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unit 1 John Snow公开课


Great scientists

What is a scientist?

Typically a scientist will be a specialist who has expert knowledge in a particular field of science, eg. physics, biology or medi

cine and etc. The general aim of a scientist is attempting to solve certain problems using some scientific methods by doing various experiments to gain a better understanding of their subjects in different areas, making great discoveries, contributions to people all over the world.

Thinking:
?What

characteristics do you think a scientist should have? perseverant patient unselfish devoted determined characteristics absorbed modest diligent positive ambitious brave intelligent
cautious enthusiastic creative bright strict responsible

cooperative

Conclusion:
Great scientists are those people with
?good observation, perseverance.
?great contributions, discoveries. ?great scientific achievements that have changed the world.

Warming Up
There are some great scientific achievements that have changed the world.

Who is he?

Archimedes

He discovered that objects in water are lifted up by a force that helps them float.

Who is he?

?The Origin of Species

He wrote a book explaining how animals and plants developed as the environment changed. Charles Darwin

Who is he?
He invented the first steam engine.

Thomas Newcomen

Who is he?
He used peas to show how physical characteristics are passed from parents to their children.

Gregor Mendel

Who is she?
She discovered radium.

Marie Curie

Who is he?
He invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities.

Thomas Edison

Who is he?
He was the painter that studied dead bodies to improve his painting of people.

Leonardo da Vinci

Who is he?
He invented the earliest instrument to tell people where earthquakes happened. Zhang Heng

Who is he?
He put forward a theory about black holes.

come up with

Stephen Hawking

Thinking:
The 7 stages of proving a new scientific idea. What order would you put them in?

Draw a conclusion Think of a method Collect results Make a question Find a problem Analyse the results Find supporting evidence

Find a problem Make a question

The 7 stages of proving a new scientific idea

Think of a method Collect results Analyse the results Find supporting evidence Draw a conclusion

Reading:

To cure the illness successfully

John Snow Defeats “ King Cholera”
Cholera is an a infectious caused by a deadlydisease disease bacterium called Varian cholera. It infects people’s intestines(肠胃), causing diarrhea(腹泻 ), an infectious disease vomiting(呕吐) and leg cramps (小腿抽筋). The most common cause of cholera is by someone eating food or drinking water that has been polluted with the bacteria. Cholera can be mild (not severe) or even without symptoms(症状), but a severe case can lead to death without immediate treatment.

Infectious diseases

What do you know about infectious diseases?
?Infectious diseases can spread easily. They have an unknown cause and may do great harm to people. ?People could be exposed to infectious diseases, so may animals, such as bird flu. ?AIDS, SARS ,H1N1 Flu are infectious diseases. They are difficult to cure.

What infectious disease impressed you most in 2003? SARS What infectious disease impressed you most in 2005? Bird flu What infectious disease impressed you most in 2009? H1N1 flu

cholera

Broad Street

London, 1854

A deadly disease hit the city. 127people died in the first three days.

Many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.

John Snow

(1813-1858)

York

London

John Snow was born in York on March 15th, 1813, the oldest of nine children.

He was an expert.

a specialist

He attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician cared for
He faced the challenge of helping people who were infected with cholera.

Let’s get to know how Dr. John Snow defeated “King Cholera” in 1854 in London in this reading passage:

John Snow Defeats “King Cholera”

1. What’s the main idea of the passage? A. John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. B. The cause of Cholera was polluted water. C. The source of all drinking water should be examined. D. How John Snow collected, analyz(s)ed data and found the cause of the disease and solved it .

Read and answer

Find out the main idea (or topic sentence) of each paragraph: He suspected the second theory was Para. 1 Para. 2 Para. 3 Para. 4 Para. 5 Para. 7 Para 6
correct but he needed evidence.

Cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas.
John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He found out that dirty water was the cause of cholera.

Finally “King Cholera” was defeated.
He got interested in two theories explaining? Polluted water carried the virus.

Listening and understanding
1.From what disease did Londoners suffer in his age? 2.Did people know how to cure the disease? 3. When did Dr. Snow think the disease would be controlled?

1.From what disease did Londoners suffer in his age?
They exposed themselves to cholera.

People in many provinces of China exposed themselves to the SARS in 2003.

He thought about helping ordinary people (who are )exposed to cholera

2. Did people know how to cure the disease?
No, neither its cause nor its cure was understood.

the cure for sth. cure sb. of sth. cure the disease

3. When did Dr. Snow think the disease would be controlled?
He knew it would never be controlled until its cause was found.

People never know the value of health until they lose it. You mustn’t eat anything until you see the doctor.

What was the first theory explaining how the disease killed people?

That cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims.

What was the second theory explaining how the disease killed people?
People absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals and attacked the body And soon the affected person died.

How serious was the disease outbreak in London?
The cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people had died in 10 days.

a severe illness a severe storm

1. What role did the map play in finding the cause of the disease? 2. Where were many of the deaths in Broad Street? 3. Why did some houses have no deaths? 4. What did Dr. Snow think was responsible for the disease?

1. What role did the map play in finding the cause of the disease?

The map gave a valuable clue about the cause of the disease.

Water pump

Many deaths happened here.

No death happened here.

3. Why did some houses have no deaths?
These families worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street. They were given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the Broad Street pump.

4. What did Dr. Snow think was responsible for the disease?
It seemed the water was to blame.

e.g. The driver was not to blame for the traffic accident.

What did Dr. Snow advise the people in Broad Street to do?
Immediately he told the astonished people to remove the handle from the water pump so it could not be used.

He removed the mud from his shoes.

Reference books mustn’t be remove from the library. He removed his hat and gloves.

John Snow finally proved the theory he believed by________. A. gathering information with the help of a map B. looking into the source of the water for Broad Street and Cambridge Street C. separating those who suffered cholera from those who didn’t D. both A and B

1.What else did Dr. Snow find in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak? 2. What conclusion did Dr. Snow tell the public?

1.What else did Dr. Snow find in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak?
In addition, he found 2 other deaths who died of cholera after drinking the water delivered from the pump.

e.g. The new bridge will link the island to the mainland.

2. What conclusion did Dr. Snow tell the public?
He announced with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.

To prevent the cholera from spreading again, what did John Snow do?
He suggested that the source of all water supplies be examined. He suggested that new methods of dealing with polluted water be found. He instructed the water companies not to expose people to the polluted water anymore..

Repeat if necessary Draw a conclusion Find supporting evidence Analyze the results Collect results Think of a method of doing Make a question Find a problem

Structure of the text
Para 1: Find a problem: What caused the cholera?

Para 2:Make a question:

Which theory is correct?

Para 3:Think of a method: To collect information on those who were ill or died and where they lived.

Para 4: Collect results: Mark information on a map to find out the cause of the disease.

Structure of the text
Para 5: Analyze the results: Analyze the water to see

if that is the cause of the illness.
Para 6:Find supporting evidence:

Draw a conclusion:

Two other deaths

Announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.
Para 7: Prevention of Cholera Examine the source of all the water sources and instruct people not to expose themselves to polluted water any more.

Read the passage again and fill in the blanks: torin London in the John Snow was a well-known doc ____ 1 9th century. He wanted to find the ______ ___ cause of cholera in order to ______ defeat it. In 1854 when a cholera broke ____ out, he began to gather information.
He marked _____ on a map where all the dead people had lived and he found that many people who had drunk pump died. So he the dirty water from the ______ decided that the polluted water carried cholera. ce of all water supply He suggested that the sour _____ examined and new methods of ________ dealing with be _______ polluted water be found. Finally, “King Cholera” was defeated.

What should you do if you're traveling to a country that has a cholera outbreak?
?

Drink unpolluted boiled water

? Eat only food that's been thoroughly cooked and fruit that you've peeled. ? Avoid under cooked or raw fish and shellfish. ? Avoid raw salads and vegetables. ? Avoid food and drinks from street vendors.

"Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it."

Suppose you’re John Snow’s assistant, please help him finish the following report. Scientific Report On Cholera
The problem The cause Idea 1: Idea 2:

The method
The results Idea 1 or 2? Why? The conclusion

Scientific Report On Cholera
The problem

Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood
Idea 1: Cholera multiplied in the

The cause

air for no reason Idea 2: people absorbed the disease with meals

The method

gathered information from the cholera outbreak to prove which theory was correct

The results

He found the cause of cholera was the polluted water

The conclusion

He defeated cholera by examining the water supply and dealing with the polluted water

Discussion
1. What kind of person is John Snow?

Describe him in a few sentences.
John Snow is a determined man with

great responsibility.
He has a very strong will.

He enjoys great challenges.
He is persistent and very helpful.

2. Do you admire John Snow? Why?

3. What does his success inspire us?
Success lies somewhere along the road.

Great scientists always want to know more.

They are never satisfied with a simple answer
and are always looking for new questions. By

asking why, how and what, if, curious minds
find new ideas and solutions. Scientists

always solve problems with scientific
methods. Scientists help us understand the world better.

What five most important qualities do you think a scientist
should have? Give reasons. creative careful clever strict patient honest serious wise

Post-reading

helpful loyal

endurance
persistent

generous
intelligent

determined
ambitious

talented out-going humorous hard-working strong-willed optimistic knowledgeable imaginative

easy-going diligent energetic confident

Thinking
What skills, knowledge and characters should we have to

meet the challenge we face?

Skills:

teamwork; computer knowledge;
foreign language; communication;

management…
Knowledge:

physics; chemistry; biochemistry;
biology; engineering; philosophy

psychology .

Characters:
creative careful patient honest endurance persistent clever strict wise serious helpful loyal determined ambitious

generous intelligent

talented out-going humorous hard-working strong-willed optimistic knowledgeable imaginative

easy-going diligent energetic confident

2. Which of the characters above do you think is the most important?

Why?
Curious. Because only when you are

curious about something, you will
try your best to find solutions.

Or: Imagination. Without imagination,
you won’t invent anything. Or: Self confidence. We must believe in

what we do, even when others don’t.

Homework
Write a short passage. The title is “A person I admire”. You can choose one or two interesting examples to show their character, describe what difficult situation they faced and how they solved the problem, or describe something unusual about them, something that makes them special.

Thanks


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