Language and Culture: Words and meaning
The Importance of Language The importance of language to the study of intercultural communication is clearly captured by filmmaker Federico Fellin
i’s simple sentence: “A different view of life.” His observation takes on added significance when you realize the one of the major characteristics identifying you as human is your ability to use language. As Cartmill point out, “People can talk. Other animal can’t.” Yet language is more than just a skill; it has evolved a rich and expressive versatility that was recognized by Paul Tillich when he observed that “language has created the word “loneliness” to express the pain of being alone and the word “solitude” to express the joy of being along” or by the Athenian poet Aristophanes, who glorified the beauty of words when he remarked “By words the mind winged.” Your ability to use words is indeed a remarkable gift. Over countless thousands of years, Homo sapiens has evolved the brain capacity and anatomy necessary to produce and receive sounds; in a much shorter span of time, it has created cultural systems in which those sounds have taken on meaning by representing things, feelings, and ideas. Yet there seems to be some evidence of a genetic basis tied to the use of language. The recently discovered FOXP2 gene, although not believe to have caused speech, seems to enhance the speech by permitting humans to speak more
clearly, contributing to the development of superior language abilities. This combination of evolution and culture has led to the development of a four-part process that enables you to share your internal states with other human beings. In short, you can receive, store, manipulate, and generate symbols to represent your personalized realities. But, to a large degree, your language behavior is mediated by your culture. That is to say, while how you use language is highly individualistic, many of the forms of language that you use, and the purposes to which you choose to apply language, are subject to your cultural background. Everything you know and feel is inside your body and can only be shared by language. Most of this internal state is an electrochemical mélange residing in your brain. Your beliefs, values, attitudes, word views, emotions, and myriad other aspects of yourself and personality are locked up inside. You can convey some aspects of yourself nonverbally through facial expression, gestures, or touching. To state that language is important is merely to acknowledge the obvious, yet the significant influence language has on human behavior is frequently overlooked. The ability to speak and write is often taken for granted. It is through your use of sounds and symbols that you are able give life to your ideas---as Henry Ward Beecher once wrote, “Thought is the blossom; language the opening bud; action the fruit behind it.” Or as Cartmill has observed:
Language lets us get vast numbers of big, smart fellow primates all working together on a single task---building the Great Wall of China or fighting World War II or flying to the moo. It lets us construct and communicate the gorgeous fantasies of literature and the profound fables of myth. It lets us cheat death by pouring out our knowledge, dreams, and memories into younger people’s minds. And it does powerful things for us inside our own minds because we do a lot of thinking by talking silently to ourselves. Without language, we would be only a sort of upright chimpanzee with funny feet and clever hands. With it, we are the self-possessed masters of the planet.
Language and Culture Language has such a commanding influence within a culture that Edwards believes language and culture hold the power to maintain national or cultural identity. For him, language is more important in ethnic and nationalist sentiment because of its powerful and visible symbolism of national identity may be seen in the history of the Basques, an ethnic group in the north of Spain. According to Crystal, the Spanish government from 1937 to the mid-1950s made an active attempt to destroy the Basque culture and forbid the use of the Basque language. Basque could not be used in baptism ceremonies. All Basque names in official documents were translated into Spanish, and inscriptions on public building and tombstones were removed. Because of this relationship between language and culture identity, steps are often taken to limit or prohibit the influence of foreign language. Costa Rica, for instance, recently enacted a new law that restricts the use of foreign languages and imposes fines on those who break it. Under the law, companies that advertise in a foreign language also must include a Spanish translation in larger letters. Likewise, Iran has banned companies
from using western names. And France has a list of thirty-five hundred foreign words that cannot be used in schools, bureaucracies, or companies. Verbal Processes As we have already indicated, it is impossible to separate language from culture. In its most basic sense, Rubin says, language “is a set of characters or elements and rules for their use in relation to one another.” These characters or elements are symbols that are culturally diverse. That is, they differ from one culture to another. You may readily discover this when you study another language. Not only are the (1) words and sounds for those symbols different, but also so are the (2) rules for using those symbols and sounds. Culture and the Use of Language Chaika believes that human language seems to be the only communication system that uses meaningless elements to create meaningful structures. Yet, as Arensberg and Niehoff observe, “nothing more clearly distinguishes one culture from another than its language.” A comedic example of this culture diversity may be seen from the various ways in which a sing announces a broken vending machine. In the United Kingdom, the sign might read “Please Understand This Machine Does Not Take 10p Coins.” In the United States, the translation would probably be “NO 10p COINS.” Although the rules and uses of a foreign language
often appear arbitrary and nonsensical to nonnative speakers, to native speakers, the rules make perfect sense and seem more logical than those of other languages. For you to understand the wide range of diversity between cultures in how they actually use language, we will examine characteristics of language that include rules for (1) directness, (2) the maintenance of social customs and relationships, (3) expression of emotion, and (4) the value of “talk.” LANGUAGE DIVERSITY IN THE UNITED STATES Language diversity has become a prominent issue in the United States. Millions of people in the United States speak a language other than English at home. Areas of Florida, California, and the Southwest are heavily Spanish speaking
Situation Creating in English Teaching
Summary Creating real life in English teaching may make the boring knowledge lively and interesting, it also fully mobilize student’s activity, interest and get good results in teaching. Key Words Situation creating body language multimedia
To bring the real life situation, using real items in our daily English teaching and exert our imagination absolutely is an important methodology for the English learners and foreign study to manipulate newly understood language. What they have learn Creating real life situation means the teachers create the proper scene for teaching, using real items, the multimedia, let the students make dialogues by using what they have learned. By these tools we can make vivid color pictures, can add voice and flash effect, so that students can study English positively, strengthen students’ communicative competence. The aim of teaching method is that the students can understand what the teachers said by using visual aids and the body language to create such atmosphere that we can learn English everywhere ,use
English everywhere. For example: We can make English column in our classroom, put up English slogans, draw some English flash cards, buy some English magazines. We also can hold English corner outdoors. In such case, it will give a quick response when training students’ listening comprehension and speaking ,while Will avoid such phenomenon that the students feel English so boring that they do not want to learn. According to my experience, I can give several views for us to discuss. 1. Body language and gesture For beginners, at first, it is very dif ficult to understand what the teacher said. The teacher can do some actions while explain the words .For instance, smiling, showing angry look, opening the door and cleaning the windows, etc. The students concentrate on the actions and listen carefully, then will give a quick response
by the indication of the teacher’s gesture or body language. 2. Objects and flashcards Think of a common objects with which everyone in the class is familiar (for example,pens,books,bags) ask the class to tell what it is in Chinese while showing them, then teach them in English and repeat them together for several times. According to the shape, color, and size, we ask students to describe things. The advantage of doing this orally is that the students are not feeling inhibited from adding .Sometimes a lake of resource by turned to your linguistic advantage .Drawing flash cards will show the vivid description, and strongly stimulate students’ intuition, which will be curious to learn and use language. 3. Performance with prop English ,as a language
communication .The students must be required to open their mouth to speak English.The students desire to give performance,the teacher can set all kinds of situations and give stimulation and true to life interaction.The teacher will let students prepare a dialogue for police man and a student can bring the policeman’s hat and wear it while doing dialogue,which will attract their attention. The students will practice the role playing wonderfully when they act the dialogue on their own initiative. 4.Multi—media and auto visual system With the CAL developing ,there are many soft wares for us to teach language.The teacher use the audio---visual system,to put the students into English world and let them know about geography ,customs, traditions, social habits ,values,beliefs and language of society. One advantage is that the students’horizon field will be
widened ,the other is that that will avoid culture shock for communication .Creating real life situation is a very good method for us to attempt to teach language,which will bring the students to use their minds and learn English ,give them good atmosphere to speak English and stimulate their interests and motivation.
Bibliography 1.Dai weidong:A concise on linguistics for students of English 1989. 2.Linguistics and applied Linguistics,Shanghai Foreign Education Press.
Discussion on English voice
English voice belongs to grammar category. It is a form of verbs between subject and verb. Traditionally, the voice of English grammar is divided into active voice and passive voice. When the subject is the executor of the behavior, the form of predicate is active voice. When the subject is the taker of the behavior, the form of
predicate is passive. Many grammarians think that there are relations of transformation between active voice and passive voice. In practice, the transformation between the active form and the passive form is complicated. There are many differences between active voice and passive voice, so the transformation between the active voice and the passive voice is constrained by lexical, semantic and situation. 1.1. Usually, the active voice can be transformed into passive voice. For examples: A number of workers have challenged this view. This view has been challenged by a number of workers. A grenade killed his best friend. His best friend was killed by a grenade. 1.2. Sometimes, the active voice can be transformed into passive voice. For examples: I have a house in the country. A house is had by me in the country. (F) She married a Frenchman. A Frenchman was married by her. (F)
We give a simple definition to the passive voice in form, namely, be/get+ -ed. Zhang Keli and some other grammarians divide the passive voice into three kinds. Those are true-passive, pseudo-passive and quasi-passive. 2.1. True-passive 2.1.1. A sentence with executor is called true-passive. The true-passive can be divided into ideality and non-ideality. For examples: The violin was made by my father. Sentence (1) is an ideality passive voice. Because it has an executor and the executor is a person. It is corresponding to the active voice: “My father made the violin.” Coal has been replaced by oil. Sentence (2) is a non-ideality passive. Because it doesn’t directly correspond to an actor. It can be transformed into two actors: “Oil has replaced coal.” “People have replaced coal by oil.” 2.1.2.–ed in the true-passive is called verbal-participle(动词性分词). The executor of true-passive refers to the person. Sometime, the executor is unclear or doesn’t be demoted. The executor just can be led by “by” or omitted. For examples: His best friend was killed by a grenade.
This view has been challenged by a number of workers. The news was confirmed by a telegram. Three machines can be controlled by a single operator. The light is refracted by the surface of the glass. 2.2. Pseudo-passive Another passive form is “pseudo-passive”. It is considered as passive. Because the predicate of pseudo-passive is “be+-ed”. It is impossible that pseudo-passive can be transformed into active voice. “Be” in pseudo-passives can be replaced by “become, feel, remain and seem”. The past participles can be modified by “very, quite, more and rather.” The participles in pseudo-passive don’t have the characteristics of verbal-participle. It just becomes an adjective. For examples: My uncle was (got or seemed) (very) tired. The car was old and ruined. The agentless passive sometimes is regarded as “subject + copula + predicative”. 2.3. Quasi-passive 2.3.1. Quasi-passive also call semi-passive. It is between true-passive and pseudo-passive. The –ed participles in quasi-passives can express the characteristics of verbal-participle and adjectival-participle. This structure can be transformed into active form. It also can be modified by “very, quite more and rather”. “Be” in quasi-passive can be replaced by “feel, seem, become and remain”. For examples: I was alarmed by the news. → The news alarmed me. → I was alarmed by and angry at the news. → I was very alarmed by the news. → I felt alarmed by the news. She was irritated by these two children. → These two children irritated her. → She was irritated by and fond of these two children. → She was more irritated by this child than by that. → She appeared irritated by these two children. 2.3.2. The quasi-agent in quasi-passive can be led by “about, at, over, to, in, with.” For examples: She was worried about her son. → Her son worried her. Betty was surprised at the gifts. → The gifts surprised Betty. He was overcome with horror. → Horror overcome him. 2.4. In English some transitive verbs are only used in passive voice, but aren’t used in active voice. Such as: dress, shave, located, situate, satisfy, determine, doom, etc.
For examples: Our college is situated in the suburbs. The house is located near the lake. She was dressed in red. He was freshly shaved.
Ⅲ.Active form expresses passive meaning
In English, the active form of some transitive verbs usually expresses active meaning. But its model is “V + Doing”. 3.1. The following verbs, such as: want, need, require, deserve, etc + doing express passive meaning. For examples: My room wants whitewashing. He deserved punishing. This problem requires discussing. Our classroom needs cleaning. 3.2. In the following model “have/get…done”, the active form expresses passive meaning. For examples: I have my hair cut. You have to make yourself understood. Dad had me called a doctor. He has his shirts cleaned at the dry-cleaners. 3.3. Some transitive verbs like: read, write, open, shut, fill, cook, drive, lock, cut, iron, feel, sell, wash, etc. When they are used as intransitive verbs in sentences, their active form expresses passive meaning. The subjects refer to things. For examples: The stone moved. Social customs changed. The door won’t shut. There are some other conditions that the active form expresses passive meaning. 3.3.1. When they are used in adverbial which expresses mode of behavior, the active form expresses passive meaning. For examples: The bridge has washed out. Television sets sell very well. 3.3.2. When they are used in modals, the active form expresses passive meaning. For examples: The box won’t lock.
The book would not translate well. 3.4. The continuous tense of verbs can express passive meaning. (1) The potatoes are cooling. (2) The meat is cooking. (3) The film is showing there. (4) The books are printing.
Ⅳ.Passive form expresses active meaning
In English, some transitive verbs are only used in passive voice, but aren’t used in active voice, such as: dress, shave, locate, situate, excite, satisfy, determine, doom, born, etc. For examples: Our college is situated in the suburbs. The house is located near the lake. She dressed in red. He was freshly shaven. He is satisfied with my work. I was so excited that I couldn’t say a word. They are determined to fulfill their task ahead of time. The plan was doomed to failure. The flowers are faded I was born in 1980.
Ⅴ.Voice transformation constraints
As we all know, voice transformation can be used to express two forms: Active voice: Executor + V + O Passive voice: Taker + be + v-ed (by executor) For examples: John teaches Mary. Mary is taught by John. In practice, the transformation between the active and the passive is complicated. They are constrained by lexical, semantic and situation. 5.1. Lexical-constraints 5.1.1. As we all know that the active voice of transitive verbs can be transformed into passive voice. But there are some transitive verbs can’t be used in passive sentences. Transitive verbs which express condition, sentiment and understanding, etc, are usually used in active voice, such as: love、 hate、wish、 own、suit、 fit、cost 、 lack 、want、 last 、 resemble 、 suffice, etc. For examples:
All the young men like him, but the boss hate him. I have a dictionary. Anytime will suit me. He lacks confidence. The war lasted eight years. 5.1.2. Some transitive verbs are seldom used in passive voice in sentences. People aren’t interested in the agent. Such as: elude、 escape 、 flee、get、 let、race, etc. For examples: He eluded capture for weeks by hiding underground. During the civil war thousands of people fled the country. Don’t let the dog out of the room The policeman raced after thief. 5.1.3. The mean of transitive verbs make the sentences change into the passive voice. Because people think the action isn’t worth to mention. Like: be said/ reputed/ born caught (in) /supposed etc. For examples: (1) He was caught in a traffic jam. (2) Somebody caught in a traffic jam. (3) She is reputed to be the best singer in Europe. (4) People reputed her to be the best singer in Europe. (5) We are supposed to be back before dark. (6) People suppose us to be back before dark. We can’t say so. Sentences (2), (4) and (6) are wrong. But, usually, people don’t use passive voice on this condition. The following words are adjective participles, so they are usually used in quasi-passive. Such as: acclaimed、 alleged、 annihilated、 baffled、 born、 compressed、 conditioned、construed、couched、cremated、dazed、deafened、 debased、deemed、 disconcerted、 dwarfed、 earmarked、 empowered、 fined、 gutted、 headed、 horrified、 hospitalized、indicated、inundated、 jailed、misdirected、overcome、paralyzed、 penalized、 perpetrated、 pilloried、 populated、prized、 punctuated、 rationed、 reconciled、 reprieved、reunited、rumored、shipped、 shipwrecked、short-listed、shrouded、 staffed、stranded、strewn、subsumed、 suspended、wounded, etc. 5.1.4. When the verbs are used in the perfect continuous tense. They can’t be transformed into passive voice. For examples: (1) He has teaching English. (2) English has been being taught by him. (F) (3) English has been taught by him. (F) (4) The dog has chasing Michael. (5) Michael has been being chased by the dog. (F) (6) Michael has been chased by the dog. (F)
From this six sentences, we know that the perfect continuous aspect has been be replaced by perfect aspect in passive sentences. 5.1.5. When the clause or infinitive is used as the object in the active voice, it can’t be transformed into passive voice. For examples: (1) Mary thought that John was handsome. (2) That John was handsome was thought by Mary. (F) (3) Mary hoped to meet him. (4) To meet him was hoped by Mary. (F) Sentences (2) and (4) are wrong. The two sentences not only don’t accord with the rules of grammar, but also don’t accord with the language usage. 5.1.6. When the relation between subject and object is reciprocal, the sentence can be only used in active voice 184.108.40.206. Reciprocal pronouns as objects For examples: (1) They helped each other. (2) Each other were helped by them. (F) 220.127.116.11. Reflexive pronouns as objects For examples: (1) I saw myself in mirror. (2)Myself was seen by me in the mirror. (F) 5.1.7. When the object is cognate object, the active voice can’t be transformed into passive voice. For examples: (1) They laughed a heavy laugh. (2) A heavy laugh was laughed by them. (F) (3) He died a heroic death. (4) A heroic death was died him. (F) On this condition, passive voice doesn’t follow this grammar rule. 5.1.8. When the relation between object and subject expresses the part and the whole, active voice can’t be transformed into passive voice. For examples: (1) The doctor shook his head and turned away. (2) They encountered a lot of hardships on the long march. 5.1.9. If there are double objects in the active voice sentence, indirect object can be transformed into the subject of passive sentence. For examples: (1) He gave me an English novel. → I was given an English novel. (F) → An English novel was given tome. (F) (2) She cash me a cheque. → I am cashed a cheque. (F)
→ A cheque is cashed for me. (F) 5.1.10. When the object complement is in the structure “have + sth. done” this object can’t be transformed into the subject of the passive. For examples: He has his shirts cleaned at the dry-cleaners. He has his hair cut. You have yourself understood. Dad had Joan called a doctor. 5.2. Semantic-constraints The paper discusses on some restrictions of voice transformation. There is another restriction in semantics. The active voice doesn’t totally as the same as the passive voice. So the active and the passive are usually different in semantics. In order to follow the demand of language communication, the active and the passive can’t be transformed into each other. 5.2.1. As the subject and object transform into each other, the sentence may follow the rules of grammar. Sometimes, the active and the passive can’t transform into each other. For examples: (1) The students will be trained to write notes by studying the passage in detail. (2) Studying the passage in detail will train the students to write notes. 5.2.2. The active transforms into the passive, the two sentences vary completely in meaning. For examples: (1) She can’t teach John. (2) John can’t be taught. The two sentences express two different meanings. Sentence (1) means “She is unable to teach John.” In this sentence “can” refers to “ability”. Sentence (2) means “It is impossible (for her) to teach John.” Or “John is unable to learn.” In this sentence “can” refers to “possibility”. The two sentences show that active can’t transform into passive freely. Especially, in the sentence there is a model verb. For example: (1) I shall punish you. (=I’m going to punish you.) (2) You shall be punished. (=You must be punished.) (3) Why wouldn’t Miranda ride the gray mare? (=Why did Miranda refuse?) (4) Why wouldn’t the mare be ridden by Miranda? (=Why did the mare refuse?) 5.2.3. After the voice transformed, the meaning of active and passive are the same, but the points are different. (1) John cleaned the bike. (2) The bike was cleaned (by John). The two sentences describe the same thing. Sentence (1) is to answer the question –“Who cleaned the bike?” Sentence (2) is to answer the question –“Was the bike cleaned?” If people want to know “who” cleaned the bike, it is just can answer by
executor. 5.3. Situation-constraints 5.3.1. Sometimes, in order to stress the core, keep one subject or not change the subject, and make the whole sentence clear and coherent, in the sentences we have to use passive voice. For example: (1) He rose to speak, and was listened to with enthusiasm by the great crowd present. (2) She came to the Derby, not only to see, but just as much to be seen. If the two sentences are used in active voice, there will be two centers and the structure will become loose. Look at another sentence. (3) All his time was devoted to science; all his life was struggled through. 5.3.2. Sometimes, to choose the active or passive, it depends on the context. For examples: The rain destroyed the flowers. The flowers were destroyed by the rain. The two sentences can transform each other. They express the same thing. But the central meaning of sentence (1) is the flowers; sentence (2) is the rain.
In English, there are two kinds of voice, that is: active voice and passive voice. According to Zhang Keli’s New English Grammar, the passive voice can be divided into three kinds of voice, that is: true-passive voice, quasi-passive voice and pseudo-passive. This thesis discusses on them through typical examples one by one. In the thesis, the author deals with the active form of some transitive verbs which express passive meaning too. My view is correct or not, it only gives readers reference.
The Use of Body Language in Junior English Teaching
Everyone knows , with the continual reform and opening of China, English is becoming moreand more important in many fields ，so the students’ spoken English level must be improved , teachers are in great demand to organize the classes in English and create English-learning circumstances. However, with the limitation of students' vocabulary and English-learning situation, teachers have to simplify their
teaching language with the help of facial expressions and body movements. In this article, the possibility and the effect of using body language in listening, speaking, reading and writing will be further discussed. As everyone knows, one of the most important ways that the students learn English is the classroom teaching. As far as the English teaching in the middle schools is concerned, teachers have to attractand improve the students' interest so that they may learn better. There are many ways to arouse the students' interest and help them to learn better, body language used in English teaching is one of them. Body language is an important media through which people communicate with each other. It refers to the patterns of facial expressions and gestures that people use to express their feelings and meanings in communication. The specialist on body language research, In school education, body language plays an active role in cultivating the students' characters. Teachers are usually respected, and factually, what or how the teachers say and do will be possibly imitated by the students In a word, teachers' graceful body language helps to improve the students' artistic-appreciation and moral character. If the students develop a wonderful body language, which will possibly leads them to form an optimistic and active feelings, they will surely have a more smooth interpersonal relation. The affection of teachers' body language on the students is reflected not only by establishing a good example, but also shortening the teacher-student estrangement by which a more harmonious studying atmosphere is created. As a matter of fact, teachers' friendly appearance can greatly encourage the students' studying enthusiasm and interest. Furthermore, the characteristics of theoretic and abstraction of knowledge also requires the vivid, dramatic and an accessible gestures to make it specific and figurative. As a result, the students' interest is motivated and the effect of teaching also is greatly improved. According to the students' present level and practical situation, body language is pretty necessary. For example, when a teacher gives an instruction, "You two, please stand up."
The students can easily understand it if the teacher looks at (or points to) some two students. Then, the teacher moves his hand up. The students will carry out the order without obstacle even if they don't hear the key words "stand up" clearly. Furthermore, teachers usually have to explain some language points, and at this time, they have to differentiate the classroom expressions and the examples. Take it for example, we should use the form 'have done', such as 'Have you finished that job yet?'" To make the students understand clearly and easily, a teacher has lots of ways. One is to do it by speed, the teacher uses a common speed when he is reading "we should use the form 'have done in this sentence'", and reads slowly when giving examples; he can also get the effect by repeating the example 'Have you finished that job yet?'; a more frequent way is to use gestures to lay emphasis on the key points when he said "have done"(emphasizing it in voice at the same time), he reaches out his index finger, pauses in the air, and then gives out the example. This action will usually give the students a deep impression. From the above we can learn, the use of body language in English teaching is necessary and practical. In the English teaching in middle schools, body language is frequently used to improve the teaching effect and the students' ability. 转 . Body language helps to improve listening When beginning a new lesson, the teacher narrates the story outline in English. The body language may help. For example, a teacher can stretch his arms slowly when he says "She is in a very big room"; he can open his eyes widely with mouth opened when he says "She is so beautiful a lady". As a result, the students will have such an impression: She is very beautiful indeed; a teacher who imitates the crying or the movement of the animals under the premise of teaching order will surely achieve a better effect, especially when there are some new words. Body language helps to improve speaking。The spoken language is one of the important ways to communicate, so we should try to develop the students' ability of speaking. Factually they are helped to reach the aim in a certain degree by their teacher's body language. The first lesson of every unit in Junior English begins with dialogue. The teaching programs require the teachers to organize the class to
practice English according to the characteristics of dialogue. Generally speaking, the body language can arouse and sustain the students' interest of learning and using English. In the English class, the teachers should not only use body languages themselves, but also ask the students to use them according to the different situation. For example, the first lesson in Unit one, Book one is about the time when the new students first meet, and they don't know each other. So a teacher can introduce himself first, such as: "Hello, everyone, nice to meet you here. Now I'll introduce myself to you. My name is Liping. I like playing basketball, for, it makes me much stronger; I like playing chess, for, it makes me more clever; and I like reading books, for, 'reading makes one perfect'". During the introduction, the teacher should use the new vocabularies and sentence structures together; Body language helps to improve reading 。The purpose of Junior English teaching is to train the students' preliminary ability of using spoken and written English. In the junior school, we lay emphasis on the reading ability that serves the students' further study. Here we mainly mention the helpfulness for reading aloud in public. Reading aloud helps the students to get a correct pronunciation and intonation and to develop the combination of vocabularies' pronunciation, spelling and meaning. Furthermore it also helps the students to find out the article's internal feelings and appreciate the beauty of the language. When reading the sentences, attention should be paid to where to speak softly, emphasize, and raise or lower our tone. To make it clear, Writing is one of the four basic skills of learning language, and it is such an important skill that we can even say without it, people can't communicate with others. Not only should the students get some English knowledge and vocabularies, but also the ability to communicate in spoken and written English as what is mentioned in the teaching programs. To some extent, writing is much more important than speaking, for it can spread without the limitation of space and time. Since the students learn English as a media for communication, they should have the ability of writing. To get rid of the students' feelings of being dull and tiring, an English teacher has to use every possible method. This is the same to the writing. Teachers use different method in order to improve the students' ability of writing, among which, the application of body language can deepen the object impression, such is magnificent in developing the students' writing ability. The linguist Franklin ever said, "Tell me, I'll forget; teach me, I'll remember; involve me and I'll learn." If we asked the students to write an unfamiliar composition, they would probably be unable to and feel
discouraged. However, the students can write excellent articles if they have the experience. In and out of class, we should ask the students to participate some English-related activities, and then ask them to write it down. Take "The First Snow in Winter" for example, having enjoyed themselves in the beautiful snowing and been given some hints, the students can write a composition much better. For contrast to their complete imagination, the students are deeply impressed by the body movement of the teachers and themselves, which surely leads to a better article.
小学英语教学最重要的目的之一是要培养和激发学生学习英语的 兴趣。兴趣是人们力求认识某种事物或参与某种活动的心理倾向，它 直接影响学生学习的自觉性、 积极性。 古代伟大教育家孔子说过： “知 之者不如好之者，好之者不如乐知者。 “这就是说学好知识的前提和 动力是兴趣。学生只有体会到学习的乐趣，才能乐而善学。兴趣是最 好的老师，学习英语更是如此。 在当前小学英语教学中，学生抱怨难学，老师抱怨难教，家长视 为难题。 我认为造成这种现状的主要原因就是教师忽视了对学生学习 兴趣的培养，使学生在缺少语言环境的条件下，被动的听，机械的记 忆， 缺乏学习的主动性和积极性。 那么如何根据少年儿童的心理特征， 结合小学英语学科特点去培养和激发学生的学习兴趣那？ 1、 、 创设情景， 创设情景，激发兴趣
根据小学生具体形象思维强， 注意力带有明显的情绪色彩的特点， 创设情景教学尤为重要。 为了创设好情景， 在每次教学中我都用图片、 实物或动作表演等，让学生在真实的情景中感知新授的词与句，并让
学生在情景中学以致用，产生更好的记忆。 2、 、 教唱歌曲，激发兴趣 教唱歌曲，
唱歌能使人心情愉快，情绪轻松，儿童乐于接受。我每周至少要 教学生们唱一两首英文歌曲。除了教课本上的歌曲外，还利用一些学 生熟悉的乐曲编配新歌词让学生唱。 这样可以把一些枯燥乏味的词语 变成优美动听的歌曲，通过教唱英文歌曲来教英语句式，既可活跃课 堂气氛，又能让学生轻松、牢固的记忆新单词新句式，起到一举两得 的作用。 3、 、 运用游戏， 运用游戏，激发兴趣
儿童喜爱游戏，游戏能让他们充分展示自我，使心理上得到满足， 是从高高兴兴的在游戏中获得知识。根据教学内容及要求，我在每节 课中恰当的安排一两个游戏，把抽象的内容赋予形象，将乏味的知识 变得有趣，让学生在愉快轻松地玩耍中学习英语知识。 4、 、 开展竞赛， 开展竞赛，激发兴趣 根据小学生好胜心强，喜欢竞争的心理特点，适时的在课堂上进 行竞赛。让学生在竞赛中各显其能，一比高低。我让学生进行竞赛， 竞赛的范围涉及听、说、读、写各方面，竞赛方式也灵活多样。如采 用小组与个人竞赛，充分调动集体力量的同时，也充分发挥个人的特 长。 5、 、 使用电教设备， 使用电教设备，激发兴趣
学生听标准的语音、语调，训练他们的听说能力，使学生尽量做到发 音更准确，会话更流利，口语表达更地道，为以后学习英语打下坚实 的基础。
法国教育家弟斯多惠说： “教育是一种不在于传播本领，而在于 激励、唤醒和鼓励的教学艺术。 ”这句话明确的定位了教师的课堂角 色及教学目的，即教师如领路人、咨询者般，为学生的自我知识建构 提供引导、咨询、协助之功效。素质教育、新课程改革的目的就是改 变传统教学模式下的教师观、学生观、教学观，对师生角色重新定位 和诠释，对课堂教学进行改革创新。在这一改革的大背景下，英语教 学也提倡“快乐英语” “情境英语” “体验英语”等诸多理念，这些教 学理念对学生积极主动参与课堂；建构起听、说、读、写四结合的知 识构架；教师高速高效的教学，大有裨益。下面就英语“情境教学” 做一论述，试谈英语教学中如何开展“情境教学” 。 一、 营造英语氛围 英语是一门语言，语言的最终价值体现在语言的交流与阅读方 面。多年来，我们的英语教学一直停留在“哑巴英语”这一层次上， 即英语交流能力很差。在英语教学中，要改变长期以来以分数论英雄 的功利化思想，要以提高学生的语言实际运用能力作为教学重点，提 高他们的英语综合素质。基于此，建构英语课堂环境显得至关重要。 具体到课堂常规语言中，有很多句型我们可以采用。1、上下课问候：
Good morning, boys and girls. / Class over. 2、 课堂常规用语： Open your books, turn to page 81, Let’s learn new words. Read after me. /Close your books, listen to me carefully. 3、纪律维持：Be quiet, please. 4、上课提 问：Please answer my questions. Who can try? Please put up your hands. 5、鼓励：Good done! Very good! Excellent! You’re smart! Next time, please come on! 教师在说这些常规用语时，可以结合身体语言，有时 再加上汉语解释，经常重复，学生就能快速、正确的做出反应了。通 过这种方法，可以营造一种英语氛围，间接提高学生的听力，培养英 语兴趣。 二、 将教学内容与学生生活相联系 英语教材中各单元主要是围绕一个主题展开对话联系。这些主题 又大多是从学生实际生活出发，选取一些学生感兴趣的，和生活学习 相关的内容。所以，在教学中应凸显“教材生活化，生活教材化” 。 如教授四季时， 可以从四个季节的气候特征、 风景变化、 人们的衣着、 人们进行的活动这几个方面出发，让学生畅所欲言，创设学习情境， 激发学习兴趣。再如，教授“我最喜爱的食物”一单元时，可以从每 天的一日三餐入手，拿来食物，引发学生想知道各种食物读法的好奇 心。 通过让学生说最喜爱的食物， 引出句子 “What’s your favorite food? My favorite food is mutton.” 将教学内容与生活联系起来， 可以唤起学 生的相关认知，激发学习兴趣，加深学习印象。在教学中可以找到很 多切入点将课文与生活整合，有机统一的将课堂生活化。 三、 重视多媒体在教学中的运用
英语学习重在听、说、读、写，培养良好的英语语感和纯正的发 音语调至关重要。通过听录音，模仿语音语调，做听力题等方法可以 提高学生的辩音、听句子、猜测短文大意的能力。现今，多媒体技术 越来越多的运用到教学中，其丰富逼真的画面、动听悦耳的声音、身 临其境般的情景模拟，亦不是黑板加口述能企及。在教学中，如选择 适合的文字、图片、录音、动画等，教学效果就事半功倍。如在讲述 节目时，将节目的相关图片、文字阐述或录像展示给学生，既能扩展 学生知识面，又能加深知识记忆。再如讲述我们的校园时，将学校的 一些角落的照片呈现给学生，让学生从身边熟悉的事物出发，学习 play-ground, canteen, Teaching building, library, computer room 等词， 教 学效果就会有所提高。值得注意的是，运用了多媒体教学素材时，要 注意素材组合时的系统性、科学性。不要只图热闹，不求实际，力求 做到精简明了，重点突出，难点解析透彻，让多媒体真正发挥助教助 学之功效。 四、 创造多元教学形式 创造多元教学形式，要求教师用多种设计方案，组织形式来分解 教学内容，力求摆脱口述，耳听的单一模式。在英语课本上都分有一 些操作性强的教学环节， 如”Let’s start”,可用于热身环节， 从较熟悉的 内容入手，就单元主题进行简短的听说练习。”Let’s learn” ”Let’s talk” “Read and write”这三部分又是一个逐步扩展延伸的过程， 就本单元主 题展开更深更广的对话练习，且对学生提出了不同程度的要求。那怎 样开展对话练习那？即对话练习的组织形式有哪些？“Let’s play”
“Let’s find out” “Group work” “Make a survey”等环节，是让学生通 过做游戏、做调查、小组活动等形式来练习对话，让学生在玩中学， 做中学， 激发了学习兴趣。 “Let’s chant” 另外 “Let’s sing” “Story time” 等部分也充分体现了寓教于乐的理念。教师在教学时，应充分认识到 各个活动环节的用意，并结合本班实际情况，组织多种教学形式，让 学生动起来，让课堂活起来。 开展“情趣教学”为课堂注入了一股新鲜的活力，它能增进师生 感情， 培养学生浓厚的学习兴趣、 积极地参与意识和较强的竞争意识， 也能提高教师的教学热情及教学成效。 “情趣教学”让课堂充满了更 多的温情，让师生都享受到快乐学习的乐趣。在实际教学中，我们应 大力推广及开发“情趣教学” 。
English The best way to teach English
In the education .They’ circles ,there are two teaching methods .They’re an old qualitytraditional teaching and quality-oriented teaching .The first way shall be died out gradually .The second one shall be more teachers and more welcome by many teachers .As an English teacher ,I qualityprefer to choose the new quality-oriented teaching ,because it’ it’ it’s fun and it’s a best way to teach English .Then ,how are the two teachings actually ?Let me tell you now !
teacherThe typical traditional teaching is a teacher-cente red class .This teaching activities is passive .There are class several characteristics in this kind of class .To begin wi th ,a teacher is only actor on the stage and all the stude nts are passive audience .Besides ,he imparts knowledge to his students in the same way he pours water into a contai ner .Therefore, the class is often a pond of dead water .
qualityIn contrast ,the new quality-oriented teaching is a studentstudent-center class .Its teaching activities is active . ,it’ Naturally ,it’s newcomer of the educational reform. The fi rst characteristic of this kind of class is that the teach er and students are all actors and the students are active ly involved in the classroom activities. The second is tha t the teacher always tries to stimulate students interest . always As a result ,students always find it pleasure to learn in class by asking questions discussing or even arguing with the teacher .Therefore ,this kind of class is often like a boiling sea .
In my opinion ,each of English teachers must adopt the qualitynew quality-oriented teaching ,because it can make studen
ts’ students’ ts’ knowledge permanent. And it can develop students’ cre ative mind and learning English ability. Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of motivation in English learning based on previous researches. It has been known that motivation plays a very important role in the English learning. Learners are driven by motivation to learn English hard. Scholars classify motivation into integrative and instrumental motivation. It also can be classified into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Different motivations have different effects on learning. Integrative motivation and intrinsic motivation produce positive effects. Learners with such motivation are interested in English, make a great effort to learn it happily, and get good achievements. However, instrumental and extrinsic motivations bring students negative effects. These students lack internal motivation and feel pain to learn English. Their motivation of English learning comes from outside pressure, so they feel unhappy to learn English and won’t obtain good achievements. The motivation which brings positive effects is called positive motivation, while negative motivation is opposite to it. It is necessary to search ways to develop learners’ positive motivation. This paper analyses the influential factors of motivation, including learners’ interest, attitude, achievement, self-confidence and teachers’ actions plus teaching methods. Then it provides some ways for students and teachers to stimulate students’ positive motivation. Key words: motivation; English learning; positive effect; negative effect; ways
基于先前的研究， 本文着重探究动机对英语学习产生的重要影响。 众所周知， 动机在英语学习中起着至关重要的作用，动机是英语学习者坚持学习的主要动 力。动机可分为融入型动机和工具型动机，也可分为内在动机和外在动机。通过 深入研究，发现不同的动机类型会产生的影响也不同。融入动机和内在动机对英 语学习通常产生积极的影响， 具有该类动机的学生学习英语源于他们对英语有浓 厚的兴趣；在学习的过程中，竭尽全力，快乐学习；最后，取得不错的成绩。然 而，工具型动机和外在动机通常产生消极影响。具有该类动机的学生学习英语迫 于外界的压力，感到英语学习很痛苦。当他们达到外界的要求时，就会停止英语 学习。产生积极影响的动机通常称为积极动机，与之相对的则是消极动机。鉴于 此，本文认真考察分析影响动机的因素,包括学习者的兴趣、态度、成就和自信。 然后紧接着就如何激发学习者积极动机提供了方法，充分发挥动机的积极影响， 以促进英语的学习和教授。 关键词：动机；英语学习；积极影响；消极影响；方法 关键词
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 32 I. The Definition and Classification of Motivation................................. 33
1.1 1.2 The definition of motivation........................................................................ 33 The classification of motivation .................................................................. 34
1.2.1 Instrumental motivation and integrative motivation .................................. 34 1.2.2 Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation ............................................ 35
II. Effects of Motivation on the English Learning ................................... 36
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The importance of motivation..................................................................... 36 The positive effects ....................................................................................... 36 The negative effects ...................................................................................... 37 Positive and negative motivation ................................................................ 38
The Ways to Develop Positive Motivations ....................................... 38
Influential factors of students’ motivation ................................................. 38
3.1.1 Learners’ factors ......................................................................................... 38 3.1.2 Teachers’ factors ......................................................................................... 39 3.2 The ways to develop positive motivation ................................................... 40
Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 42 Bibliography ........................................................................... 错误！未定义书签。
English learning is more and more popular, but the results are different. In the process of learning, some learners are more successful while others fail. This phenomenon confuses educators and researchers begin to pay attention to individual differences and try to find reasons. Researches show that the determining effect on learning results originates from the learner. According to researches, the factors which influence English learning include interest, intention, purpose, resolution and motivation. Among the factors, motivation is a core aspect and plays a key role. Therefore many experts at home and abroad have been studying it. In China, since 1980s, a series of researches have emerged about studying the motivation of college students, and the studies on motivation to English EFL (English as Foreign Language) learning have aroused more researchers’ attention since 1990s. The first foreign language learning model was put forward by Wang Chuming (1990). In this model motivation is regarded as one of the important factors influencing foreign language learning. In China, the studies on learning motivation mainly focus on the motivation types in Chinese students, or the relationship between motivation and learning strategies, learning results, and self-identity. Abroad, the initial pioneering experiment by Gardener and Lambert (1959) find that second language achievement is related to motivation. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate motivation and the results show that motivation plays a primary role in L2 learning (Gardner, Tremblay & Masgoret, 1997). And many studies have shown that motivation can be an important factor in learning a language successfully (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991; Gardner, 1985). And the period since 1990s has witnessed the blooming of motivation study with the emergence of self-efficacy theory (Atkinson, 1964), self-determination theory (Deci, 1985), and extended motivation model (Duryea, 1994). Researches of motivation have been carried out from multiple perspectives humanistic, behavioral and cognitive. This paper pays attention to probe into the effects of motivation in English learning. The study aims to contribute to the understanding of motivation and its
classification. English now is the most important and widespread foreign language in China, so almost every student is eager to learn it well. But unfortunately, a large number of students fail in English learning, which leads to their doubts about their own ability. Therefore how to motivate English learners is extremely urgent and realistic. In addition, many teachers fail to pay close attention to students’ motivation problem, and find it difficult to get students to learn English. As long as students refuse to learn, English learning can never happen. The purpose of this paper is to suggest some ways to promote students’ motivation and help the teacher to maintain learners’ motivation. The paper is made of five chapters. Chapter one introduces the definition and classification of motivation. The two main-stream classifications are explained, namely instrumental and integrative motivation and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Chapter two mainly investigates the effects of motivation in English learning. By analyzing the relative study and data on motivation, it explains in more details the effects of motivation in English learning, such as positive and negative effects. Different motivations may cause different results. Chapter three provides some practical ways for students and teachers about how to develop motivation so that students can learn English better and teachers can teach it more efficiently. In brief, the paper does not only give basic theory about the motivation but also provides some practical solutions to develop positive motivation for teachers and students. It is useful for both English teaching and learning.
I. The Definition and Classification of Motivation
Above all, what is motivation? It is necessary to understand the meaning of it. Through look up into references, the definition of motivation is diverse. Different scholars have different definition. 1.1 The definition of motivation
According to Gardner (1985)，motivation refers to the combination of effort plus the desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitudes to learning the language. So his definition includes three components: effort expended to
achieve a goal, desire to learn the language, satisfaction with the task of learning the language. Motivation is actually a cluster of factors that energize behavior and give it direction (Hilgard and Atkinson 1979:181). Keller(1983:389)regards motivation as the choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid, and the degree of effort they will exert in that respect. Ellis (1994:715) holds that motivation refers to the effort which learners put into learning an L2 as a result of their need or desire to learn it. Just like Wen Qiufang (1996: 174) says, “The motivation of English language learning can be simply explained as the reason and purpose of learning English language”. Although the definitions proposed by different educators are different and complex, the core of motivation can be four elements: effort, desire, attitude and goal. 1.2 The classification of motivation
As the definition, the classification is diverse from different angles. Gardner and Lambert (1972) introduced two basic types of motivation: instrumental motivation and integrative motivation. 1.2.1 Instrumental motivation and integrative motivation Instrumental motivation refers to motivation to acquire a language as means for attaining instrumental goals: furthering a career, reading technical material, translation and so forth. This kind of motivation reflects the practical value and advantages of learning a new language, such as immediate achievement, information medium and individual development. Instrumental motivation means learning the language for an ulterior motive unrelated to its use in order to pass an examination, to get a certain kind of job, and so on. By the research, in China, the instrumental motivations to learn English are as follows: 1.To avoid learning other subjects such as Mathematics and science; 2. To satisfy the need of the work; 3.To get the promotion or earn more money; 4.To make oneself more competitive and avoid of laid-off; 5.To be convenient in the daily life; 6.To be convenient to go abroad; 7.To cultivate one's diplomatic ability; 8.To cultivate the ability of dealing with the relationship of work and study; 9.To test one’s ability of learning languages; 10.To acclimatize oneself to the society.
Integrative motivation refers to the desire to achieve proficiency in a new language in order to participate in the life of the community that speaks the target language. And integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with the target language group and become a part of that society. In some way, this integrative motivation is more powerful, people learn English for they love it really. Their motivations almost belong to integrative ones. Fore example, 1.To appreciate the English songs/English literature /English movies; 2.To play PC games; 3.To make foreign friends and communicate with them; 4.To know the customs of outside world; 5.To get more information about the world(through TV, broadcasts, magazines, newspapers, website); 6.To follow the eternal fashion--learning English; 7.To learn a different writing system; 8.To enrich the life by learning inspire time; 9.To improve one's characteristic and quality; 10.To improve the persona intelligence and to perfect oneself; 11.To satisfy the personal favorite/ hobby. 1.2.2 Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation form another pair of commonly accepted concepts. Intrinsic motivation of foreign language learning refers to the interests and joys inspired by the learner himself. And it can also improve learner’s ability and independence. So if the learn can keep this motivation, he can not be stimulated and interfered by the outside world. Then he can have strong learning enthusiasm and motivation for a long time. Intrinsic motivation can have the learner study the language automatically and keep strong enthusiasm, which is very effective in foreign language learning and is a very important motivation. The intrinsic motivation aims at achieving pleasure and satisfaction from language learning process. Extrinsic motivation refers to the inspiring power of the learner that comes from the stimulation and pressure of outward force on the learner, which means that the reason of learning a foreign does not lies in language learning itself but for attaining certificate and good job. Under these occasions, students’ motivation can be very strong within a short period but it won't last long. Extrinsic motivation emphasizes language learning as a means to achieve certain goals.
II. Effects of Motivation on the English Learning
2.1 The importance of motivation
From humanistic approach, one of the major proponents of humanistic view is a hierarchy of human needs. The central focus of this theory is on individuals’ perceptions and responses to internal needs. Motivation is seen as an internal force to stimulate a person’s effort to develop. Besides that, according to Combs and Avila (1985), each person has an innate “growth principle ”that energizes and directs all human behavior. People are driven by their motivation to meet all kinds of needs. In the process of English learning, motivation also plays an important role. Learning English is not an easy work and it cost people a large number of time and energy. Why do some students hold on to learning all the time? However, why do some give up? People have all kinds of needs to learn English. They are driven by their motivation to meet their own needs. Once the motivation disappears, they will lose interest in learning and then they will give up learning. Some studies reveal that motivated students tend to continue the study while less motivated students tend to drop out easily. Ramage (1990) finds that compared with “dropout students”, “continuing students” are likely to have both motivations associated with an interest in learning language and associated with their own goals. Gardner and Lambert (1972) suggest that students with motivation to learn and with positive attitudes toward the target language and its speakers are more successful than are students with less positive attitudes and lower levels of motivation. Therefore, motivation is an extremely necessary element to make students stick to learning English hard. 2.2 The positive effects
According to the hierarchy, people are ultimately motivated to achieve “self-actualization” once the basic needs are satisfied. Whatever one do, his goals should have something with self-actualization. Intrinsic motivation or integrative motivation usually let learners set up their goals out of self-actualization. In that case, the goals are meaningful to him. Besides that, they won’t be affected the outside
factors, such as the pressure of examination, the expectation from parents, and the choice of jobs, they learn English out of their interest in it. As a result, they can concentrate themselves on learning completely and enjoy the English learning. What is more, one’s achievement is connected to his intrinsic or integrative motivation. Shi Yongzhen’s (1999) experimental study of science and engineering students demonstrated that successful learners have stronger intrinsic or integrative motivation, while unsuccessful learners have stronger extrinsic or instrumental motivation. People who have intrinsic or integrative motivation always enjoy the happiness English brings to them. For example, they like to appreciate English songs and watch movies. They also would like to know the customs of the customs of outside world. Therefore, the intrinsic or integrative motivation produces positive effects in English learning so that make learners feel that learning English can be fun. In brief, integrative or intrinsic motivation produces positive effects, which are good for English learning. Learners with integrative or intrinsic motivation are always active to learn English and keep studying it happily. They will obtain good achievements. 2.3 The negative effects
As a student, extrinsic or instrumental motivation is often closely related to appraisal or criticism, coming from labor market, schools and parents, which often bring about negative affective feeling such as worry, anxiety, etc. With this feeling, the student will lose interest in English and feel it is so hard and painful to learn it. Gradually, these students learn English without enthusiasm and they are in a state of passive study. According to Deci and Ryan (1985), learners may stop learning as long as the external forces are removed. Therefore, when the outside pressures disappear, the student probably gives up English learning. At a result, the negative effects, which come from extrinsic or instrumental motivation, let learners lose interest and enthusiasm so that they can’t try their best to learn English. Eventually, they hardly make good achievements. For them, if fails to learn English. Furthermore, some surveys reveal that the learners who are not interested in the target language and its culture often have worse performances in the English learning.
As we see, instrumental or extrinsic motivation possibly produces negative effects which are harmful to English learning. Learners who suffer the negative effects will think it is a pain to learn English 2.4 Positive and negative motivation
Although the motivation plays an important role in English learning, motivation will have different effects on learning. Commonly, the motivations which bring up positive effects to learning are called positive motivation, such integrative motivation and intrinsic motivation. While, the motivations that have negative effects on learning are called negative motivations. Referring to scholars’ researches, high achievers have stronger integrative or intrinsic motivation, but low achievers only have stronger instrumental or extrinsic motivation. Therefore, in order to learn English well, it is necessary to stimulate the positive motivation and get over the negative motivation.
III The Ways to Develop Positive Motivations
3.1 Influential factors of students’ motivation 3.1.1 Interest It is always believed that interest is the best teacher. Interest can be seen as a kind of intrinsic motivation. According to Deci’s (1985) self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation is a forceful motivator in the learning process. Only if an individual has the will to learn, can he achieve the goal. According to Qin and Wen (2002), interest influences motivational behavior most both directly and indirectly. In addition, interest plays such an important role that interest in one language can lead to positive attitude and then make the students more willing to learn that language well. Often, students have greater interest and they find it easier for them to have good achievement resulting in more confidence. Attitude According to Gardner’s socio-educational model (1985), attitude is one aspect of the foundation for the motivation to learn a second language and motivation comes from attitude. Although attitudes have no direct influence on learning, they affect the Learners’ factors
development of motivation in a direct way. Learners with positive attitude toward English and English culture are more likely to engage themselves in learning activities, more interested in learning tasks, and exert more effort. In common sense, learners with positive attitude are constantly stimulated to a higher level of motivation. Achievement Past experiences of success and failure can influence learners’ motivation. We can use a formula to illuminate this. High motivation may lead to high achievement, and high achievement may lead to high motivation. If learners can experience self-confidence and pride in learning, they are likely to try the new task with higher motivation and more positive attitude. But if learners always fail to pass the exam or make little improvement, they will probably lose heart or even make no efforts any longer. Self-confidence Self-confidence is the psychological foundation of one’s success. No one can achieve success without some degree of self-confidence which shows one’s own concept and acceptance of oneself. Often, self-efficacy leads to higher effort toward a goal. Confident learners believe in their ability to obtain a specific goal. They are active and willing in class activities, face tasks with positive emotions, have little anxiety or fear in front of the class, and persevere in solving problems. Generally, students with a high level of confidence tend to be more successful. 3.1.2 Teachers’ factors
The teacher plays an important motivational role. The teacher is the instructor of the class, so his/her words and deeds have great effect on the students. Many students hope their teacher can be humorous, active, knowledgeable, amiable and ready to help. If the teacher is not satisfying, the feeling of discontent and boredom may generate in the students’ mind, which will cause opponent attitudes toward the teacher. Then the students may behave passively in class, leading to the decrease of the learning motivation. On the other hand, the teacher’s attitude toward the students had a role to play as well. Students can gain learning power from the encouragement of the teacher, while they will lose heart out of the teacher’s criticism and rebuke.
In addition, teaching methods also influence the students very much. Various teaching methods have been introduced to our country, such as grammar-translation method, audio-lingual approach, and communicative approach popular nowadays. However, no consensus has been reached about which method is the best, for different students prefer different methods and different learning situations require different methods. But we are sure of one point that if students show interest and believe one teaching method is helpful, they will be greatly motivated. If not so, they will be largely demotivated. 3.2 The ways to develop positive motivation Above all, the students’ sense of achievement can be enhanced in English study. To enhance the students’ sense of achievement is extremely important. A majority of students believe that the more sense they get in English study, the intense motivation they have to learn English. Therefore, as a teacher, we should appraise a student’s ability correctly and arrange suitable duties for the students to let them taste joy after hard work and get the sense of achievement, for this kind of sense of achievement can drive the students to obtain greater success. Besides that, the praise and positive expectation can be given to students suitably. Complete affirmation could help enhance the students’ learning motivation, but the teacher should grasp the criterion of praise because appropriate praise may correctly guide the students to credit their success to the endeavor they have paid. Let’s contrast the following two illustrative sentences, from which we will see the difference. Teacher 1: “This is a new idea we have been working on and it will be challenged. But I believe you can finish the assignment.” Teacher 2: “This material is hard, but we have got to start right away. Some of you will have problems with it.” From the above two sentences, we can see that teacher 1 gave the students positive expectation and he acknowledged that the duty arranged was very hard, but he hoped and believed the students could complete. While teacher 2 held a negative attitude to the students, hinted that some of the students were inferior to the others, and doubted if they could finish the duty.
In practical teaching, many teachers favor the excellent students, which will affect other students’ self - awareness directly. Therefore, the teacher must equally treat each student and make him or her to feel the teacher’s high expectation. Otherwise, students’ motivation will then be restrained. What’s more, a harmonious class atmosphere could be built. Harmonious class atmosphere refers to the mutual contact and influence between the teacher and the students as well as the students themselves. Some scholars thought that, the harmonious class atmosphere enormously affects students’ learning motivation and their attitude to study. Usually the teacher does not decide the external condition of a classroom, but a harmonious and safe atmosphere the teacher builds may make up the shortage. The students can study in a relaxed atmosphere, which could help them concentrate, enhance confidence and participate in activities. And this will effectively stimulate their learning motivation. In addition, students’ self- confidence should be protected. It is that there are some relations between personal factors and language acquirement. And in personal factors, the most important is self - confidence, the raising of which on one hand depends on the students’ themselves, on the other hand depends on the teacher’s help. The teacher should consciously ask those who have low self- confidence to answer questions, give inspiration and praise to them, communicate frequently with them, provide some good learning methods and take merciful attitude towards the differences among the students. Moreover, the good relationships with students also are built up. We know good relationships between the teacher and the students help promote the students’ initiative. For example, if a teacher’s bias towards a certain student will bring much pressure and non- safety to him or her, then in English study, the students will be anxious, depressed or impatient. Teachers should not only master professional work, but pedagogy and psychology as well as the students’ needs and emotional condition. Meanwhile, teachers also improve the teaching methods gradually. Only in this way, can the teacher succeed in building harmonious relationships with all the students. Last but not least, for English learners, they must form their own methods and
strategies in order fulfill their dreams or meet their needs. At fist, with the help of self-esteem, learners can have a deeper understanding of their own personality and individual peculiarity so that they choose suitable strategies to learn English. Then they may pay attention to different aspects of English study, such listening, speaking, reading and writing or the integrity of these four. Thus learners’ motivation may be stimulated through their own strategies. During the course of learning, students should try to diagnose their strengths and weakness by themselves and be more aware of what helps them to learn language they are studying most efficiently. They also develop a broad range of problem-solving skills and learn to monitor and self-evaluate their performance.
In brief, motivation refers to the combination of effort plus the desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitudes to learning the language. The core of motivation is made up of four elements: effort, desire, attitude and goal. Motivation can be divided into intrinsic motivation from inside and extrinsic motivation from outside, also can be classified into instrumental motivation and integrative motivation. In China, most students’ motivation belongs to instrumental and extrinsic motivation, for example, passing examinations, finding a good job, getting parents’ praise. The surveys indicate that intrinsic or integrative motivation has much better effects on English learning to students. Students with such positive motivation will feel English learning can be interesting and fun. By lots of surveys and researches, it is known that motivation plays a key role in English learning. Further more, intrinsic or integrative motivation makes positive effects so that learners can study English happily. We can regard this kind of motivation as positive motivation. While extrinsic or instrumental motivation produces negative effects, which let learners feel it is a pain to study English. The motivation which brings negative effects can be called negative motivation. The paper also probes into the influential factors of students’ motivation,
including learners’ interest, attitude, achievement, self-confidence and teachers’ actions plus teaching methods. Considering about the factors, some ways are provided for students and teachers to develop positive motivation. In this case, English learning is not so hard and boring any more.
课堂导入作为英语课堂教学的首要环节，起着温故知新和承上启下的作用。有效的导 入可以营造浓厚的英语学习气氛， 充分发挥学生学习的自主性， 引导学生运用所学英语进行 交流，激发学习兴趣，化解学生的焦虑，强化他们的求知欲。 导入的目的在于“激活学生已有的相关背景知识，补充必要的、新的背景知识，启发 学生对有关话题的思考” 。 “同时也是为了学生归纳、 总结已有的语言知识， 如词汇、 句型等， 从而为学生进一步学习新内容、新知识作好铺垫” 。通过数年的教学实践和积极探索，我就 英语教学的导入这话题谈谈自己粗浅的看法。 一、英语课堂导入的误区 （一） 时间过长，喧宾夺主 英语课堂导入花费时间过多，使导入显得冗长，从而影响整节课的进程。毕竟，各种课堂 导入方式的目的只是想方设法快速集中注意力， 激起他们强烈的求知兴趣， 同时创造愉快的 学习氛围，使他们“愿意学”“乐于学” 、 。如果过分的渲染导入部分，只会浪费后面教学主 要部分的时间。教学过程的结构也是一个系统。导入、呈现、理解、巩固和结尾五者是一个 整体，缺一不可。时间安排也有轻有重，如果只重视课堂导入，而忽视其他环节，那么，再 精彩的课堂导入也不能达到预想的结果。反而有点头重脚轻的味道。 （二） 偏离重点、中心不明 有些英语课堂设计没有针对性，只是为了“导入”而“导入新课” ，这样就使得这节课 一开始就中心不明，无法引起学生的注意力，反而误导学生。 （三） 生搬硬套、过于牵强 有些英语课堂对于较沉稳班级和较活跃班级的同一教材、同一内容采用相同的导入方 式，却无法达到同等的教学效果。而有些课堂对同一个班级总是使用几种老套的导入方法， 让学生感觉枯燥乏味。 “导”无定法，切忌生搬硬套。外语的教学目的在于培养有创新意识 的外语人才。英语新课程标准强调“初中英语教学要关注每一个学生的情感，激发他们学习 英语的兴趣， 帮助他们建立学习的成就感和自信心， 使他们在学习过程中发展综合语言运用 能力，提高人文素养，增强实践能力，培养创新精神。 ”新课程标准切实体现了多重的人文 和社会意义。这种以人为本，以学习为主题的教学模式正是我们新课程改革的目的和要求。 课堂导入因人因时因地不同，方法多种多样，不拘一格，要根据实际情况灵活运用。 这里根据笔者的教学实践和平日的积累，针对以上所列举的几大误区探讨一些解救方法。 二、英语课堂导入的方法 （一）设置情景，渲染氛围，引导学生积极、主动的进入学习利用多媒体制作和与教材 相关的背景材料，借助影视片和教材里的插图，教师设计相关问题，使学生在感受其语境、 产生心理共鸣的同时，积极主动参与，乐意运用所学英语知识进行协作、会话。并且时间不 宜过长，3—5 分钟为宜。 （二）根据学生认知，设计生活化提问，在导入中导出活力，建立概念框架。 教师在充分把握、分析、了解学生现有知识的基础上，调动学生当前的生活经验，引导学
生主动参与、主动研究、主动实践，抓住知识相互交叉的机会，导入新知识，让学生一眼就 能看出本课的中心。抓住生活中的机遇，让生活实践知识与课本知识紧密结合，能让学生更 快的感知本单元的中心话题。初中学生就已具备一定认知，他们的学习不是从空白开始的。 教师要引导学生独立探索， 引导他们用所学过的英语知识来思考问题， 提出问题、 解决问题， 最后得出结论，在他们的独立性得到肯定的同时，实现并发展自己的创造性。 （三）根据教材与学生的特点，巧妙运用适宜的导入方法。对于不同的教材和教学内容， 应采用不同的课堂导入方式；即使同一教材、同一教学内容，课堂导入对不同的班级也要有 不同的导入设计，使用不同的导入方法。这需要我们根据所教班级的具体特点，进行具体分 析。 对于同一个班级来讲， 课堂导入的方法也要经常变换， 这样才有利于保持学生的新鲜感。 2005—2006 学年度，我担任八年级（1）（2）两个平行班的英语教师。 、 （1）班，他们 比较内向、沉默。而（2）班的学生，见识广，课堂气氛活跃，所以授课时课堂容易失控， 学生无法集中注意力。比如首次我进（2）班教室，发现课堂很吵，我没有进行简单的批评 责备，而是面带微笑的开始了课堂导入：T: Has the bell rung? Ss: Yes! (此时只有部分学生回 答) T: Is our class quiet or noisy? Ss: Noisy!（这次是越来越多的学生回答）T: Is it right? Ss: No.(这次是全班同学异口同声的回答) T: ?Now it’s time for class. So we must….(教师有意停 顿， 让学生思考？进行口头填空， 完成句子， 吸引了学生的注意力转移到课堂上。 SA: Stop ) talking!(学生 A 是为班干部) T: We must be….(教师进一步将已转移到课堂上的学生注意 力引入语言学习上。) SB: We must be quiet.(回答这一问题的是一个上课前吵闹的学生) 我请这两位学生回答问题实则是对其进行教育。 这样特定语言环境中的教育一语双关， 更令人心悦诚服。短短两三分钟便成功地控制了课堂，同时进行了有效的课堂导入（本节课 的语法重点恰好是学习情态动词 must 以及 must be 的用法） 。 在（1）班，我在走进课堂时，手里多了一件东西——一个新的很漂亮的书包。 （这是 本班一个同学生日时父母送的礼物，很多同学都羡慕。 ）所有同学的眼睛都齐刷刷的看着我 手里的新书包。我借机马上提问：T: Do you know whose backpack it is? Ss: Yes, it’s Cheng Ting’s.(很多同学齐声回答) T: Are you sure? SA: Yes, it must be Cheng Ting’s. Her parents bought it for her on her birthday.（学生 A 是陈婷的同桌）T: Yes,you are right. It must be Chen Ting’s. I borrowed it from Chen Ting yesterday.（时间为 2 分钟）我根据学生的心理特点采用了不同于（2）班的导入方式，同样的达到了良好的效 果。 提高教学效果关键在课堂。课堂教学是师生共同配合的合作项目；课堂教学是一门艺 术；课堂教学是一项复杂的系统工程。如果教师在课堂导入这一环节赢得了学生的注意力、 学习热情和兴趣，他们便获得了课堂教学成功的一半。 三、小结 总之，教学有法，但教无定法。巧妙的教学导入，形式不拘一格，变化多样，针对不 同的教学内容应设计不同的导入方法， 其目的就是调动学生的积极性和求知欲， 集中学生的 注意力。学生由“要他学”变成了“他要学” ，课堂教学也定会收到事半功倍的效果。因此， 课堂教学的导入艺术是值得我们研究探索的。 教师应不断提升自身素质， 注意反省和更新科 学观和教学观。
The Use of Body Language in Junior English Teaching 赵雪菊
【Thesis】:Everyone knows , with the continual reform and opening of China, English is becoming moreand more important in many fields, for example, in economy 、 sport and
science.Thedevelopment of society is in great need of a large number of people with rich English knowledge.The widest use of English is to communicate, so the students’ spoken English level must be improved , teachers are in great demand to organize the classes in English and create English-learning circumstances. However, with the limitation of students' vocabulary and English-learning situation, teachers have to simplify their teaching language with the help of facial expressions and body movements. In this article, the possibility and the effect of using body language in listening, speaking, reading and writing will be further discussed. 【Key words】: English teaching in junior middle schools, body language I. Introduction As everyone knows, one of the most important ways that the students learn English is the classroom teaching. As far as the English teaching in the middle schools is concerned, teachers have to attractand improve the students' interest so that they may learn better. There are many ways to arouse the students' interest and help them to learn better, body language used in English teaching is one of them. Body language is an important media through which people communicate with each other. It refers to the patterns of facial expressions and gestures that people use to express their feelings and meanings in communication. The specialist on body language research, Fen Lafel Angles, once said, "Once it was lost, a baby couldn't have grown into a normal person". It's also true to the juveniles. In school education, body language plays an active role in cultivating the students' characters. Teachers are usually respected, and factually, what or how the teachers say and do will be possibly imitated by the students (sometimes subconsciously). In a word, teachers' graceful body language helps to improve the students' artistic-appreciation and moral character. If the students develop a wonderful body language, which will possibly leads them to form an optimistic and active feelings, they will surely have a more smooth interpersonal relation. The affection of teachers' body language on the students is reflected not only by establishing a good example, but also shortening the teacher-student estrangement by which a more harmonious studying atmosphere is created. As a matter of fact, teachers' friendly appearance can greatly encourage the students'
studying enthusiasm and interest. Furthermore, the characteristics of theoretic and abstraction of knowledge also requires the vivid, dramatic and an accessible gestures to make it specific and figurative. As a result, the students' interest is motivated and the effect of teaching also is greatly improved. II. The necessity and importance of using body language in English teaching English teaching is an important part of the school education. With the English teaching methods’ reform, more and more English teachers organize the teaching process in English so that they may realize the Communicated English. The Communicated English means that teachers instruct the students and explain questions basically in English, and the students are also required to use English in class. Contemporarily, however, the students in the middle school can't speak very well; neither can they understand why they should use different tones in different time or situation; their vocabulary and expressive ability are limited too. These limitations made it difficult to realize the Communicated English in class. According to the students' present level and practical situation, body language is pretty necessary. For example, when a teacher gives an instruction, "You two, please stand up." The students can easily understand it if the teacher looks at (or points to) some two students. Then, the teacher moves his hand up. The students will carry out the order without obstacle even if they don't hear the key words "stand up" clearly. Furthermore, teachers usually have to explain some language points, and at this time, they have to differentiate the classroom expressions and the examples. Take it for example, we should use the form 'have done', such as 'Have you finished that job yet?'" To make the students understand clearly and easily, a teacher has lots of ways. One is to do it by speed, the teacher uses a common speed when he is reading "we should use the form 'have done in this sentence'", and reads slowly when giving examples; he can also get the effect by repeating the example 'Have you finished that job yet?'; a more frequent way is to use gestures to lay emphasis on the key points when he said "have done"(emphasizing it in voice at the same time), he reaches out his index finger, pauses in the air, and then gives out the example. This action will usually give the students a deep impression. From the above we can learn, the use of body language in English teaching is necessary and practical. In the English teaching in middle schools, body language is frequently
used to improve the teaching effect and the students' ability. III. The concrete application of the body language in listening, speaking, reading and writing 1. Body language helps to improve listening The Greek philosopher Epictetus ever wittily said: "Nature has given man one tongue and two ears that he may hear twice as much as he speaks." From the saying we can learn how important the listening is in our daily life. To understand others is a basic purpose in English teaching, and teachers often train the students' listening abilities. In this process, if the body language is used, the effect will be better. When beginning a new lesson, the teacher narrates the story outline in English. The body language may help. For example, a teacher can stretch his arms slowly when he says "She is in a very big room"; he can open his eyes widely with mouth opened when he says "She is so beautiful a lady". As a result, the students will have such an impression: She is very beautiful indeed; a teacher who imitates the crying or the movement of the animals under the premise of teaching order will surely achieve a better effect, especially when there are some new words. 2. Body language helps to improve speaking The spoken language is one of the important ways to communicate, so we should try to develop the students' ability of speaking. Factually they are helped to reach the aim in a certain degree by their teacher's body language. The contemporary emphasis is gradually laid on spoken English teaching. The first lesson of every unit in Junior English begins with dialogue. The teaching programs require the teachers to organize the class to practice English according to the characteristics of dialogue. Generally speaking, the body language can arouse and sustain the students' interest of learning and using English. In the English class, the teachers should not only use body languages themselves, but also ask the students to use them according to the different situation. For example, the first lesson in Unit one, Book one is about the time when the new students first meet, and they don't know each other. So a teacher can introduce himself first, such as: "Hello, everyone, nice to meet you here. Now I'll introduce myself to you. My name is Liping. I like playing basketball, for, it makes me much stronger; I like playing chess, for, it makes me more clever; and I like reading books, for, 'reading makes one perfect'". During the introduction, the teacher should use the new vocabularies and sentence structures
together; with a vivid expression and mating gestures as possibly as he can. He smiles when he says hello to the class; he shakes hands with some students saying "Nice to meet you"; he writes name down on the blackboard; he imitates the action of dribbling and shooting at the basketball, playing chess and turning pages to explain his hobby. After his introduction, the teacher can create a circumstance for the students to practice: "Mary and Jack are new classmates. They are walking together in the street, and they meet one of Jack's old friends--Wanghai. Then Wanghai and Mary are introduced to each other by Jack." After the students' practice the dialogue is introduced naturally from it. Usually, the application of body language in different situations will result in an attracting and successful lesson. 3. Body language helps to improve reading The purpose of Junior English teaching is to train the students' preliminary ability of using spoken and written English. In the junior school, we lay emphasis on the reading ability that serves the students' further study. Here we mainly mention the helpfulness for reading aloud in public. Reading aloud helps the students to get a correct pronunciation and intonation and to develop the combination of vocabularies' pronunciation, spelling and meaning. Furthermore it also helps the students to find out the article's internal feelings and appreciate the beauty of the language. A linguist ever said: "A poem is not a poem until it is read." Reading aloud is basic in the middle school, and the teachers should make full use of body language to develop the students' ability of reading aloud. When reading the sentences, attention should be paid to where to speak softly, emphasize, and raise or lower our tone. To make it clear, we can imitate the strong or soft pats that are used in music teaching, which means to use the arcs to represent different tones. Generally speaking, we use falling tones in declarative and special interrogative sentence, first rising tones and then falling tones in the choosing interrogative sentence. The students in the middle school are not often accustomed to and always confuse them, however, with the help of body language, they can solve the problem much more easily. For example, they use gestures. As they read the choosing interrogative sentence, they raise their hands in rising tones and lower in falling tones. After training for some times, as soon as they read the sentences, they will remind themselves of the gestures. As a result, there will be no problems in rightly reading the sentences at all.
In a word, the vivid gesture together with the fluent English can create a good circumstance of learning, which will surely play an active part in improving the students' reading ability. 4. Body language helps to improve writing. Writing is one of the four basic skills of learning language, and it is such an important skill that we can even say without it, people can't communicate with others. Not only should the students get some English knowledge and vocabularies, but also the ability to communicate in spoken and written English as what is mentioned in the teaching programs. To some extent, writing is much more important than speaking, for it can spread without the limitation of space and time. Since the students learn English as a media for communication, they should have the ability of writing. To get rid of the students' feelings of being dull and tiring, an English teacher has to use every possible method. This is the same to the writing. Teachers use different method in order to improve the students' ability of writing, among which, the application of body language can deepen the object impression, such is magnificent in developing the students' writing ability. The linguist Franklin ever said, "Tell me, I'll forget; teach me, I'll remember; involve me and I'll learn." If we asked the students to write an unfamiliar composition, they would probably be unable to and feel discouraged. However, the students can write excellent articles if they have the experience. In and out of class, we should ask the students to participate some English-related activities, and then ask them to write it down. Take "The First Snow in Winter" for example, having enjoyed themselves in the beautiful snowing and been given some hints, the students can write a composition much better. For contrast to their complete imagination, the students are deeply impressed by the body movement of the teachers and themselves, which surely leads to a better article. IV. Conclusion The best way to learning English well is to practise. The forty-five minutes in class is very precious and should be cherished, during which the students should practise as much as possible. To exert the limited time, teachers are required to adopt some effective methods. The use of body language can not only attract the students' attention, improve their interest but also deepen their impression and imagination. The use of body language is completely up to the standard of audio-visual teaching principle, so teachers should try to
teach in English from the beginning to the end in class, together with the corresponding body language. In the end, the students' ability of English, especially oral English will be certainly and greatly improved. That’s all we want to see. Bibliography: 1. Hu Chundong, The English Teaching and Learning Methods, Higher Education Press, 1990 2. Liu Yongfa, Liu Xuan'en, The Practical Body Language, Hua Wen Press, 1997 3. Wu Zongjie, Readings for Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching, Zhejiang Teachers' University, 1998 4. Gu Xueliang, The Basic Technical Training in English Teaching, Hangzhou University Press, 1998. 5. Shen Minxian, The Use of the Body Language in Elementary School, Shanghai Education Vol. 12, 1999 6. He Guangkeng, The Basis of English Teaching and Learning Methods, Jinan University Press,1999</P< p>
多媒体就是利用现代科学技术手段来储存和传递信息的工具。 多媒体教学技术在英语教 学中的使用将大大促进英语教学的成效。多媒体软件集图像、声音、文字于一体，通过生动 形象、活泼的形式使学生身临其境地学习英语。 一、要有明确的教学目标 无论是传统的教学方式，还是电化教学方式，每堂课必须要有教学目标。确定了教学目
标，教学活动才能有实效。教学目标包括通过英语教学，使学生受到听、说、读和写的全面 训练，获得理解，分析语言知识的能力，从而达到初步用英语的能力。 二、充分发挥多媒体在教学中的辅助作用 一个优秀的多媒体外语辅助教学软件可在计算机上模拟外语环境，并附有生动的图像、 解释、使学生在计算机上学英语单词、语音、语法、同时还能参与有趣味性的情景训练。多 媒体软件集图像、声音、文字于一身。给学生以耳目一新的感觉，从而使每个学生都在轻松 愉快中学到一堂课应该掌握的词汇和句型， 通过生动形象活泼的形式使学生积极参与身临其 境地学习英语。从而使课堂教学事半功倍。 三、多媒体课件以学生为中心 教师必须根据学生培养方向，学生现有水平，学生的学习需要等等，进行软件设计和程 序编制。如：在听力训练方面；教师以培养学生的听和说的能力，有潜入深，由易到难，结 合生活，注入趣味，也可配以画面和音乐。让学生身临其境地学习语音、语调，进行听、写、 会话练习。 四、讲究教学方法 多媒体介入课堂丰富了教学方法，它可使课堂讲解、演示、学习变得多姿多彩，从而极 大提高学生的学习兴趣，课堂教学中的五个教学环节：复习、介绍、操作、练习及巩固。使 得以顺利进行，大量地节约了时间，使学生能轻松自如地在语言情景中学习英语。比如第 2 册 85 课： Ⅰ 复习（Revision） 利用电脑绘制的彩色地图复习： 1） 、Where is ……? 2)、It’s near/behind/next to/…… Ⅱ 介绍（Presentation） 利用电脑绘制彩色“交通灯”教授“traffic lights”既直观又形象。 Ⅲ 操作（Drill） 采用电脑制作的地图和动画片操练句型。 “Which is the way ……” Ⅳ 练习（Practice） 利用电脑制作的地图和动画片，图中分别又：hospital 、bookshop、 station、 park 等 组织学生进行替换练习， 然后通过放影动画片使学生运用 walk/go along 、 take……turning on the right/left、turn left /right. Go on until/you reach the end 等来指路。 Ⅴ 巩固（Consolidation） 组织学生看录像，然后根据动画和地图使学生进行相互练习，扮演各种角色进行表演， 通过表演使学生能正确地运用所学知识，巩固一堂课所学的内容。 Ⅵ 讨论（Discussion） 利用自制的几幅标志图，通过用投影机向学生显示，用回答问题的方式，让学生进行 讨论，猜测意见，然后师生进行回答，最后，用电脑放影自制配图练习，让学生用笔根据图 中标志，来完成练习册上的练习。通过整堂英语多媒体教学，学生的听、说和写的能力就得 到了全面的训练。 总之，科学地选择电教媒体，并进行最佳组合，可以达到声、形、色并茂，激发学生 的学习兴趣，还可以节约时间，加大课堂内容，拓宽知识视野，提高教学效果。