词是地点时，如果该先行词不作定语从句的主语或宾语时，关系代词用 whe re. 如： The place where the accident happened isn’t far from our school. 事故发生的那个地方离我们学校不远。 (定语从句中的动词 happened 是不及物动词，它不跟宾语，而 the accident 又 作了定语从句的主语，因此该定语从句既不需要主语，也不需要宾语。) 2.只用 that，不用 which 的情况。 （1）前有序数词修饰时。如： This is the tenth gift that I received for my birthday. 这是我收到的第十个生日礼物。 （2）前有形容词最高级修饰时。如： That is the most exciting game that I have ever watched. 那是我曾经看过最令人兴奋的比赛。 （3）先行词是 all, little, few, something, anything, everything 等不定 代词时。如： All that he told me is true. 他告诉我的一切是真实的。 （4）先行词被 the only 修饰时。如： The only thing that I can get is a pen. 我唯一能得到的东西就是一支钢 笔。 （5）先行词既指人，又指物时。如： We talked about the people and the things that we were interested in.
我们谈论了我们感兴趣的人和事。 3. 只用 which，不用 that 的情况。 （1）定语从句是物时，定语从句由“介词+关系代词 which”引导。如： The thing about which the teacher is talking is very important. 老师正在谈论的那件事非常重要。 （2）先行词本身是 that, those 时，如： What’s that which is flying in the sky? 在天空中飞的那是什么？ 总之， 我们作为初中英语教师要把初中英语中的定语从句讲解清楚，帮助学生理 解课文和阅读理解中的定语从句，帮助学生用定语从句进行正确的书面表达，为 以后更进一步的学习定语从句打下坚实的基础。 高中英语定语从句用法讲解（1） 一、概述 在复合句中， 修饰某一名词或代词， 用作定语的从句叫做定语从句(attributive clause)。被定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词(antecedent)。定语从句必须放在先行 词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词 who、whom、whose、which、that 和关系副词 when、where、why 等。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 最后，那个小偷向警察交出他偷的所有的东西。 （引导词是关系代词 that） His parents wouldn't let him marry anyone whose family was poor. 他父母不让他和家庭困难的人结婚。 （引导词是关系代词 whose） In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在那个黑暗的街道上，没有她可以求助的人。 （引导词是关系代词 whom） In 1519 another traveller who went to America from Europe discovered the tomato. 1519年另一位从欧洲去美洲的旅行家发现了西红柿。 （引导词是关系代词 who） I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. 我仍然记得第一次去北京的那一天。 （引导词是关系副词 when） This is the house where we lived last year. 这就是我们去年住的房子。 （引导词是关系副词 where） 二、关系代词和关系副词的功用能 关系代词和关系副词用来引导定语从句，在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作 用，使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词可作定语从句的一个成分。关系代词 可作主语、宾语、定语；关系副词可作状语。 1、作主语 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，从句的谓语动词的人称和数应与先行词一 致。
All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需要的是大量的油。 （引导词 that 在句中作主语） A plane is a machine that can fly. 飞机是会飞的机器。 （引导词 that 在句中作主语） The foreigner who visited our class yesterday is from Canada. 昨天到我班来访的外国人来自加拿大。 （引导词 who 在句中作主语） They planted the trees which didn't need much water. 他们种植了需水不多的树木。 （引导词 which 在句中作主语） 2、作宾语 在定语从句里作宾语的关系代词在口语中常被省去 The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious. 我煮的面条美味可口。 （引导词 that，可省略） The fish (which) we bought wes not fresh. 我们买的鱼不新鲜。 （引导词 which，可省略） The person to (whom) you just talked is Mr.Li. 刚才你与其交谈的人是李先生。 （引导词 whom，不可省略） 3、作定语 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中作定语用。 Miss Brown is the teacher whose house caught fire last night. 布朗小姐就是昨晚房子着火的那位老师。 高中英语定语从句用法讲解 This is the boy whose mother is our Chinese teacher. 这就是那个男孩，他母亲是我们的语文老师。 注意：关系代词 whose 在从句中与它所修饰的词一起作介词宾语时，可以跟 介词放在主语和从句之间。 The boss in whose company Mr. Kang worked called at the hospital. 老板到医院拜访了康先生，康先生在他的公司里工作。 4、作状语 关系副词 where, when 和 why 在定语从句中分别作地点状语、时间状语和原 因状语。 I'll never forget the time when we worked on the farm. 我将永远不会忘记我们在农场工作的那段日子。 The factory where his father works is in the west of the city. 他父亲工作的那个工厂在城市的西部。 This is the reason why he came late. 这就是他来晚的理由。 三、关系代词的用法 英语中的关系代词有 who，whom，whose，which，that 和 as。它们的用法如
下： 1、who，whom 的用法 who 和 whom 指人，who 在定语从句中作主语；whom 在定语从句中作宾语， 在限制性定语从句中可省略。在口语中可用 who 代替 whom。 In the beginning, people who bought the tomato often got angry. 起初，买到西红柿的人常常会生气。(作主语) The person (whom) you should write to is Mr. Ball. 你应该给他写信的人是波尔先生。(whom 作宾语能省略) His mother, whom he loved dearly, died in 1818. 他很爱你的母亲，她于1818年去世了。 （whom 引导非限制性定语从句，作宾 语但不能省略） 2、whose 的用法 whose 指人或物，在定语从句中作定语，指物时常可用 of which 取代。 I have a friend whose father is a mayor. 我有个朋友，他父亲是市长。 We lived in a house whose window faces south. 我们住在窗口朝南的房子里。 3、which 的用法 which 指物，在定语从句中作主语和宾语，作宾语时，在限制性定语从句中 可省略。 Today, fruit trees which once grew only in China can now be found in many parts of the world. 今天，那些曾经只在中国生长的果树能够在世界上许多地方看到了。 （作主 语，不能省略） They needed a plant which didn't need as much water as rice. 他们需要一种不像水稻那样需要水的作物。 （作主语，不能省略） It is used to record the tickets (which) passengers buy. 它用来记录乘客所购买的车票。(作宾语，可以省略) He came late, which we all know. 我们都知道，他来晚了。 （作宾语，在非限制性定语从句中不省略） 4、that 的用法 高中英语定语从句用法讲解 that 多指物，有时也指人，在定语从句中作主语或宾语，指物时其用法和 which 大致相同，但也有区别。 All the people that come from the country work much harder. 所有来自农村的人工作都更努力。 （that 指人，在从句中作主语，不能省略） This is all (that) I can tell you.
这是我能告诉你的全部情况。 （that 指物，在从句中作宾语，常省略） This is the best play that was written by Jack. 这是杰克写的最好的一个剧本。 （that 指物，在从句中作主语，不能省略） She is the only person(that) I can trust. 她是我唯一可以依赖的人。 （that 指人，在从句中作宾语，可以省略） 5、关系代词 that 和 which 的区别 （1）相同点 这两个关系代词引导定语从句时， 都可以指物； 在从句中都可作主语或宾语； 作宾语时都可省略。 The train that ( which ) has just left is for Shanghai.刚开的那列火车是去上海的。 (作 主语) The film that(which) we saw last night is wonderful.我们昨天晚上看的电影好极了。 (作宾语，可省略) （2）用 that，不用 which 的情况 ①当先行词是不定代词或被它们修饰时。 all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little 等不定代词时（something 之 后也可用 which） 。 To get the job started, all that I need is your permission. 要开始工作，我所需要的是你的许可。 Is there anything that I can do for you? 有什么要我做的事吗? He answered few questions that the teacher asked. 他几乎没有回答老师的那些问题。 ②当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时。 This was one of the most interesting books that were sold in this book store. 这是这家书店售出的最有趣的书之一。 The first thing that should be done is to get some food.该做的第一件事是弄点吃 的。 ③当先行词有 the very，the only，the same 等修饰时。 That’s the only thing that we can do now.目前我们只能这样了。 Those are the very words that he used.那就是他的原话。 ④当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时。 They were talking about the persons and things that they saw in the factory. 他们在谈论在工厂里看到的人和事。 They talked for about half an hour of things and persons that they remembered in the school. 他们聊起他们所能记得起的学校里的人和事来，聊了约半个钟头。
⑤当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时。 China is not the country that it was.中国已经不是过去的中国了。 ⑥当要避免与疑问词 which 重复时。 高中英语定语从句用法讲解 Which is the car that was made in Beijing?哪辆车是北京制造的? ⑦当先行词为 the way, the time, the period 等时，关系代词常用 that，但通常 被省略。 I don't like the way(that)you speak to her.我不喜欢你对她说话的方式。 （3）用 which，不用 that 的情况 ①引导非限制性定语从句。 Football, which is an interesting game, is played all over the world. 全世界都踢足球，它是一项有趣的运动。 Carol said the work would be done by October, which personally I doubt very much. 卡罗尔说这项工作将在十月前做，对此我个人表示怀疑。 Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, which ,of course, made the others unhappy. 桃乐茜总是吹嘘她在戏剧中的角色，这当然使别人不高兴。 ②直接放在介词后作宾语时。 Language is the most important tool without which people can't communicate with each other. 语言是最重要的工具，没有它，人们便无法交流。 巧记 that 和 which 的区别： that，which 可互换，下列请况勿照办；that 情况比较多，不妨对你说一说； 不定代词这路货，全用 that 准没错；先行词前被限制，千万不要用 which；要用 which 别着急，介词提前逗隔离。 6、关系代词 who 与 that 的区别 （1）当先行词是 he、people、those 等时，引导词常用 who。 He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。 Those who are for me, put up your hands. 同意我的人请举手。 I'll never forget the people who have helped me. 我将永远不会忘记那些帮助过我的人。 （2）当引导词作定语从句的表语时常用 that。 She isn't the little girl that she used to be. 她再也不是过去的那个小姑娘了。
He is the man that I asked for help yesterday. 他就是我昨天求助的人。 7、as 的用法 （1）as 引导限制性定语从句通常构成 such...as 或 the same...as 固定搭配，as 在从句中可作主语、表语或宾语。 I should like to use the same tool as you used yesterday. 我想用你昨天使用的那种工具。(作宾语) Many of the sports were the same as they are now. 过去的许多运动项目同现在的一样。(作表语) Don’t read such books as are not worth reading. Read such books as you can understand. 不要读那些不值得读的书，只去读那些你能读懂的书就可以了。 He lent me as much money as he had. 她把所有的钱借给了我。 Repeat this as often as is necessary. 根据需要反复这样做。(作主语) （2）such?that?与 such?as “such?that?”表示“如此??以致??”的意思， 用来引导一个结果状语 从句；而“such?as?”表“像??这样的??”的意思，用来引导定语从句， as 在从句中充当主、宾或表语等。 高中英语定语从句用法讲解 He is such an honest man that we respect him. 他是一个如此诚实的人以至于我们都尊敬他。 He is such an honest man as we respect. 他像我煤泥烘干机们所尊敬的这种诚实的人。 （3）the same?that?与 the same as “the same?that?”表同一人或物，而“the same?as?”表同种类的东西。 试比较下列两个句子： This is the same book that I lost. 这就是我丢失那本书。 （指同一本书） This is the same book as I lost. 这本书跟我丢失那本书一模一样。 （并不是原来的那一本） （4）as 引导非限制性定语从句 as 作关系代词，还可用来引导非限制性定语从句，可以用来代替一个句子或 单词，as 引导的句子可放在句首、句末或句中。 The moon, as is known to everybody, travels round the earth once every month. As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.
The moon travels round the earth once every month, as is known to everybody. 众所周知，月球一月绕地球一周土工格栅。 8、but 的用法 but 既可指人，又可指物，常在定语从句中充当主语。but 本身含“否定”的 意思，其作用相当于“that/which/who?not”。它前面的主句必须有“否定”的 词(如 no, not, little, few, hardly 等)。but 引导的肯定定语从句和否定的主句连用， 通过双重否定达到强烈肯定的效果。 There is no mother but loves her own children.(=There is no mother that/who doesn’t love her children.)没有不爱自己子女的母亲。 There were few people but were hurt.(= There were few people who/that were not hurt.)几乎没有人不受伤。 9、than 的用法 than 既可指人，又可指物，可作关系代词来引导定语从句，than 前通常有比 较级的词。 Don’t give children more money than is needed. 给孩子们的钱不要超过所需。 He has got more than he asked for. 他所得到的比他所要求的还要多。 Fewer friends than we had expected came to our evening party. 来参加晚会的朋友比我们预料的还要少。 四、关系副词 英语中的关系副词有 where，when，why 等。 1、when 的用法 when 指时间，修饰表时间的先行词，在定语从何中作时间状语。 July and August are the months when the weather is hot. 七八月是天气很热的 月份。 He came last night when I was out. 他昨晚来时，我出去了。 Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a necklace of yours? 你还记得十年前的一个下午，我到你家借项链的事吗? 2、where 的用法 where 指地点，修饰表地点的先行词，在定语从句中作地点状语。 高中英语定语从句用法讲解 After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town where he grew up as a child. 在巴黎住了五十年后，他回到他童年时生活的小城镇。 I can still remember the sitting-room where my mother and I used to sit in the
evening. 我还记得那间我妈妈和我晚上常坐在一起的起居室。 She will go home where she can rest. 她要回家了，在家里她可以休息。 One morning, an elephant was led down the road where they stood. 一天上午，有人赶着一头象沿着他们站立的那条路走过来。 注意： 先行词为表示时间、 地点的名词时， 关系词不一定都用 when 或 where。 如果关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语，就要用关系代词 whch 或 that。 This is the factory that/which we visited last year. 这是我们去年参观的那家工厂。 I won't forget the time that we spent in the countryside. 我永远不会忘记我在农村度过的那段时光。 3、why 的用法 why 指原因，修饰名词 reason，在定语从句中作原因状语。 This is the reason why he did so. 这就是他这样做了的理由。 Do you know the reason why he left early? 你知道香椿苗他为什么早走吗？ 巧记定语从句的用法 主句型，从句型，两种句子要完整。从句紧靠先行词，系词引导要弄清。定 人用 who 或 whom，定物 which 当先用。关系代词有 that，定人定物有本领。定 时间要用 when，定地点 where 行。关系代(副)词作成分，唯作宾语可以省。 五、“介词＋关系代词”用法 1、介词+which 在定语从句中分别作时间、地点和原因状语 介词+which 在关系分句中分别作时间，地点和原因状语，代替相应的关系副 词 when，where 和 why。 I still remember the day on which (=when)I first came to school.我仍然记得初来学 校的那一天。 The factory in which (=where) I work is a large one. 我工作的工厂是一个大厂子。 This is the reason for which(=why)he was put in prison. 这就是他为什么被关起来的原因。 In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., by which time many people have gone home. 在办公室里，我好像知道五点半从有时间，在此前很多人都已回家了。 注意： 关系代词 that 在定语从句中作介词的宾语时， 介词不能放在它的前面， 只能放在从句中有关动词的后面。 The village that she lives in is 100 metres away. 她住在100米远的土工布村庄
里。 2、介词+which(指物)/whom(指人)在定语从句中作地点状语 介词+which(指物)/whom(指人)在关系分句中作地点状语，表示存在关系，关 系分句主谓常须倒置。
（一）定义及相关术语 1．定语从句：修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它 所修饰的先行词之后。 2．先行词：被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3．关系词：引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等；关系副词有 when, where, why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用：A、引导定语从句；B、代替先行词；C、在定 语从句中担当一个成分。例如： The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中， who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句，修饰先行词 the man， “who”是 引导定语从句的关系词，代替先行词 the man，在定语从句中作主语。 （二）关系代词引导的定语从句 1．who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班 的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morni ng. 想去博物馆的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的 老人。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。 2．whom 指人，在定语从句中做宾语，常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公 共汽车上谈论的那个人。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女 孩是我们的班长。 注意：关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替，也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3．Which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司
离这儿很远。 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。 This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的 电影一点意思也没有。 4．That 指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which.。在定语从句中作 主语或宾语，作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观这座城市的人数达一百万。 Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿？ The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友 好。 The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自 澳大利亚的信。 5．Whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名 的科学家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的 房子里。 注意：指物时，常用下列结构来代替： The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow? （三）“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked.明天我将把你要的杂志 带来。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的 男孩。 We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.我们将去听那 位我们经常谈论的著名歌唱家演唱。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our workin g conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our workin
g conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 注意：１． 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开，介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如： look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那 个保姆照看的小宝宝们都很健康。 The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. （误） ２．若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只可用 whom，不可用 who, that； 关系代词指物时只可用 which，不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) 你刚才跟他谈话的 那个人是我的邻居。 The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正)我们去加拿大 所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。 The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误) ３．“介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。如： He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的 父母，他们俩待他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有 好些苹果，有些已经坏了。 There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们 班总共有４０个学生，大多数来自大城市。 Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 迄今 为止，他写了１０部小说，其中３部是关于农村生活的。 词＋关系代词引导的定语从句特例 1)...... ， ...of +关系代词。2)which 代替 this/that/the （四）关系副词引导的定语从句 1． when 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次 来到这所学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。 Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents . 你还记得在农村和你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗？ 2． where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已 经被拆掉了。 I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛
的农场。 Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗？ 3． why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上 去不愉快。 注意：关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 来表示。如： From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he h ad known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时，他就 已经知道长大后要做什么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活 的城市正发生巨大的变化。 The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒 绝接受邀请的原因是十分明了的。
（五）限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 形式上：不用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上： 是先行词不可缺少的定语， 如删除， 主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上：译成先行词的定语：“．．．的” 关系词的使用上：A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用 that C．可用 who 代替 whom 非限制性定语从句 形式上：用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上：只是对先行词的补充说明，如删除，主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上：通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上：A．不可省略 B．不用 that C．不可用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例： The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉 我说汤姆是我唯一的可以依靠的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语从句举例 ： His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他，对他 要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立的， 现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year. 去年夏天，我参观了人民大会堂，在那儿每年都要举行许多重要
会议。 （一）限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况 1．当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除 外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定代词时，或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如： Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗？ There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界 上没有什么不可能的事。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书 馆查找所需的资料。 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who，如： Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都 不会做这样的事。 All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 所有应 邀来参加她婚礼的客人都是重要人物。 2．当先行词被序数词修饰时。如： The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一 个地方是大本钟。 3．当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如： This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 4．当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如： This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火 灾过后，那辆旧车成了他的唯一拥有。 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如： Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校 唯一出席会议的人。 5．当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如： Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁？ Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身？ 6．当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如： They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论 着他们所能记起的在校时的人和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来 的人和他的 毛驴。 （二）关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其用法有相同之处，也有不同之处。具 体情况是： 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。
He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后，甚至还可以分割 主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正 如、正像”的含义。如： As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知，中国是发展中国家。 He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人，这一点我们从 他的口音可以知道。 John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知， 约翰是个著名作家。 Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过 巴黎十多次了，这一点我不相信。 注意：当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。 如： Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老 是迟到，这使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的， 这使得这些桌子很重。 1. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 如： I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意：当先行词受 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句，但与 as 引导 的定语从句意思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上 穿过的同一条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的 连衣裙。 (三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导， 而且 通常可以省略。如： The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问 题的方式令人惊奇。 I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 （四）关系代词与关系副词的选择 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用（即 所担当的成分）。试比较： A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地 方。 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一 个以自然景 色优美而闻名的地方。 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不 了我们一起 度假的日子。 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们 一起度过的日子。 C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。
This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 这就是他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。 （五）but 有时也用作关系词引导定语从句。如： There are very few but admire his talents. 很少有人不赞赏他的才干的。 （but = who don’t） （六）定语从句与同位语从句的区别 1．定语从句修饰限定先行词，它与先行词是修饰关系；同位语从句说明先行词 的具体内容，它与先行词是同位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. （定语从句） 刚刚起飞的那架飞 机是开往巴黎的。 The fact that he has already died is quite clear. （同位语从句） 他已经去世了， 这个事实很明了。 2． 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导，关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分， 关系代词在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导，在从 句中一般不担当成分；有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引 导，这些连词则在从句中担当成分。 The news that he told me is true. （定语从句） 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The news that he has just died is true. （同位语从句） 他刚刚去世了，这个消 息是真的。 The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. (定语 从句) 我们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. （同位语 从句） 我们如何筹集这么多资金，这个问题很难解决。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. （定语从句） 他提出的问题让 我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. （同位语从 句） 他是否一定会赢得那场比赛，这个问题很难回答。 3．同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语 从句则不能。如： A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. （同位语从 句）我们可以向老师请教，这个主意不错。 The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. （同位语从 句） 地球围绕太阳转，这个事实人人皆知。 The fact is that the earth moves around the sun. C. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. （同位语 从句） 请注意如何保护野生动物这个问题。 The problem is how we can protect the wild animals. Exercises: 1.There are three bedrooms in the house,_____ is Mary's. A the smallest of which B the smaller of which
C the smallest of them D the smallest one 2.The Greens will move into the new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished. A by the time B by which time C by that time D by this time 3.Alice has a large collection of phone,_____ was taken in london. A none of them B no one of which C all of which D none of which 4.With the fast development of agriculture, the people ____ village I taught before lived a happy life. A who B whose C in whose D in which 5.There is a moutain ____ the top is always covered with snow. A whose B of which C it's D that 6.She may have missed her train, in ____ case she won't arrive for another hour. A what B that C which D this 7.1)I have three children,and two of _____ are doctors. 2)I have three children, two of ____ are doctors. 8.There two thousand students in our school,____ are girls. A two-thirds in which B two-thirds in them C two-thirds of them D of whom two thirds 9.I have bought two ballpens,_____ writes well. A neither of them B none of them C neither of which D none of which （1---6ABDCBC 7----9B DDC） 特殊结构定语从句点击 1. These houses are sold at such a low price ________ people expected. A. like B. as C. that D. which 2. I've never heard so interesting a story ________ you told me. A. as B. that C. of which D. about which 3. I've seen the same film ________ you saw yesterday. A. that B. which C. as D. like 4. I'll buy the same coat ________ you wear. A. that B. which C. as D. like 5. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 6. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 7. This is the first time ________ he has been here. A. that B. when C. at which D. which 8. I don't like ________ you speak to her. A. the way B. they way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 答案与简析：
1. B。当先行词被 such 修饰时，定语从句用 as 引导，即构成结构为"such+（a/an） ＋形容词＋名词＋as"引导的定语从句，意为"......像......一样的"。整个句子意为： 这些房屋以人们原来估计的那样低的价格出售。 2. A。由 so interesting a story = such an interesting story 和上面一题的解释便可得 知答案。as 在定语从句中作宾语。整句意为：我从未听说过像你告诉我那样有趣 的故事。 3. A 4. C。当先行词被 same 修饰时，定语从句由 that 或 as 引导，但意思不同。用 that 引导定语从句指同一物，而用 as 引导定语从句指同类事物。 5. A。做此题的关键是要知道 I think 在定语从句中作插入语，做题时将其去掉便 可容易得到答案。 6. B。Ａs 在此引导非限制性定语从句，代表它所修饰的整个句子内容，并且它 可放在所修饰句子的前、中或后面。其常见结构如：as you know, as is said above, as is often the case （情况经常是这样） 等。 如选Ａ， 则需将逗号改为 that； 如选 D， 则需将逗号改为 is that。 7. A。当先行词为 the first time, the last time 等时，定语从句的引导词用 that 而不 用 when。 8. A。当先行词为 way 时，定语从句的引导词用 that 或 in which, 也可省略。 定语从句 1．This is the best factory ____we visited last year . A. where B. which C. in which D. that 2.Is this the factory ____computers are built ? A. that B. which C. in which D. in that 3.please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red . A. whose B.its C. which D. which of 4.The man ____has arrived . A. whom I told you B. that I told you C. whom I told you about him D. I told you about 5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking ? A. to whom B. to who C. whom D. to that 6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born . A. from where B. in which C. which D. in where 7. The comrade ___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher . A. whom B. which C. who D. whose 8. He asked us to watch carefully everything ___he did in class . A. who B. that C. what D. where 9. I’ll visit the professor tomorrow ,___he will be back from Shanghai . A. who B. that C. when D. which 10.The school ___I study is a new one . A. on which B. at where C. on that D. at which 11. China has many islands,____the largest is Taiwan . A. in which B. at which C. which D. of which 12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here .
A. what B. where C. that D. which 13. Our teacher lives in the house ____door faces to the north . A. which B. his C. that D. whose 14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded ? A. whom B. to whom C. to who D. about whom 15.Wrestling is a sport in ___people easily get hurt . A. that B. when C. which D. what 16. I told you ____I know . A. all that B. all which C. all what D. all whom 17.China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun . A. of which B. of whom C. of who D. of them 18. Is this factory ____we visited last year ? A. in which B. around that C. whom D. the one 19. Who is the man ____was there ? A. who B. which C. that D. whom 20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir ? A. that B. which C. whose D. who 21. I still remember the day ____she first wore that green dress . A. which B. in which C. on that D. on which 22. The knife ____we used to cut the bread is very sharp . A. with which B. with it C. with that D. which 23. The games ____the young men competed in were difficult . A. in which B. which C. it D. who 24.It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it 25. George Mallory was an English school teacher _____ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which 历届高考英语单项选择题定语从句精选 26.His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose 27.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that 28.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom 29.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it 30.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A.which B.where C.that D.when 31．Carol said the work would be done by October,______personally I doubt very much. A. it B.that C.when D.which
32．Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A．who B．which C．this D．what 33.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A.which price C.the price of which C.its price D.the price of whose 34._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A.As B.It C.That D.Which 35.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A.this B.which C.that D.same 36.On the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A.whose B.of which C.which D.its 37.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A.what B.which C.that D.when 38.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A.that B.where C.which D.there 39.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A.in which B.in that C.in whose D.whose 40.I don’t like _____ you speak to her. A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which 41.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through . A.It’s the reason B.That’s why C.There’s why D.It’s how 42.He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science. A.which I think is B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think which is 定语从句答案: 1-5DCADA 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 DBDBC 16-20 ABDCA 21- 25 DABBA KEYS: 26-30 DBDBB 31-35 DBCAB 36-40 ABBCA 41-42 BA