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省略句grammar


Discovering useful structures

Read the sentences below.
?(It)

Looks like rain. you) Forgotten my name?

?

Hi. (It is) Nice to see you again.

can ) Just call me Peter.

?(Have

?(You
?I’m

a doctor and my wife (is) a teacher.

?I’m

not as strong as I was (strong).
a beautiful umbrella (it is)!

?What

They are sentences with ellipsis. What is ellipsis? Ellipsis is the omission of some words for avoiding repetition and achieving textual cohesion. Now find some sentences with ellipsis in the text.

?Often

the illness or injury is not serious, but there are other times when (the illness or injury is serious and ) giving first aid quickly can save lives.
?Burns

are called first (degree burns), second (degree burns) or third degree burns …
?These

affect both the top (layer of the skin) and the second layer of the skin.

Generally speaking, any part of a sentence can be omitted as long as the meaning is clear and not confusing.

1. Omitting the subject
(You) Open the door, please!

--- Would you like to watch NBA? --- (It) sounds like a good idea.
I have done more than (what) is required. (I) Hope to see you soon.

2. Omitting the predicative
-- Is he a teacher?

-- Yes, he is (a teacher).
His sister isn’t lazy, nor is his brother (lazy). Sam seemed angry and George certainly was (angry).

3. Omitting the object
-Will Mr. Smith come tomorrow? -Sorry, I don’t know (whether he will come tomorrow). --Which of them is the better choice? --Well, It's hard to tell (it).

--- Do you think it will rain? --- I think not. (I don’t think it will rain.) --- Do you think it will rain? --- I think so. (I think that it will rain.)
1) How so? Why so? 2) Is that so? I hope so.

3) I suppose / believe / hope not.

To do as the object
--- Are you going to Tibet? ---Yes, I’d like to (go there). --- Have you ever been to the seaside? --- No. I should have (been to the seaside), but I was busy then.

4. Omitting the predicate and part of it
(There is) No smoking. (Come in) This way, please.

5. Omitting the subject & predicate or part of them
( I’m ) Sorry to hear you are ill. (Will you) Have a smoke / a cup of tea? What a wonderful time (we had)! While (you are) crossing the road, you must be careful.

Now it’s your turn to find out what have been left out. 1. Haven’t seen you for ages. I haven’t seen you for ages.

2. Some more tea?
Would you like some more tea?

3. Sounds like a good idea. That / It sounds like a good idea.

4. Doesn’t matter. It doesn’t matter. 5. Sorry to hear that. I’m sorry to hear that.

6. Pity you couldn’t come.
It’s / What a pity you couldn’t come.

7. This way, please. Come this way, please.
8. Terrible weather! What terrible weather it is! 9. Joining us for a drink? Are you joining us for a drink? 10. Going to the supermarket? Are you going to the supermarket?

在英语中由when / while / if / unless / though / even if / until 等表示时间、条件、 方式或让步等的从句,如果从句的主语 和主句的主语一致(或者从句的主语是 be),而且从句谓语中又包括,那么这 个主语和动词都可以省略。只保留连词+ 现在分词 / 过去分词 / 形容词。例如:

While (he was) eating breakfast, he heard the doorbell ring Send the goods if (they are) ready. Fill in the blanks with articles where (it is) necessary. Though (he was) poor, he lived a happy life.

在并列句中,为了避免与第一个分句 的相同内容重复,可采用省略谓语, 而保留主语和表语或补足语等成分。 例如:
One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow, and the other white

以if从句为代表的状语从句中的特殊省 略用法:通常省略了it is,that is, there is / are。
If (it is) possible / necessary, this old temple will be rebuilt. If (that is) so, I will call you back at 5:00 pm. There are only a few books in our school library, if (there are) any.

口语中常用的省略句 Up to you!你说了算! Believe me. 相信我。 Give me a hand. 帮我一下。 Doesn’t matter. 没关系。 Me too. 我也一样。 Not yet. 还没有。 Too bad! 太糟糕啦!

Mind you!当心! Where to? 要去哪儿? Sure, no problem. 当然,没问题。 That much? 太贵了吧? Get lost! 滚开! So that explains it. 原来如此 Too strange to be true! 太奇怪了,不 真实。 See what I mean? 了解我的意思吗?

[高考真题]
1. The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if _____ regularly, can improve our health. (2010浙江) A. being carried out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 解析:答案选C。本句的if_____ regularly是 插入的条件从句,从句的主语是proper amounts of exercise,此时应用it代替前面提 到的主语,条件句的主语与主句的主语一致, 并且含有is, 故省略了it is, 完整形式是:if it is carried out。

2. It sounds like something is wrong with the car’s engine. _____, we’d better take it to the garage immediately. (2011江苏) A. Otherwise B. If not C. But for that D. If so 解析:答案选D。 “如果那样的话”最 恰当,适合上下文的语境,所以用If so。 If so = If something is wrong with the car’s engine.

3. Some of you may have finished unit one. _____, you can go on to unit two. (2009 江西 ) A. If you may B. If you do C. If not D. If so

解析: 答案选D, 是省略句的用法。 If so = If you have done that / so

4. Every evening after dinner, if not ____, I will spend some time from work walking my dog . (2009 湖南 ) A. being tired B. tiring C. tired D. to be tired

解析: 省略句式。在 if 引导的条件状语 从句中,从句中还原应为 if I am not tired,根据省略的原则,所以答案选 C。

Rewrite these sentences by taking out the unnecessary parts. (P 37)
1. The burn that she got from the iron was red and ( it was)very painful. 2. A boy was on the left side of the sick woman, and a girl was on the right (____ side of the sick______). woman

3. She has a daughter who is)in hospital. (
4. He went to the doctor because he had to (go to the doctor ). 5. Did she pass the first aid test that she did yesterday or didn’t she pass? not ( ) 6. She could not decided whether to send him to hospital or not to send him to hospital.

7. When your nose is bleeding, you should bend forward so that the blood runs out of not your nose and the blood doesn’t run down your throat. 8. Only some of the students have done a first aid course but most of the students haven’t done a first aid course.

Rewrite each sentence including the missing words.
1) The cottage surrounded by a wall belongs to the local government. The cottage (that is) surrounded by a wall belongs to the local government. 2) The first book I read this term was more interesting than the second. The first book I read this term was more interesting than the second (book I read this term).

3) To her teacher’s surprise, she did better in

her first aid exam than expected.
To her teacher’s surprise, she did better in her first aid exam than (it was) expected. 4) I don’t think they have returned from the

hospital, but they might have. I don’t think they have returned from the hospital, but they might have (returned from the hospital).

5) He wanted to help the accident victim but his friend didn’t.
He wanted to help the accident victim but his friend didn’t (want to help the accident victim).

6)You can borrow my first aid notes if you want to.
You can borrow my first aid notes if you want to (borrow my first aid notes).

Discussion
Sometimes sentences can be ambiguous because of ellipsis. Discuss the following sentences in groups of four and find out the two meanings in each sentence.
1. 2. 3. 4. Jack loves nature more than his wife. John understood himself better than Peter. Max phoned his mother and Oscar did too. I relied on you more than Roger.

1. Jack loves nature more than his wife.
Jack loves nature more than he loves his wife.

2. John understood himself better than Peter.

Jack loves nature more than his wife loves nature.

John understood himself better than Peter understood John. John understood himself better than Peter understood himself.

3. Max phoned his mother and Oscar did too.
Max phoned his mother and Oscar phoned Max’s mother too. Max phoned Max’s mother and Oscar phoned Oscar’s mother.

4. I relied on you more than Roger.
I relied on you more than Roger relied on you. I relied on you more than I relied on Roger.

Choose the best answers.
1. —Is it going to rain tomorrow? D I’m planning to go climbing with my —____. uncle. A. I hope so B. I don’t hope to C. I hope it not D. I hope not 2. —Xishuangbanna is supposed to be a wonderful place, but we haven’t been there. — _____. A A. Neither have we B. Neither we have C. Neither did we D. Neither we did

3. —Alice, why didn’t you come to my birthday party yesterday? —I _____, C but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did 4. She planned to go for a picnic, but her mother told her ______. B A. not to do B. not to C. do not to D. to not 5. —Will Li Lin go biking this weekend? —I don’t know. If he ____, B I’ll go with him. A. will want to B. wants to C. wants to do D. will want

6. — I can’t go shopping with you this Sunday. — Pardon? But you _____. B A. promised to do B. promised to C. promise to D. would promise 7. — I’ll be away on a holiday for about two weeks. Would you mind taking care of my cat? — Not at all. ______. D A. I’ll go to B. I’d rather not C. I’d love it D. I’d be happy to

8. ---Tomorrow is a holiday. Why are you doing your homework? ---I am doing these exercises now so that I D on Sunday. won’t have _____ A. it B. them C. for D. to 9. ---Shall I invite Ann to my birthday party tomorrow evening? D ---Yes. It’ll be fine if you ______. A. are B. can C. invite D. do

10. --- Aren’t you the manager?

---No, and I ______. B
A. don’t want to B. don’t want to be

C. don’t want be

D. don’t want

11. --- I’ll be away on a business trip. Would you

mind looking after my cat?
---Not at all. ______. D A. I’ve no time C. I’d like it B. I’d rather not D. I’d be glad to

12. --- Won’t you have another try?

D --- ________. A. Yes, I will have
C. Yes, I won’t ---_______? A

B. Yes, I won’t have
D. Yes, I will

13. --- I won’t do it any more. A. Why not
C. Why not do

B. Why don’t do any more
D. Why don’t

14. ---Do you think it will snow tomorrow?
C ----______? A.I don’t think C. I don’t think so 15. ---Have you fed the cat? D ---No, but ______. A. I’m C. I’m just going B. I am D. I’m just going to B. No, I don’t think D. No, I don’t so

Rewrite the sentences by taking out the unnecessary parts.
1. He turned his head now and then as if he was looking for someone. He turned his head now and then as if looking for someone. 2. Whether it is true or false, the story is really very interesting. Whether true or false, the story is really very interesting.

3. Why don’t you get some knowledge of first aid? Why not get some knowledge of first aid? 4. If it is necessary, send me an email with the details. If necessary, send me an email with the details. 5. When he was asked why he was late for class, he remained silent. When asked why he was late for class, he remained silent.

Homework
1. Review the grammar focus and finish the exercises on Page 71. 2. Preview the reading passage on Page 38.


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