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Sow and Gilt Management Techniques 经产母猪和后备母猪 管理技术

United Feeds Research

Sow and Gilt Management 母猪管 理
? ? ? ? ? ? Gilt pool management后备母猪群管理 Breeding targets配种目标 Farrowing house mangement产房管理 Lactation consumption泌乳期采食量 Return to estrus返情 Preweaning mortality factors断奶前死亡因 素

United Feeds Research

How do I improve sow performance?怎样提高母猪性能 怎样提高母猪性能
? Reduce mycotoxins 减少霉菌毒素 ? Multiple feedings/day of fresh, nutrient dense feed每 每 天多次饲喂新鲜的,高营养浓度的饲料(泌乳期) 天多次饲喂新鲜的,高营养浓度的饲料(泌乳期) ? Provide supplemental feed to nursing litters乳猪补料 乳猪补料 ? Do not overfeed during gestation 怀孕期不要饲喂过多 ? Bring sows up to full feed in lactation gradually (Reach full intake by d-8 of lactation) 泌乳期逐渐到达 充足饲喂(泌乳第8天达到充足饲喂 天达到充足饲喂) 充足饲喂(泌乳第 天达到充足饲喂) ? Fiber source during gestation 怀孕期纤维饲料

United Feeds Research

Why do you need good gilt management??? 为什么需要良好的后备母猪管理???
2002 Breeding Herd Summary for Canada2002年加拿大配种母猪群总结

Measurement 测量指标 Average female inventory平均 平均 母猪存栏 Replacement Rate更换率 更换率 Average parity平均胎次 平均胎次

Mean平均 1046 58.8 2.79

Upper 10% 最好10% 2740.7 33.4 3.8

Lower 10% 最查10% 239.6 71.4 2.0

http://www.pigchamp.com/2002Datashare.htm

Goal of Efficient Gilt Management Systems:有效的后备母猪 有效的后备母猪
管理系统的目标 To meet gilt replacement needs from a smaller pool of gilts with improved lifetime performance用较少的、高性能的后备母猪满足母猪 用较少的、 用较少的 更换的需要
United Feeds Research

Why are Gilts SO IMPORTANT? 为什么后备母猪如此重要?
? Highest % of farrowings in the herd 母猪 群高分娩率 ? Breeding targets配种目标 ? Replace involuntary fallouts更换偶然的落 后的猪 ? Replace voluntary culling更换主动的淘汰 的猪 ? Important to maintain parity structure 对 于维持胎次结构很重要
(Williams, Patterson, and Foxcroft. Banff Pork Seminar, 2005)
United Feeds Research

Requirements for meeting breeding targets满足配种目标的 满足配种目标的 要求
? Proper gilt pool size and effective gilt pool management to meet gilt breeding targets 合适的后备母猪群 大小和有效的后备母猪群管理来满足 后备母猪的配种目标 ? Predictable numbers of weaned sows 可以预测的断奶母猪数
United Feeds Research

The challenges 挑战
? Health 健康
– Effects on gilt flow 母猪群流动的影响

? No direct control over gilts at puberty age在成熟期没有对后备母 猪直接的控制
– Off-site isolation and acclimatization场外的隔离和驯化

? Lack of space for puberty management没有空间进行成熟期管理 ? Pressure for breeding targets (short term)配种目标的压力(短期) ? Priorities and Discipline优先和纪律
– Not enough labor allocated to gilt management没有足够的工人进行

后备母猪管理

– No objectives and targets没有目的和目标

? Real understanding of the importance of gilts in a sow herd对于 后备母猪在母猪群中的重要性的真正理解

United Feeds Research

(Williams, Patterson, and Foxcroft. Banff Pork Seminar, 2005)

The effects…影响 影响… 影响
? Inefficient gilt pool management后备母猪群管理不充分 – No control over gilt pool对后备母猪群没有控制 – High inventory of non-cycling gilts不发情后备母猪存栏量高 ? Unpredictable breeding targets不可预测的配种目标 – Marginal sows are kept for breeding targets保留的母猪数量刚

刚够配种目标。

– Start of the “death spiral”“死亡螺旋”的开始 ? Inefficiencies increase needs for more gilts没有增加足够的后备母 猪 – Less selection选择少 – Breed of marginal边缘配种 ? Poor P1 and sow performance头胎和经产母猪性能差

United Feeds Research

(Williams, Patterson, and Foxcroft. Banff Pork Seminar, 2005)

Effect of body weight at parturition on subsequent reproductive and litter performance分娩时体重对随后的 繁殖和窝仔生长性能的影响
Parturition Mass 分娩重 Average Litter Growth (kg/d)平 平 均窝增重速度(公斤/天) 均窝增重速度(公斤 天 Percentage of largest 16 ovarian follicles ≥ 3.5mm at weaning断奶 断奶 时最大的16个卵泡大于 个卵泡大于3.5毫米的 时最大的 个卵泡大于 毫米的 百分比
(Clowes et al., 2003)

165 ± 1.7 kg 2.05

193 ± 1.9 kg 2.21

26.1%

52.6%

Parturition Mass 分娩重 Sows in estrus within 9 days after weaning断 奶后9天内母猪发情比率 Ovulation Rate排卵数
(Mejia-Guadarrama et al., 2003)
United Feeds Research

181.1 kg 58% 14.0

238.2 kg 86% 15.6

Effective “selection” techniques 有效的“选择”技术
? “Selected” gilts respond early to boar contact 选择对公猪接触反映较早的后备母猪 ? “Selection” should include a recorded estrus 选择需要包括有记录的发情 ? “Selection should occur below market weight 选择需要在达到上市体重之前进行 ? “Non-select” gilts should be culled选不上的后 选不上的后 备母猪要淘汰
United Feeds Research

At what age does puberty “naturally” occur in gilts?在多大日龄后备母猪自 在多大日龄后备母猪自 然达到性成熟
?120 to 200+ days日龄 日龄
What factors are important in determining age at puberty?哪些因素对决定性成熟日龄比较重要 哪些因素对决定性成熟日龄比较重要
? Age of boar introduction 引入公猪接触的日龄 ? Direct stimulation with boars公猪的直接刺激 公猪的直接刺激 ? Good heat detection management好的发情检测技术 好的发情检测技术

United Feeds Research

Cumulative percentage of gilts reaching puberty after boar contact at 160 d (′) and 135 d (↓)在160日龄和 日龄接触公猪 日龄和135日龄接触公猪 ′ ↓在 日龄和 后,后备母猪性成熟的累计百分率

100 90 后备母猪累计发情率 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 55 58 61 64 67 接触公猪后时间(天)

United Feeds Research

(From Patterson, 2001).

Extensive studies confirm that direct contact with mature boars is the most effective way to induce first estrus

United Feeds Research

At what age should I start puberty stimulation (final selection)?

应该在多大日龄开始性成熟刺激( 应该在多大日龄开始性成熟刺激(最后 选择) 选择)

United Feeds Research

Puberty stimulation from 160-190 days of age is usually the most efficient in terms of labor and space utilization 160-190日龄之间进行性成熟刺激,劳动

力和猪舍利用率最高 Think in terms of …考虑这个数据:
“the number of HNS gilts/pen space/day” “每天每圈HNS后备母猪的头数”

United Feeds Research

Effect of age a first service on performance of gilts to end of parity 1第一次配种时的日龄对后备母猪 到第一胎结束时的生产成绩的影响
Age at service, d配种日龄 Parity 1第一胎 Born Alive产活仔数 Pigs Weaned断奶仔猪数 WEI, d断奶到再发情间隔 % gilts culled end parity 1第 一胎结束后母猪淘汰率 10.2 8.9 12.6 39.5 10.6 9.1 10.2 31.4 9.8 9.2 10.2 35.1 9.7 8.7 16.7 46.0 0.4 0.2 2.2 5.0 .09 .10 .08 .02 <240 240-260 260-280 >280 SED P-value

United Feeds Research

Young et al. 2003, unpublished data

GESTATION PHASE 怀孕阶段

United Feeds Research

Feeding Strategies During Gestation怀孕期饲喂策略 怀孕期饲喂策略
A controlled feed intake during gestation is critical!控制怀孕期喂料量是关键 控制怀孕期喂料量是关键 Two methods: 两个办法 (1) Constant feeding level固定的饲喂量 固定的饲喂量 (2) Phase feeding level阶段性饲喂量 阶段性饲喂量

United Feeds Research

Courtesy of N.L. Trottier, Ph.D.

以下暗示你的母猪的营养需要调整 Wean to estrus interval increases断奶到再发情间隔变长 increases断奶到再发情间隔变长 2nd parity slump 第二胎产仔成绩下降 variability in litter size subsequent farrowing 以后的几胎产仔数变化较大 large effects from seasonal infertility 季节性不孕影响较大

United Feeds Research

Phase Feeding in Gestation 怀孕期阶段饲喂
Day 1–30天: 1.5 – 2 kg/d 公斤 天 公斤/天 天 - Limit energy & protein intakes 限制能量和蛋白摄入 Day 30–75天: 3.2 kg/d 公斤 天 公斤/天 天 - Feed to condition score of 3 根据膘情饲喂,达到 分 根据膘情饲喂,达到3分 Day 75-112天: 2.5 – 3 kg/d 公斤 天 公斤/天 天 Critical fetal growth period 胎儿生长关键时期 Mammary tissue growth 乳腺组织生长 Day 112天 – Farrow产仔 2 kg/d公斤 天 产仔: 公斤/天 天 产仔 公斤 Rapid fetal growth 胎儿快速生长

United Feeds Research

United Feeds Research

Temperature 温度 Protein % 蛋白含量 Feeding program during gestation怀孕期饲喂程序 gestation怀孕期饲喂程序 immune challenge 免疫(疾病)挑战 免疫(疾病) wet vs dry 湿喂与干喂 feeder design 料槽设计 Dietary fat 日粮脂肪 Feeding frequency 饲喂次数 Unrestricted supply of water 饮水不受限制 Genotype 品种
United Feeds Research

1. Keep the temperature under 70 F if possible 室温控制在21度以下 2. Make sure water intake is excellent 确保饮水很好 A. 1/2 gallon/ min 每分钟1.9升水流量 B. Avoid to high pressure 避免水压过高 C. Make sure gilts find the water source 确保第一次生产的母猪 找到水的位置 3. Fresh feed新鲜的饲料 4. Multiple feeding每天多次饲喂 5. Add flavor enhancement 加调味剂 6. Avoid moldy feed or feed with toxins 避免霉变饲料或饲料含毒素

United Feeds Research

LACTATION FEEDING CONTROL 泌乳期饲喂控制

S.K. WEBEL, Ph.D.

United Feeds Research


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