简单句 1. 六种基本句型 基本句型分解:英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、 变化而来的: 1）主+谓（SV） I work. 2）主+系 +表（SVP） Things are getting better. She turned doctor. 3）主+ 谓 +宾（SVO） She studies Engli
sh. 4）主+ 谓 + 间宾 + 直宾（SV Io. Do.） My mother bought me a new dress. 5）主+ 谓 +宾 +补（SVOC） I saw him come into the house yesterday. 另外：There be 句型 2. 练习：判断下列句子属于何种句式 1）You are sitting on the train home. 2）Here comes the bus ! 3）The ego?s potential for expansion is limitless. 4）There existed a nation in the ocean. 5）Our neighbors gave us a baby bird yesterday. 6）We think it our duty to study well. 7）No body is here. 8）He passed me a cup of tea. 9）Tom doesn?t know the pop star. 10）My mother stays at home. 11）The milk tastes good. 12）The car caught fire. 13）The teacher has told me the fact. 14）He is reading a book. 15）He gave me a lecture yesterday. 16）She is very friendly. 17）I can swim. 18）I have had a good time. 19）I found him talking. 20）This English book is very interesting. 3. 更正下列句子的错误 1）He came the room. 2）The music sounds. 3）I have seen. 4）He gave a pen me. 5）The boss made the boy to work hard. 6）My father bought a book to me. Keys： 1）He came into the room
2）The music sounds wonderful 3）I have seen the film. 4）He gave a pen to me. 5）The boss made the boy work hard. 6）My father bought a book for me. 4. 五种基本句型的推导： 1) 英语句子必须有谓语动词。 他像他爸爸。He is like his father. 这本书值得一读。The book is worth reading. 我反对你的意见。I?m against you. 2)一个句子内有且只有一个动词充当谓语（并列谓语除外） ，其余动词应为非谓语或从句的 谓语。 他给我一些水喝。He gave me some water to drink. 5. 翻译下列句子并分析句子结构： 1）我经常在早晨读英语。 2）玛丽是个聪明的学生。 3）我的老师交给我一封信 4）我母亲经常叫我努力学习。 5）我们叫我们的老师王先生 6）他正在房里做家庭作业 Keys: 1）I often read English in the morning. 2）Mary is a clever student. 3）My teacher gave me a letter. 4）My mother often asks me to study hard. 5）We call our teacher Mr. Wang. 6）He is doing his homework in the room. 并列句复合句 1. 把两个或几个简单句用并列连词连接起来的句子就叫并列句。 2. 四种类型 1）由 and, not only ?but also?, neither?nor?, then?连接，表同等概念。 He can not only repair radios but also fix them Not only do the nurses want a pay increased, but also they want reduced hours. 2）由 either?or?, or, otherwise 等连接，表选择 Either she leaves or I will. 3）由 but, still, yet, however, while, when, whereas, nevertheless 等连接，表转折。 My mother likes coffee while my father likes tea. 4）由 so, for, therefore 等连接，表因果。 He found it difficult to read, for his eyes were failing. ３. Exercises ：注意逻辑关系 1）Give him an inch he?ll take an ell. A. but B. and C. for D. so 2） did the students dance, their teacher sang. A. Neither… or… B. Either …or… C. Both…and… D. Not only…but also… 3）Feathers fall to the ground slowly stones fall much faster. A. and B. while C. but D. yet 4）We must get up early tomorrow, we?ll miss the first bus to the Great Wall. A. however B. but C. or D. so 5）He worked hard, he failed.
A. while B. and C. so D. yet 6）I thought we?d be late for the concert, ______ we ended up getting there ahead of time. 7）Search the website of the Fire Department in your city, _____you will learn a lot about firefighting. 8）They were surprised that a child should work out the problem __ they themselves couldn?t. 9）I was just about to lie down to rest _______I saw a snake in the grass. Keys: BDBCD, but, and, while, when ４．句子的连接和标点符号 1）句号连接两个并列句子，第二个句子的首字母大写。 My name is Tom. I am five. 2）分号连接两个并列分句，第二个句子的首字母不大写。 Tom is five; he studies in a primary school. 3）引号前用逗号而不用冒号，英语中没有书名号。 Tom said, “The movie Titanic is wonderful!” ４）重点：逗号的运用。 Ａ．逗号连接内部结构，即句子的状语（从句） ，定语（从句） ，同位语（从句）插入语等。 请为下列句子加上逗号。 1) Since he is ill he is absent. 2) To save class time our teacher has us students do half of the exercises in class. 3) Polar bears live mostly on sea ice which they use as a platform for hunting seals. Keys：1) Since he is ill，he is absent. 2) To save class time，our teacher has us students do half of the exercises in class. 3) Polar bears live mostly on sea ice，which they use as a platform for hunting seals. Ｂ．逗号加连词相当于句号，连接两个并列句子。 I am five, and I study in a primary school. 5. Translate the sentence. (注意标点） 我走进教室，看见他正在读书，我没有打扰他，拿了书就出了教室。 When I came into the classroom, I saw him reading. I took my book and went out, without interrupting him. 主从复合句 包括名词性从句（主语、宾语、表语、同位语从句） ，定语从句，状语从句 主语从句 When we shall meet again hasn?t been decided yet. What he did was all for his country. That she is good at music is known to all. 宾语从句 They told me that he could speak German. I know what you really mean. I have forgotten where I left the key. 表语从句 The problem is whether you can do it yourselves. That is why we are going to help them. That was how she won the first prize.
同位从句 The news that they had succeeded encouraged us. The question whom we should serve must be discussed. I have no idea when he will be back. 定语从句 The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. This is the house where he lived ten years ago. I?ll never forget the day when I met that great writer in Japan 状语从句 He liked drawing when he was a small child. I didn?t go with him because I was busy. You?ll succeed if you study harder. 练习：Analyze the sentences. 1). What makes a study scientific is not, of course, the nature of the things with which it is concerned but the method by which it deals with these things. 2). When Mr. Jones got back, he immediately went to sleep on the living room sofa with “English Salon” over his face. 补充的详细内容： 1. 动词的分类 类 别 行 为 动 词 及物动词 不及物动词 特 点 接宾语 不接宾语 接表语 协助构成时 态或语态 协助后面的 动词原形表 情态或语气 例 句 He visited the Great Wall last year. We live in Huizhou. He is lying on the grass. You are a student. I?m a teacher. She?s a nurse. I have known the place for many years. The goods are sold out. Did you go there? I can?t decide which film to see. You ought to go to the toilet before the film begins.
连系动词 be, turn keep 助动词 be, have, has, had, do, does, did, 情动 情态动词 can may must will/would shall/should need dare have / ought to
2. 连系动词的分类 变化类：become, grow, get, turn, come, go, fall 感官类：smell, taste, sound, look, feel 显得类：seem, appear, look 状态类：be, keep, stay, remain, lie, stand, (prove, turn out, continue) 3. 常见的双及物动词有： throw 扔, give 给, show 给......看, leave 留给, write 给......写信, return 把......还给, bring 带 来, read 读，tell 告诉, hand 交给, pass 递给, promise 答应, lend 借给, send 寄, refuse 拒绝 （间接宾语前加 to） ；play 演奏，get 得到，sing 唱歌，do 做，order 命令，make 生产/ 制造, pay 为......交钱，buy 买（间接宾语前加 for） 4. 能带宾补的动词： A.感官动词：see, watch, look at, observe, notice, hear, listen to, feel B.使役动词：have, make, let C.其它：get, force, want, wish ,expect, allow, permit, forbid, ask, order, advise，tell, find etc. 5. There be 是一种“存在”句，表示“某处或某时存在有某人(物)” 。这种句子里 there 是一 个引导词，引出主语(某人或某物)，用介词短语表示处所或时间，在句中作状语。be 有数和
时态的变化。be 的数要和它后面的主语按就近原则保持一致，即当主语有多个时，be 的数 与离它最近的那个主语的数一致。Be 还可能是 exist, stand, come，lie 等不及物动词。
1、按使用目的，句子可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。见下表 类 别 陈述 句 肯定句 否定句
I have a watch./ They like skating./ Mary can swim./ There is a desk in the room. I have no watch./ They don?t like skating./ Mary can?t swim./ There isn't a desk in the room. Have you a watch?/Do they like skating?/Can Mary swim?/Is there a desk in the room? How old is he ?/What will you do?/Which do you like best?/Who can swim? Where does he live?/When did she leave?
疑 问 句
Have you a watch or a clock?/Do they like skating or skiing?/Who can swim, Mary or Jane? Is there a desk or a table in the room ?
You haven?t a watch, have you?/They like skating, don?t they?/Mary can swim, can?t she? There is a desk in the room, isn?t there?
祈 使 句 感 叹 句
Be careful, boys./Go back to your seat, please./Don?t talk in class. What a clever boy he is!/How clever the boy is!/So you here at last!/What a size!/Wonderful!
2、按结构分类，句子可分为简单句和复合句。见下表： 类 别 例 句 1）主语+不及物动词:A bird can fly./ I live in Xiamen. 2) 主语+连系动词+表语:The sentence is simple./ She seems all right. 3) 主语+及物动词+宾语:We like English./ I can speak Japanese. 简 单 句 4) 主语+及物动词+双宾语（直宾和间宾） He bought me a cup of tea./ He showed her a photo. 5) 主语+及物动词+复合宾语（宾语和宾补） The sun keeps us warm./ I wish you success./ we treat the girl our sister. 并列复合句 He is in Class One and I am in Class Two./She is an American, but she studies in England./ Some people love him, while others hate him.
When we shall meet again hasn?t been decided yet./What he did was all for his country./That she is good at music is known to all.
主 复 合 句 从 复 合 句
同位从句 表语从句 宾语从句
They told me that he could speak German./I know what you really mean./I have forgotten where I left the key. The problem is whether you can do it yourselves./That is why we are going to help them./That was how she won the first prize. The news that they had succeeded encouraged us./ The question whom we should serve must be discusssed./ I have no idea when he will be back.
The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom./This is the house where he lived ten years ago./ I?ll never forget the day when I met that great writer in Japan
He liked drawing when he was a small child./ I didn?t go with him because I was busy./You?ll succeed if you study harder.
一、句子成分的定义：构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。 句子成分有主要成分和次要成分；主要成分有主语和谓语；次要成分有表语、宾语、定 语、状语、补足语和同位语。 1. 主语：主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句（当主 语不疑问词时）和倒装句中，主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词 主格、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如： During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.（名词） We often speak English in class.（代词） One-third of the students in this class are girls.（数词） To swim in the river is a great pleasure.（不定式） Smoking does harm to the health.（动名词） The rich should help the poor.（名词化的形容词） When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.（主语从句） It is necessary to master a foreign language.（it 作形式主语，真正的主语为后面的不定式） 2. 谓语：谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。谓语由动词构成，是英语时态、 语态变化的主角， 一般在主语之后。 不及物动词 （vi.） 没有宾语， 形成主谓结构， We come. 如： 谓语的构成如下：1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如：He practices running every morning. 2、 复合谓语： （1） 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。 如： You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如：We are students. 3. 表语： 表语用以说明主语的身份、 特征和状态， 它一般位于系动词 （如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等， 感官动词多可用作联系动词： look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好，smell bad/难闻 ）之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定 式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。例如： Our teacher of English is an American.（名词） Is it yours?（代词） The weather has turned cold.（形容词） The speech is exciting.（分词） Three times seven is twenty one? （数词） His job is to teach English.（不定式） His hobby is playing football.（动名词） The machine must be out of order.（介词短语） Time is up. The class is over.（副词） The truth is that he has never been abroad.（表语从句） 4. 宾语：宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者，一般位于及物动词和介词后面，同主语的构成一 样，不同的是构成宾语的代词必须是“代词宾格” ，如：me，him，them 等。例如： They went to see an exhibition yesterday.（名词） The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time.（代词） How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.（数词） They helped the old with their housework yesterday.（名词化形容词） He pretended not to see me.（不定式短语）
I enjoy listening to popular music.（动名词短语） I think（that）he is fit for his office.（宾语从句） 宾语种类： （1）双宾语（间接宾语+直接宾语） 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语，如：give 给，pass 递，bring 带，show 显示。这两个宾 语通常一个指人，为间接宾语；一个指物，为直接宾语。一般的顺序为：动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 即间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 例如： Lend me your dictionary, please. Give me a cup of tea, please. 强调间接宾语顺序为：动词 + 直接宾语 + to + 间接宾语。如：Show this house to Mr.Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词： 动词+ 代词直接宾语 + to + 间接宾语。 Bring it to me, please. 如： 特殊的同源宾语现象: fight a fight , dream a dream , etc. （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补） ，例如：They elected him their monitor. 5. 宾语补足语：位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明，使句子的意义完整。宾语与其补足语有逻 辑上的主谓关系， 它们一起构成复合宾语。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为： 某些及物动词 （如 make 等+宾语+宾补） 。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 例如： His father named him Dongming. The war made him a soldier. （名词） They painted their boat white. New methods make the job easy.（形容词） Let the fresh air in.（副词） You mustn?t force him to lend his money to you. （不定式短语） The teacher asked the students to close the windows.（不定式短语） We saw her entering the room. I noticed a cat running across the road.（现在分词） We found everything in the lab in good order. I often find him at work.（介词短语） We will soon make our city what your city is now.（从句） 二、定语：定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子，汉语中常用“……的” 表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修饰 some, any, every, no 构成的复合不定代词时， （如：something、nothing） ；或不定式、分词短语作定语、从句作定语时，则定语通常置后。 副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 1. 形容词作定语： The little boy needs a blue pen. (little 修饰名词 boy；blue 修饰名词 pen.） 小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。 Tom is a handsome boy. Tom 是个英俊的男孩。 There is a good boy. 有个乖男孩。 Guilin is a beautiful city.（形容词） 2. 数词作定语相当于形容词： Two boys need two pens. 两个男孩需要两支钢笔。 The two boys are students. 这两个男孩是学生。 There are two boys in the room. 房间里有两个男孩。 3. 代词或名词所有格作定语： His boy needs Tom's pen. 他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。 His name is Tom. 他的名字是汤姆。 His rapid progress in English made us surprised. There are two boys of Tom?s there. 那儿有 Tom 家的两个男孩。
4. 介词短语作定语： The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours. 教室里的男孩需要你的一支钢笔。 The boy in blue is Tom. 穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。 There are two boys of 9,and three of 10. 有两个 9 岁的，三个 10 岁的男孩。 He is reading an article about how to learn English. 5. 名词作定语： The boy needs a ball pen. 男孩需要一支圆珠笔。 It is a ball pen. 这是一支圆珠笔。 There is only one ball pen in the pencil box. 这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。 There are thirty women teachers is our school. 6. 副词作定语： The boy there needs a pen. 那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。 The best boy here is Tom. 这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 7. 不定式作定语： The boy to write this letter needs a pen. 写这封信的男孩需要一支钢笔。 The boy to write this letter is Tom. 将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。 There is nothing to do today. 今天无事要做。 Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. 8. 分词（短语）作定语： The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother. 那个微笑的男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。 The pen bought by her is made in China. 她买的笔是中国产的。 There are five boys left. 有五个留下的男孩。 China is a developing country; America is a developed country. The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. 9. 定语从句： The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday. 那个在阅读的男孩需要 你昨天买钢笔。 The boy you will know is Tom. 你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。 There are five boys who will play the game. 参加游戏的男孩有五个。 三、状语：状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句，说明方式、因果、条件、时间、地点、让 步、方向、程度、目的等。 How about meeting again at six?（时间状语） Mr. Smith lives on the third floor.（地点状语） Last night she didn?t go to the dance party because of the rain.（原因状语） I shall go there if it doesn?t rain.（条件状语） He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.（结果状语） In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.（目的状语） I am taller than he is.（比较状语） She works very hard though she is old.（让步状语） She put the eggs into the basket with great care.（方式状语） She came in with a dictionary in her hand.（伴随状语） 状语在句子中的位置很灵活， 常见情况为： 通常在句子基本结构之后， 强调时放在句首； 修饰形容词或副词时，通常位于被修饰的词之前；表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句
子两头， 强调时放在句首， 地点状语一般须在时间状语之前； 一些表示不确定时间 （如： often） 或程度（如：almost）的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之后，动词之前。 有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义，应注意，如：The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理解成“男孩喊教室里的女孩” （此时 in the classroom 为 girl 的定语） ，也可 以理解为“男孩在教室里喊女孩” （此时 in the classroom 为地点状语） ，最好写作“In the classroom, the boy calls the girl.” 1. 副词（短语）作状语： The boy needs a pen very much. 男孩非常需要一支钢笔。 （程度状语） The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother. 男孩非常需要他母亲买的那支钢 笔。 （宾语较长则状语前置） The boy really needs a pen. 男孩真的需要一支钢笔。 （程度状语） The boy needs a pen now./Now, the boy needs a pen./The boy, now, needs a pen. 男孩现在需 要一支钢笔。 （时间状语） Light travels most quickly.（副词及副词性词组） 2. 介词短语作状语： In the classroom, the boy needs a pen. 在教室里，男孩需要一支钢笔。 （地点状语） Before his mother, Tom is always a boy. 在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语) On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom. 星期天,教室里没有学生.(时间状语) He has lived in the city for ten years.（介词短语地点状语） 3. 分词（短语）作状语： He sits there, asking for a pen. 他坐在那儿要一支笔。 （表示伴随状态） He is in the room making a model plane.（分词短语表示伴随状态） Having to finish his homework, the boy needs a pen. 因为不得不完成作业，男孩需要一支 笔。 （原因状语） Frightened, he sits there soundlessly. （因为）受了惊吓，他无声地坐在那儿。 （原因状语） 4. 不定式作状语： The boy needs a pen to do his homework. 男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。 （目的状语） To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business. 为实现梦想,汤姆变 得对商业很有兴趣. He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.（不定式短语） 5. 名词作状语： Come this way! 走这条路！ （方向状语） Wait a minute.（名词状语） 6. 状语从句： 有时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、条件状语从句、结果状语从句、目的 状语从句、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、方式状语从句等九种。 The moment he heard the good news, he jumped with joy. （时间状语从句） Wherever she went, she took her little daughter with her. （地点状语从句） I teach English because I like English. （原因状语从句） I shall go there if it doesn?t rain.（条件状语从句） He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.（结果状语从句） We got up early so that we could catch the first bus to the railway station.（目的状语从句） I am taller than he is.（比较状语从句） She works very hard though she is old.（让步状语从句）
Everything went on as usual as if nothing had happened. （方式状语从句） 四、同位语： 同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分，近乎于后置定语。 如： We students should study hard. (students 是 we 的同位语，都是指同一批?学生?） We all are students. (all 是 we 的同位语，都指同样的?我们?) 五、独立成分：有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分，称为句子独立成分(注意： 区别于分词独立结构)。 1. 感叹词：oh, hello, aha, ah,等。 2. 肯定词 yes 3. 否定词 no 4. 称呼语：称呼人的用语。 5. 插入语：一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 如: The story, I think, has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结束. 6. 情态词,表示说话人的语气 （多作为修饰全句的状语） :perhaps 也许,maybe 大概,actually 实际上,certainly 当然，等。 六、 分词独立结构：分词作状语时其逻辑主语与句子的主语一致! 否则应有自己的逻辑主 语，构成分词独立结构。 例： 错句：Studying hard, your score will go up. 正确：(1) Studying hard, you can make your score go up. (2 ) If you study hard, your score will go up. 解析：错句中分词 studying 没有自带逻辑主语，则其逻辑主语就是句子的主语，即 your score ， 显然 study 的应该是人，不应是 your score（分数） 正确句(1)更正了句子的 。 主语,使其与分词逻辑主语一致( 同为 you );正确句(2)则使用条件分句引出 study 的主语, 不过已经不是分词结构而是句子了。 分词独立结构常省略 being, having been，但“There being...”中 being 不能省略。如： Game (being) over, he went home. He stands there, book (being) in hand. 独立结构还可用 with、without 引导，作状语或定语。这种结构不但可以用分词，还可以 用不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词或名词等。如： With nothing to do, he fell asleep soon. 无事可做，他很快就睡着了。 The teacher came in, with glasses on his nose. 老师进来了，戴着一付眼镜。 （注意，此句 中 on his nose 不可省略！ ）
定语从句 The Attributive Clause 一、关系代词 1. who 指人,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略） A person who steals things is called a thief. The man who I talked with is our teacher. 2. whom 指人,作宾语 (作宾语可省略,如介词提前则不能省) The man (whom/who) I nodded to is Mr. Li. The man to whom I nodded is Professor Li. 3. which 指物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省) 。 apple the red/the green/the small/the big The apple which is red is mine. The apple which is green is yours. The apple which is red is small The apple which is green is big. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat. The goat is eating her flowers. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat which is eating her flowers. Can you lend me the book? You talked about it last night. Can you lend me the book (which) you talked about last night? Can you lend me the book about which you talked last night? Do you find the pen? I wrote with it just now. Do you find the pen with which I wrote just now? Do you find the pen (which) I wrote with just now? These are the trees which were planted last year. This recorder（which）he is using is made in Japan. Is this the library (which) you borrow books from? Is this the library from which you borrow books? 4. that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略） He is the man. I told you about him. He is the man (that) I told you about. A plane is a machine that can fly.? 注意：介词提前时只能用 which 而不能用 that 。 区别一：只用 that，不用 which 的情况： （代高序修饰时） 1) 当先行词既指人又指物时。 We are talking about the people and countries that we have visited. 2) 当先行词为 all, much, little, few, none, something, anything, everything, nothing 等不定代 词时。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的已经做了。 There must be something that happened to you. 你一定出了什么事。 3)先行词被 all, every, no, some, any, little, much 等修饰时。 I?ve read all the books that are not mine. 4) 先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级或 the last, the only, the very, the same 等修饰。
This is the most impressive film that has never been put on show before. That is the only way that leads to your success. 那是通向你成功的唯一之路 This is the first book that he has read. This is the very book that belongs to him. 5) 在疑问词 who, what, which 开头的句子中。 Who is the girl that is talking with Mr. Brown. Who is the person that is talking to our headmaster? 6) 定语从句为 there be 句型，也可以省略。 This is the fastest train (that) there is to Beijing. 7) 当关系代词在定语从句中做表语。 China is not the country that it was. Mary is no longer the girl that she used to be. 区别点二：只能用 which 不能用 that 的情况。 1) 引导非限定性定语从句修饰某物或整个句子。 Bruce went towards the fire, which was still smoking. Tom came back late, which made his parents very angry. 2) 在介词后面：介词+which (先行词是物) The world in which we live is made of matter. 注意：若介词在从句中而没有直接在关系词后,可以用 which 或 that. 例如： The world that we live in is made of matter. 区别点三：指人时只能用 who 不用 that 的情况. 1) 先行词为 one, ones 或 anyone. Anyone who wants to go may put up your hands. 2) 先行词为 those. God helps those who help themselves. 天助自助者。 Those who laugh last laugh best. 谁笑在最后，谁笑得最美。 3) 主句是 there be . There is a man who called himself Mr. Wu at the gate. 4) 在非限制性定语从句中 5. whose 在从句中作定语，指人或物。 1) Miss Flower is the teacher whose house caught fire last week. The boss in whose company my father worked is a very kind person. 2) 关系代词 whose 还可以在从句中与它所修饰的词一起作介词宾语。 This is the boy whose composition the teacher talked of. 6. 练习 Put the two sentences into one: (1) The scientist is very famous in the world. We met her yesterday. (2) The dress is new. She is wearing it. (3) He is the kind person. I have ever worked with him. (4) This is the best film. I have ever seen this film. Keys： （1）The scientist who /whom/ that we met yesterday is very famous in the world. （2）The dress that /which she is wearing is new. （3）He is the kind person that/ who/ whom I have ever worked with. （4）This is the best film that I have ever seen.
二、关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词，在从句中作状语。 1、关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于 “介词+ which” 结构，因此常常和“介词+ which”结构交替使用。例如： a) 我仍然记得我参军的那一天。 ①I still remember the day. ②On that day I joined the army. I still remember the day when I joined the army. I still remember the day on which I joined the army. b) 这就是我们去年住的房屋。 ①This is the house. ②We lived in it last year. This is the house where we lived last year. This is the house in which we lived last year. This is the house which we lived in last year. c) 你知道他迟到的原因吗？ ①Do you know the reason? ②He was late for that reason. Do you know the reason why he was late? Do you know the reason for which he was late? 2、当先行词是指时间、地点或原因时，并非就用 when, where, why 来引导定语从句。如： (1) 这是我们去年参观的地方。 vt. ··· ···① 这是我们去年工作的地方。 vi. ··· ···② ① This is the place which / that we visited last year. ② This is the place where we worked last year. (2 ) 我仍然记得我入团的那一天。vi. ··· ···① 我仍然记得我们一起度过的那一天。vt. ··· ···② ① I still remember the day when I joined the League. ② I still remember the day that / which we spent together. 三、判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一：用关系代词，还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾 语，就必须要求用关系代词；而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如： This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。 I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘记与你共事的日子。 方法二：准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分（主、谓、宾、定、状） ，也能正确选择 出关系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this the museum _____ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one B 例 2. Is this museum _____ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one D 四、限定性、非限定性定语从句 1. 限定性定语从句是对先行词起限定作用的。去掉这个从句则整句话不完整或不成立。大 多数定语从句是限定性定语从句。 Eg: He who doesn?t go to the Great Wall is not a true man. -----He is not a true man.不完整 The mooncake that has egg in it is the mooncake which I like best. ----- The mooncake is the mooncake.不成立
2. 非限定性定语从句是对先行词起解释、说明作用的。去掉这个从句整句话仍成立。常被 逗号隔开。 Eg: I have a dog, which can do many things for me. 3. 定语从句的练习 Put the two sentences into one: （1）Our friends missed the train again. They are always late for everything. （2）My aunt was waiting for me on the steps. She had two heavy bags. （3）The dog is easily frightened. It was beaten when it was small. （4）I was invited to join by my neighbor. He has been a League member for three years. Keys: （1）Our friends, who are always late for everything, missed the train again. （2）My aunt, who had two heavy bags, was waiting for me on the steps. （3）The dog, which was beaten when it was small, is easily frightened. （4）I was invited to join by my neighbor, who has been a League member for three years. 五、which 与 as 引导定语从句的用法区别 1．在限制性定语从句中，which 和 as 都可指物；但用 as 时，先行词必须有 the same, so 或 such，as 修饰。例如： The speed at which light travels is 300,000 kilometers per second. I never heard such a story as he told. It is so big a stone as no one can lift. (此句如把 as 改为 that, 则 lift 后要加 it, 那么它成了状 语从句, 须特别注意。) You can buy as many books as you can. I?ll buy the same dictionary as you have. 但 the same …that 则表示“同一个” ，试比较： This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. 这支钢笔跟我昨天丢失的那支是一样的。 This is the same pen that I lost yesterday. 这正是我昨天丢失的那支钢笔。 2. 在非限制性定语从句中, which 既可指整个句子, 又可指主句中的某一个词语；而 as 只 指整个主句。 例如： A new car stopped at the gate, which belongs to my sister. As I had expected, he was punished. 3. 在非限制性定语从句中, as 从句有“正如….” “就象….”的含义。 The elephant is like a snake, as everyone can see. As we all know, Taiwan is a part of China. 已形成的习惯搭配有： mentioned above, as has been said before, as has been pointed out, as as is often the case, as is hoped, as is well known 等等。 4. which 引导的从句, 常表示它与主句的一种因果关系。 例如： She married Joe, which surprised everyone. He was absent again, which made us angry. 5. 在非限制性定语从句中, which 从句只能放在主句后面，而 as 从句位置较灵活。例如： Einstein, as we know, is a famous scientist. As we had hoped, John was admitted into the university. Bamboo is hollow, which makes it very light. 6. 当主句与从句语义一致时用 as，语义不一致时用 which。 John has got the first place, as often happens. She married again, which was unexpected.
7. 如非限制性定语从句的谓语动词是否定形式，且位于主句之后，则只用 which, 如： It rained heavily, which we didn?t expected. Tom smokes heavily, which his wife doesn?t like. 定语从句主观题练习 1. 定语从句注意点 1）where 引导的定语从句:若定语从句缺主语或宾语，用 which 或 that 引导定语从句。 The library ________ students often study was on fire last night. The library, _______ was built in the 1930s, needs repairing. The library ________ you visited yesterday was built in 1990. 2) 区分 where 引导的定语从句和状语从句: where 前面有被修饰的地点名词时， 是定语从句， 否则是状语从句。 When you read books, you had better make a mark at the spot where you have any questions. When you read books, you had better make a mark where you have any questions. 3）when 引导的定语从句:若定语从句缺主语或宾语，用 which 或 that 引导定语从句。 I?ll never forget the day _________ we first met in the park. I?ll never forget the time _________ I spent on campus. I?ll never forget the time __________ was spent with you. 4) why 引导的定语从句: 先行词是表示原因的名词，用引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。 This is the reason I didn?t come here. The reason __________ she gave was not true. 5) whose 引导的定语从句: 表示所属关系。 The river _________ banks are covered with trees flows to the sea. There are in this class 20 students, ______ are different. A. whose backgrounds B. the backgrounds of whom C. of whom the backgrounds D. the backgrounds of whose Keys: 1）where / which / which 2）定从/状从 3）when; which/that; which/that 4) why (=for which); which/that 5) whose ; ABC 均正确 2. 介词加关系代词引导的定语从句——如何判断介词 A. 看定语从句中动词与介词的搭配 1) The girl _____ whom he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him. 2) He is the man _____ whom I think you can depend. B. 看定语从句中形容词与介词的搭配 3) He referred me to some reference books ______ which I am not very familiar. 4) Dolphins might be trained to cooperate with fishermen and help them by finding or even catching fish, ______ all of which activities dolphins are expert. C. 根据先行词判断，所用的介词与先行词搭配 当先行词表示“领域、方面”时，如：aspect, respect, area, field 等，用 in which； 当先行词表示“价格、利率、速度”时，如 rate, price, speed 等, 用 at which 当先行词表示“程度”时，如 degree, extent 等，用 to which. 当先行词表示“根据、依据、基础”时，如 grounds, foundation, basis 等，用 on which. 5) The rate ______ which wild animals are being destroyed has increased. 6) This is our classroom, _______________ which there is a teacher?s desk. D. 名词/代词/数词+ of +which/whom 7) The committee consists of 20 members, 5 of _______ are women.
8) The book contains 50 poems, most of ________ were written in 1930s. 9) There are two left, one of _______ is almost finished, and the other of _______ is not quite. 10) I have a sentence, the meaning of _______ I don?t understand. Keys:1) for 2) on 3) with 4) in 5) at 6)in front of 7) whom 8) which 9) which 10)which 3. 把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句： 1) The fan is on the desk. You want it. 2) The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday. 3) The magazine is mine. He has taken it away. 4) The students will not pass the exam. They don?t study hard. 5) The woman is our geography teacher. You saw her in the park. 6) The letter is from my sister. I received it yesterday. 7) The play was wonderful. We saw it last night. 8) The train was late. It was going to Nanning. 9) The boy is my brother. He was here a minute ago. 10) The tree is quite tall. He is climbing it. 11) Here is the girl. Her brother works in this shop. 12) That?s the child. We were looking at his drawing just now. 13) This is the boy. His sister is a famous singer. 14) I want to talk to the boys. Their homework hasn?t been handed in. 15) Is that the woman? Her daughter is in my class. 16) He used to live in a big house. In front of it grew many banana trees. 17) They passed a factory. At the back of the factory there were rice fields. 18) The soldier ran to the building. On the top of it flew a flag. 19) In the evening they arrived at a hill. At the foot of the hill there was a temple. 20) She came into a big room. In the middle of it stood a large table. 4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences if there are any: 1) He told us about the countries where he had visited. 2) Egypt is a country where is famous for its pyramids. 3) China is the country where he spent the best part of his life. 4) The days when we spent together cannot be easily forgotten. 5) The house stands at the place that the two roads meet. 6) We shall visit the college where his father teaches there. 7) I know the reason that she looks so worried. 8) He left me the book, that is very useful for me. 9) This is the room which food is kept. 10) April 15, 1976 is the day when we?ll never forget. 11) The man came yesterday is our English teacher. 12) The students are playing football on the playground are of Class Two . 13) This is all which I can do for you. 14) Can you think of anyone who?s house was here? 15) The watch that Mother bought it for me works very well. 16) This is the only book that were borrowed from the library. 17) The day which she had to leave arrived at last. 18) The doctor whom they want to see have come.
19) Do you know the young man whom has been chosen chairman? 20) The park stands at the place that the two rivers meet. 21) A plane is a machine can fly. 22) It is one of the best pictures which have been sold. 23) Those that want to go put up your hands. 24) This is the knife with that the doctor did the operation. 25) Who is the man whom you said hello just now? Keys: 1)where—that 2)where—which 3)√ 4)when—that / which 5) that—where 6)去掉 there 7)that—why 8)that—which 9) which—where 10) when—which / that 11)man 后面加 who 12) students 后面加 who 13) which—that 14)who?s—whose 15) 去掉 it 16) were—was 17) which—when 18) have—has 19) whom—who 20) that—where 21) machine 后面加 which / that 22) which—that 23) that—who 24) that—which 25) whom 前或 hello 后加 to 5. 在下列定语从句中，填入适当的介词。 1) The pencil ________ which he wrote was broken. 2) He built a telescope ________ which he could study the skies. 3) The woman, ________ whom I learned the news, is a nurse. 4) The wolf ________ which the sheep was killed was shot. 5) She has three children, all _______ whom are at school. 6) There is a tall tree outside, ________ which stands our teacher. 7) My glasses, _______ which I was like a blind man, fell to the ground and broke. 8) In the dark street, there wasn?t a person ________ whom she could turn for help. 9) I was surprised at the way ________ which he treated the old man. 10) The age _______ which children can go to school is seven. 11) His bike ________ which he went to work was stolen last night. 12) Do you know the building ________ which is flying a red flag? 13) Ours is a beautiful school, ________ which we are proud. 14) The desk ________ which Jack is leaning is John?s. 15) He bought a book yesterday, the author ________ which is a teacher. Keys: 1)with 2) through 3) from 4) by 5) of 6) under 7) without 8) to 9) in 10) at 11) on 12) on 13) of 14) against 15) of
名词性从句 1. 主语从句 1）主语从句可直接位于主语的位置，如果从句较长，谓语又较短，可用 it 作形式主语，而 将从句放在句末。常见的句型有： *It is a fact/a pity/a question /good news that... *It seems/appears/happened/has turned out that... *It is clear/important/likely/possible that... *It is said/reported/estimated/has been proved that... It is said that comic books create a connection between people of the same generation.
It seems that the performance is very useful. 2) what 引导的主语从句表示“...的东西时” ，一般不用 it 作形式主语。 What we lack is experience. 3) what, who, when, why, whether 等词含有各自的疑问意义， 但它们引导的主语从句， 都用陈 述语序。 How the plan is to be carried out should be discussed again. I did know why I felt like crying. 2. 宾语从句 1）宾语从句可位于及物动词、介词和某些形容词后。连词 that 常可省略。介词后一般接疑 问词引导的宾语从句。in that (因为),except that (除了),but that (只是）已构成固定搭配，其他 介词后一般不接 that 引导的宾语从句。 *I promised that I would change the situation. *All this is different from what American young people would say about friendship. *He is certain that watching so much television is not good for children. *This article is well-written except that it is a bit too long. 2) 宾语从句后如有宾补，要用形式宾语 it 来代替，而把宾语从句移至宾补之后。 He has made it clear that he would not change his mind. 3) 在 think, believe, suppose, expect 等动词后的宾语从句中，如果谓语是否定的，一般将否 定词移至主句谓语上，宾语从句则变成肯定形式。 He didn't think that the money was well spent. 3. 表语从句 表语从句出现在结构为 “主语+系动词+表语从句” 的句子中。 表语从句除可用 that, what, when, why, whether, how 等引导外， 还可由 because, as if(though)等引导。 如主句主语为 reason,只能 用 that 引导表语从句，不可用 because. Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that there is no one common type of life in America. The reason why so many people died there is that there were not enough food supplies. It looks as if successful international cultural communication will make the world smaller. 4. 同位语从句 同位语从句用于对前面出现的名词作进一步说明， 一般用连词 that 引导， 由于先行名词的意 义不同，也可用 whether, who, when, where, what, why, how 等引导。常见的先行名词有 fact,idea,belief,news,hope,conclusion,evidence,suggestion,order,problem,report,decision. 有 时 由 于谓语较短，将同位语从句位于谓语之后。 The news came that their team had won the match. She finally made the decision that she would join the fashion show. I had no idea how many books I could borrow at a time. 名词性从句主观练习题 1. Sentences analysis 1) The fact that Great Britain is made up of three countries is still unknown to many. 2) The news that the plane would take off on time made everybody happy. 3) The news that is spreading around the airport is that a heavy storm is coming. 4) The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. 5) The suggestion that they are considering is that students should learn something practical. 6) John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday.
7) It is very important that we learn English well. 8) The problem is that he often tells lies. 9) I will tell her as soon as she comes. 10) The birthday present that he gave me was a car. 11) That the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is known to all. 2. Tell whether the following clauses are right: 1）That she wants to know is which dress she should buy. 2）He will give up his job surprises all of us. 3）No matter who breaks the law will be punished. 4）the meeting will be held in our school is not known yet. 5）He is said that he has accepted the invitation. 6）The reason why he was late was because his bike broke down halfway. 7）I don?t doubt whether/if he will come soon. 8）He told me the news which was very exciting. 9）After that seemed a long time, he came back to life. 10）He told me the news if our team won the match. 3. Complete the following sentences: 1)_____________________(毫无疑问)the prices of cars will go down. 2)The idea___________________________ (电脑能识别人的声音) surprises many people. 3) I have no idea ______________________ (该选哪一个). 4) The problem__________________________ (我们是否做这个实验)has been solved. 5) The question___________________(谁将出国) needs considering. 6) Professor, I want to know___________________.50 年后我们的日常生活会是什么样） 7) Dr Smart, my question is___________________. (全球变暖对地球会有什么影响) 8) Professor, can you predict__________________. (污染能否被制止住) 9) Dr Smart, I want to know________. (将来我们会不会有足够的食物供养不断增长的人口) 10) Professor Smart, my question is _________. （太空航行什么时候能变得既简便又便宜） 11) Professor, who will win the debate on __________________. (是否应该允许克隆人类) 12) Dr Smart, I would like to know __________________. (会不会有更多无法治愈的疾病) 13) Professor, what is your prediction about __________________. (地球什么时候死亡) Keys： 1. 1)Appositive Clause 2）Appositive Clause 3）Attributive Clause, Predicative Clause 4) Appositive Clause 5) Attributive Clause, Predicative Clause 6) Object Clause 7) Subject Clause 8) Predicative Clause 9) Adverbial Clause 10) Attributive Clause 11) Subject Clause 2. 1）That 改为 What; 2)句首加 That; 3）No matter who 改为 Whoever; 4) If 改成 Whether; 5) He 改为 It; 6) because 改为 that，因为如果主句主语为 reason, 只能用 that 引导表语从句，不 可用 because.; 7) whether/if 改为 that; 8)正确 9)that 改为 what; 10) if 改为 that 3. 1) There is no doubt that 2) that computers can recognize human voices 3)which one I should choose 4) whether we will do the experiment 5)who will go abroad 6)what our daily life will be like after 50 years 7)what effects global warming will have on us 8) whether pollution will ever be stopped 9)whether we will have enough food to feed the growing population 10) when space travel will become easy and inexpensive 11) whether human cloning should be allowed 12) whether there will be more incurable diseases 13) when the earth will die?