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高中经典语法之名词性从句(二)


名词性从句(二)
●知识点精讲透析
●考点一

表语从句

表语从句的连接词 (1) 从属连词 that。在从句中不做成分。如: The trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦是我把他的地址丢了。 (2) 从属连词 whether, as, as if。如: He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。

注:从属连词 if 一般不用来引导表语从句,但 as if 却可引导表语从句。如: All this was over twenty years ago, but it’s as if it was only yesterday. 这都是 20 多年前的事了,但宛如昨天一样。 注:可接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, seem, sound, appear 等。如: China is no longer what she used to be. 今日的中国不再是过去的中国了。 The question remains whether they will be able to help us. 问题还是他们能否帮我们。 He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。 (3) 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever That was what she did this morning. 那就是他今天早上所做的。 (4) 连接副词 where, when, how, why。如: What I wonder is when he left. 我想知道他是何时离开的。 (5) because, why 引导的表语从句。如: That's because he didn't understand me. 那是因为他没有理解我。 (That's because...强调原因) 在表语从句中做主语、宾语等。如:

That's why he got angry with me. 那正是他对我生气的原因。 (That's why...强调结果) I think it is because you are doing too much. 我想这是因为你做得太多。 (6) 在一些表示“建议、劝说、命令”的名词后面的表语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气。should+动词原形表示,should 可省略。如: My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 过手训练 1. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is _____ I disagree. A. why B. where C. what D. how 我的建议是我们明天一早出发。

2. See the flags on the top of the building? That was _____ we did this morning. A. when B. which C. where D. what
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3. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was _____ it was rather closely modeled on

his own life. A. what B. that C. why D. whether

4. The traditional view is _____ we sleep because our brain is “programmed” to make us to do. A. when B. why C. whether D. that

5. ---Don’t you think it necessary that he _____ to Miami but to New York? ---I agree, but the problem is _____ he has refused to. A. will not be sent; that ●考点二 B. not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what D. should not sent; what

同位语从句

在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。所谓同位语,是指跟在某些名词的后面,对前者做进一步的 解释、说明、补充和概括,但不对前者起修饰作用的一种句子成分。 一、同位语从句在句中的位置 1. 一般情况下同位语从句跟在某些名词(如 news,idea,fact,promise,hope,message 等)的后面,用以说明该 名词所表达的具体内容。 The news that our women volleyball team had won the championship encouraged us all greatly. 我们女排赢得冠军的消息大大地鼓舞了我们所有人。 I've come from Mr. Wang with a message that he won't be able to see you this afternoon. 我从王先生那边得知一个消息,他说他今天下午不能来看你了。 2. 有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后,而被别的词语隔开,在语法上叫做分隔式同位语从句。 The thought came to her that maybe she had left the door open when she left home. 她突然想起可能在她离开家时没把门关上。 The story goes that he failed in the College Entrance Examinations again. 据说他高考又落榜了。 二、同位语从句前名词的数 同位语从句前的名词通常用单数形式,并且往往带有限定词(word 除外)加以修饰。 Where did you get the idea that I could not come? 你在哪儿听说我不能来? Give me your promise that you will come to our party this evening. 答应我,你今天晚上要来参加我们的晚会。 Word came that China launched its first manned spaceship on Oct. 15,2003. 消息传来,中国于 2003 年 10 月 15 日首次成功发射了载人飞船。 三、同位语从句连接词的选用 在英语中,引导同位语从句的词通常有连词(that,who,whether) ,连接副词(how,when,where)等。 They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick. 对你生病这件事,他们都很焦虑。 The question who should do the work requires consideration. 谁该做这项工作,这个问题需要考虑。 We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.
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我们还没有决定到什么地方去度暑假。 注:在名词 doubt“怀疑”后的同位语从句用 whether 连接;在 no doubt“不怀疑”之后的同位语从句用 that 连接。 We have some doubt whether they can complete the task on time. 我们怀疑他们是否能准时完成任务。 There is no doubt that Zhang Wei will keep his promise. 我们相信张卫会守信的。 同位语从句:that 有些名词的后面可以接 that 引导的同位语从句: We came to the decision that we must act at once. 我们做出决定:我们必须立即行动。 He made a proposal that the meeting be postponed. 他提议会议延期。 There was little hope that he would survive. 他幸存的希望很小。 以下名词常用于以上句型: advice,announcement,argument,belief,claim,conclusion,decision,evidence,explanation,fact,feeling,hope, idea,impression,information,knowledge,message,news,opinion,order,probability,promise,proposal,remark, reply,report,saying,statement,suggestion,thought,treat,warning,wish,word 同位语从句:whether, whether 可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用 whether 作为引导词。 He hasn't made the decision whether he will go there. 他还没有做出决定是否去那里。 I have small doubt whether he is suitable for the job. 他是否适合这件工作我有点怀疑。 同位语从句:what, what 可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用 what 作为引导词 I have no idea what he is doing now. 我不知道他现在在干什么。 同位语从句:how, how 可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用 how 作为引导词 It's a question how he did it. 那是一个他如何做了此事的问题。 同位语从句: who,whom,which,when,where,why 用来引导同位语从句 She raised the question where we could get the fund. 她提出这个问题:我们到哪儿去搞这笔资金。 四.同位语从句和定语从句的区别 1. 定语从句相当于一个形容词, 它对先行词起修饰、 描述和限制的作用。 同位语从句相当于名词, 属于名词性从句, 它是对前面名词内容的具体表述,它们之间的关系是同位关系。 2. that 在定语从句中充当某一成分, 是关系代词; that 在同位语从句中不作任何成分,仅把主句与从句连接在一起, 是从属连词。如: We were greatly pleased at the news that the Chinese women's volleyball team had won the match again. 听到中国女排再次获胜的消息我们极为高兴。(that 引导的是同位语从句) We were greatly pleased at the news that our teacher had told us. 听到老师告诉我们的消息我们感到很高兴。(that 引导的是定语从句) 3. when, where, why, who, whom, which 如果引导定语从句, 它们分别指前面先行词所表示的时间、地点、原因、人
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和物,否则引导的就是同位语从句。 (1)The reason why he was late for class is quite clear. 他上课迟到的原因显而易见。(why 引导的是定语从句)

(2)He has solved the problem why the radio was out of order. 他解决了收音机为何出故障的问题。(why 引导的是同位语从句) 4. whether, what 可引导同位语从句,但通常不可引导定语从句。 The problem whether they could finish the project is very important. 他们是否能够按期完成那个项目,这个问题非常重要。 5. 同位语从句常跟在 news, fact, promise, idea, word, message, hope, truth, answer, proposal, suggestion, order, information 等少数名词之后,而一般名词之后都可跟定语从句。 过手训练 1. Information has been put forward _____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as

2. It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities,this is the information ____ has been put forward. A. what B. that C. when D. as

3. She heard a terrible noise,____ brought her heart into her mouth. A. it B. which C. this D. that

4. I can't stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly. A. it B. which C. this D. that

5. The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that B. what C. why D. which

●巩固练习
1. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer ____ it was 20 years ago, _____ it was so poorly equipped. A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that

2. The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer. Warm sunshine and soft sands make _____ it is. A. what B. which C. how D. where

3. The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. A. what B. that C. why D. when

4. His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down. A. which B. that C. / D. it

5. I have no idea ____ he will start. A. when B. that C. what D. /
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6. I've come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won't be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which

7. The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A. when B. which C. what D. that

8. The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A. which B. whether C. that D. what

9. The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient's fear ____ he would die of the disease. A. that B. as C. of which D. which

10. He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that D. when

●课后盘点
1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meeting next week. A. that B. if C. when D. whether

2. The reason why he failed is ________he was too careless. A. because B. that C. for D. because of

3. I am afraid he’s more of a talker than a doer, which is ______ he never finishes anything. A. that B. when C. where D. why

4. The problem is _________to take the place of Ted. A. who can we get B. what we can get C. who we can get D. that we can get

5. What I want to know is ______ he likes the gift given by us. A. that B. if C. whether D.不填

6. Tomorrow is Tom’s birthday. Have you got any idea _____ the party is to be held? A. what B. which C. that D. where

7. Modern science has given clear evidence _____ smoking can lead to many diseases. A. what B. which C. where D. that

8. When the news came _____ the war broke out, he decided to serve in the army. A. since B. which C. that D. because

9. Did Jack take the doctor ’s advice that he _____ in bed for a couple of days? A. lies B. lay C. lie D. laid

10. You can shut your eyes to the fact _____ he did was right. A. that B. what C. which D. that what

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