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外研版高中英语必修4短语


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Module 1.. have no alternative but (=have no choice but) 除……外别无选择; 只要…… alternative energy 可代替能源 an alternative plan 替代方案 load … with sth. 给… 装某物 load the truck with coal 给汽车装上煤 be on fire 着火(强调状态) catch fire 失火(强调动作,无被动语态) set fire to sth 放火烧某物 command sb to do sth 命令某人做某事 command that… (that 从句中要用 should+动词 原形, should 可省略) free of charge 免费,不花钱 in charge of 负责,管理 in the charge of 由…负责 take charge of 负责管理,负责照顾 be charged with… 充满 attach sth to sth 把某物固定/附在某物上 attach oneself to 参加;和…在一起,缠着 be attached to… 连在…上; 附属于….; 系在……上 attach importance/value to sth. 认为某事很重要/有价值 for sure 肯定地,有把握地 sb. is sure to do sth 某人一定/肯定做某事 be sure + that-clause 确信,相信…… make sure of /about sth 确保…… make sure + that-clause 确保 sb. run out of sth 某人用完了某东西 sth. run out 某物用完了(没有了) rely on/upon 依靠,信赖;取决于 rely on it that… 指望…..,对……不怀疑 get rid of =rid…of 摆脱,丢掉;除去,赶走,消灭 with + 复合宾语结构,常用的结构形式有: ①with+宾语+现在分词(强调宾语是现在分词动作 的发出者或某状态、动作正在进行) ②with+宾语+过去分词(强调宾语是过去分词动作 的承受者或动作已经发生) ③with+宾语+形容词(强调宾语的特性和状态) ④with+宾语+副词 ⑤with+宾语+不定式(不定式动作尚未发生) ⑥with+宾语+介词短语 place an order 订购

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carry out an operation 做手术 be optimistic about… .对……乐观的 be optimistic that… 对…..乐观 in shape 处于良好状态,在形状上 in the shape of 以….形状;呈……形 out of shape 变形,走样 look out of 向……外看 look out! 小心,当心 Watch out! ; Be careful! Take care! for a start 首先 to start with = to begin with 首先, 第一 from the start = from the beginning 从开头, 从开始 on the way out 即将被淘汰; 即将过时 on the way n./pron./to doing 即将,来到,接近 can’t…too 或 never…too “不可能太….”, “再怎么….也不过分” Not all…=All…not… 并非所有的 Module 2 be on display 展览 be on show be on exhibition permit sb to do sth 允许某人做某事 permit doing sth 允许做某事 provide sb with sth 为某人提供某物 provide sth for sb sth impress sb 某物给某人留下影响 sb be impressed by impress sth on sb 使某人铭记 = impress sb with sth sth is impressed on one’s mind 某事被印在脑海里 have/leave/make/ a …impression on sb 给某人留下…的印象 be convenient to sb 对某人方便 It is convenient for sb 对某人方便 It is convenient to do sth 做某事方便 be convenient for sth 对某事方便 get around=get about 到处旅游; 四处走动 be connected to/with 与…..相连, 接通

15. be stuck in 困住,动不了 16. get dressed 穿衣 get washed 洗脸 get lost 迷路 get married 结婚 get charged 充电 get separated 被分散 17. in no time 马上,一会儿 18. on time 按时 in time 及时 19. once upon a time 从前 20. at the same time 与此同时 at one time 曾经, 一度,从前有个时期 at no time 决不,在任何时候都不 21. be worth doing 值得做….. be worth + n. = be worthy of + n sth. is worth doing = sth is worthy of being done = sth is worthy to be done 22. “祈使句 + and +简单句”可以改为 if 条件句 Think hard, and you’ll have an idea. 使劲想, 你就会 有主意。 =? 23. “祈使句 + or +简单句”也可以改为 if 条件句 Listen to me, or you won’t understand. = ? 24. under construction 正在建设之中 25. be limited to 局限于….. 26. in rush hours 处于交通高峰期 27. react to… 对…产生反应 react with sth. 与某物起(化学)反应 28. occur to sb (主意或想法突然)浮现与脑中, 被想起,被想到 29. It occurs to sb to do sth 某人想到…… It occurs to sb that 30. have sth done 请别人做某事 31. keep cool 保持冷静 keep quiet 保持安静 keep still 不动 keep silent 保持沉默 32. no way 肯定不, 没门儿 (用于句首时,句子要倒装) Module 3 vary in… 在……方面不同 vary from…to… 从…..到……变化 vary with 随着….而变化,因….而不同 involve sb in… 允许某人参与 involve oneself in… 积极参与……

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be/get involved in… 被卷入到….之中 more than 不仅仅 more than 100 = over 100 , 超过 100 more than surprised 十分/非常 吃惊 more …than… 与其说…不如说…(强调前者) He was more an artist than a writer. on guard (保持)警惕;值班,站岗 on holiday 度假 on leave 休班 on duty 值班 hold up 举起,抬起,承受住,支撑 hold back 阻挡 hold on 等会儿, 坚持 hold down 限制 hold out 维持 give away 泄露,出卖,暴露,让步,赠送,捐赠 give off 发出(烟、光、热、气味等) give out 发出;放出(消息、声音等);用完,耗尽 mind reader 能看透别人心思的人 make a deal 达成协议,做成交易 communicate with sb 和某人交流 be busy with sth 忙于某事 shake hands with sb 和某人握手 stare at sb/sth 注视着某人/某物 stare into the distance 凝视着远方 request sb to do sth 要求某人做某事 request that sb (should) do… 要求某人做某事 make a request for… 要求….. at the request of sb 应某人的请求 = at sb’s request by request(of) 按要求 do sb a favour 帮某人一个忙 ask sb a favour 请某人帮个忙 in favour of 赞成 do sb a favor = do a favor for sb 帮某人的忙 lift up 举起;太高;吊起 ①up and down 上上下下 ②up and down 前前后后 = back and forth = backwards and forwards ③up and down 处处 = here and there ④up and down 来来往往 = to and from by accident 偶然地,无意地 Module 4

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experiment with sth. 用某物实验 experiment on sth. 对某物进行实验 carry out perform conduct an experiment 做实验 do make make a breakthrough 取得重大突破(进展) convert A into/to B 把 A 转换成 B take the place of = replace 取代,代替 in place of 取代,代替(介词短语) instead of 代替,而不是(介词短语) a quantity of + 不可数名词,谓语动词用单数 quantities of+可数名词复数,谓语动词用复数 quantities of+不可数名词,谓语动词用复数 bring up 抚育;教养,呕吐,提出(话题等) bring down 降低 bring about 导致,引起 bring back 归还;恢复;回想 bring in 赚(钱);带进;传入 search for 寻找 search sb/sp 搜查某人或某地 in search of 寻求/寻找…… as a result of 由于…..的结果 as a result 因此,结果 owing to thanks to 由于… due to because of the key to… ……的关键 the answer to the question 问题的答案 notes to the text 课文注释 an end to the meeting 会议的结束 the entrance to the building 大厦的入口 export sth to 出口某物到…… the second most important 第二重要的 be interested in… 对……感兴趣 graduate from….. 从…..(地方)毕业 escape from (out of)+sp. 从某地逃脱;逃走 escape from reality 逃避现实 have a narrow escape 九死一生 a fire escape 紧急出口;安全门 clear up (天气)放晴;整理;收拾 be known for 因…..而出名/闻名 be known an 以……而知名,著称 be known to 为……所知 earn one’s living 谋生

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= make a living get/gain a living 谋生 比较:live/lead a…life 过着…..的生活 come to power 掌权;执政 take power 取得政权 in power 当权,执政 out of one’s power 不能胜任,力所不及 = beyond one’s power It is possible that…. 可能…… It’s certain that... 一定……. =sb/sth is certain to do It’s certain that you’ll succeed. = ? It’s likely that…… 可能….. =sb/sth is likely to do It’s likely that he is doing his homework. = ? It seems that 好像…… =sb/sth seems to do It seems that he knows the secret. =? at war 在交战中 be diagnosed with 被诊断出…, 患有… become the voice of 成为…的代言人 partly because of 一部分因为 Module 5 surround sb with sb 用某人包围某人 be surrounded by sb 被某人所包围 in the surrounding 在周围环境 a narrow escape 九死一生 in the distance 在远处,在远方 from a distance 从一定距离,从远处 at a distance 在一定距离处,隔一段距离 keep sb at a distance 对某人冷淡; 与某人保持距离 at the edge of 在……的边缘(侧重于在边 缘点上) on the edge of 在…边缘上(侧重在边缘较 广阔的地域) at least = at the least 至少 not in the least = not all 一点也不 at most = at the most 至多 be heavy with 有大量的 make a detour 绕道而行 have four weeks off 休四周假 go through 穿过;经历 forbid sb to do sth 禁止某人做某事 forbid doing sth 禁止做某事 require to do sth 要求去做某事 require sb to do sth 要求某人去做某事

16. require that sb (should) do sth 要求某人做某事 17. sth require doing 某物需要被做 = sth require to be done 18. on a spot 在现场,当场 19. rip off 敲竹杠;敲诈 20. rip sth off 偷窃,盗取 21. get a kick out of 从……中得到乐趣 22. enjoy doing 喜欢干….. 23. be fond of 喜欢….. 24. go in for 爱好,从事 Module 6 attack sb with sth 用某物攻击某人 be attacked with a disease 患/害病 make an attack on/upon 对…发动攻击 a heart attack 心脏病突发 come into existence 开始存在;形成;成立 a struggle for existence 生存竞争 calm down (使)安静下来 sb. is unlikely to… 某人不可能 It is unlikely that… 不可能…… be likely to... 可能…… be related to 与…有关,与…有联系 relate sth to sth 把…..与……联系起来 There happens to be… 碰巧有…… There appears to be… 似乎有…… There seems to be… 好像有 have the fortune (luck) to do sth 幸好(幸运)做某事 make a fortune 发财 try one’s fortune 碰碰运气 die out (家族、物种)灭绝;灭亡; (习俗等)渐渐消失 (火)逐渐熄灭 throw light on 帮助弄清楚;阐明某事 come to light 暴露,被发现,表现出来 bring to light 让人知道,公布于世 come straight to the point 谈正题;开门见山 beside/off the point 不切正题,无关紧要 to the point 切题,中肯 be on the point of 正要 go for 适用于,应用于;喜欢,偏爱 adapt oneself to 使自己适应于…… according to 根据 be connected with 与…..有关系 in order to = so as to 为了 本模块重点语法

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一. 情态动词 + have + p.p. 用法归纳 1. must have done sth. 肯定做了某事 (表示对过去的某事做出肯定的判断) He knew the film. He must have seen it. 2. may/might have done 可能/大概已经做了某 事 (表示对过去情况的可能性推测) Tom may have bought a new pen because I don’t see the old one.. 3. can’t/ couldn’t have done sth. 不可能已经做了某 事 (表示对过去情况的否定性推 测) The ground is dry, so it can’t have rained last night. 4. should have done sth. 过去应该做某事(而没 做) = ought to have done sth You are late. You should have come 1 minute earlier. 5. shouldn’t have done sth. 过去不该做某事(却做 了) = oughtn’t to have done sth. She is crying. You shouldn’t have told her the sad news. 6. could have done sth. 本来能够做(却没有做某 事) 7. needn’t have done sth. 原来不必做某事(却已经做 了) Tom has bought a new pen. You needn’t have lent him your pen. 8. would rather have done sth. 本来想做某事(却未做 成) I would rather have come to help you with your English, but I was too busy at that time. 二、情态动词表推测的其他用法 1、情态动词 + 动词原形 表示对现在或将来情况的推 测 2、 情态动词 + be doing 表示对现在或将来正在进行 的情况进行推 测 3、情态动词 + have been doing 表示对过去正在发 生 的事情的推测

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