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2010年考研英语模拟试题及答案(一)


Section Ⅰ Use of English? Directions:? Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) One of the basic character

istics of capitalism is the private ownership of the major means of production capital. The ownership of large amounts of capital can bring 1 profits, as well as economic and political power. Some recent theorists, 2 , have argued that our society has moved to a new stage of 3 that they call “post industrial” society. One important change in such a society is that the ownership of 4 amounts of capital is no longer the only or even the most important 5 of profits and influence; knowledge as well as 6 capital brings profits and influence. There are many 7 with the thesis above, not the least of 8 is that wealthy capitalists can buy the experts and knowledge they needed to keep their profits and influence. But this does not 9 the importance of knowledge in an advanced industrial society, as the 10 of some new industrial indicates. 11, genetic engineering and the new computer technology have 12 many new firms and made some scientists quite rich. In13 with criticism of the post industrial society thesis, however, it must also be 14 that those already in control of huge amounts of capital (i.e., major corporations) soon 15 to take most profits in these industries based on new knowledge. Moving down from the level of wealth and power, we still find knowledge increasingly 16. Many new high-tech jobs are being created at the upper-middle-class level, but even more new jobs are being created in the low-skill, low-paying service 17. Something like a caste line is emerging centered around knowledge. Individuals who fall too far behind in the 18 of knowledge at a young age will find it almost impossible to catch later, no matter how hard they try. Illiteracy in the English language has been a severe 19 for many years in the United States, but we are also moving to the point when computer illiteracy will hinder many more people and 20 them to a life of low-skill and low-paid labor.? 1.[A]quantitative [B]extensive [C]comprehension [D]sophisticated? 2.[A]moreover [B]however [C]therefore [D]nevertheless? 3.[A]aggression [B]proficiency [C]productivity [D]evolution? 4.[A]dominant [B]impressive [C]magnificent [D]significant?

5.[A]source [B]factor [C]component [D]element? 6.[A]adequate [B]profitable [C]material [D]spiritual? 7.[A]advantages [B]consequences [C]problems [D]potentials? 8.[A]them [B]those [C]which [D]that? 9.[A]deny [B]refuse [C]admit [D]acknowledge? 10. [A]emergence [B]innovation [C]extinction [D]discovery? 11. [A]In addition [B]For example [C]Above all [D]In short? 12. [A]produced [B]created [C]improved [D]facilitated? 13. [A]line [B]need [C]doubt [D]match? 14. [A]idealized [B]recognized [C]supervised [D]summarized? 15. [A]stepped in [B]settled down [C]leaned over [D]turned out? 16. [A]accessible [B]important [C]popular [D]abundant? 17. [A]enterprises [B]employment [C]professions [D]industries? 18. [A]control [B]mastery [C]search [D]pursuit? 19. [A] handicap [B] penalty [C] inconvenience [D] shortcoming? 20. [A] enforce [B] punish [C] confine [D] condemn Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1

Half the world?s population will be speaking or learning English by 2015,researchers say. Two billion people are expected to start learning English within a decade and three billion will speak it, says a British Council estimate. Other languages, such as French, risk becoming the casualties of this “linguistic globalization”. But the boom will be over by 2050 and the English?language teaching industry will have become a victim of its own success, says David Graddol, author of the report, The Future of English. Mr. Graddol?s research was based on a computer model developed to estimate demand for English?language teaching around the world. The lecturer, who has worked in education and language studies at the Open University for the past 25 years, said the model charted likely student numbers through to 2050. It was compiled by looking at various estimates from the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) on education provision, demographic projections, government education policies and international student mobility figures. The impact of educational innovations and other developments affecting the world population including the Chinese government?s policy of one baby per family were also factored in. Based on its findings, Mr. Graddol has predicted that the world is about to be hit by a tidal wave of English. “Many governments, especially in countries which have relatively recently gained independence, are introducing the teaching of English under a utilitarian banner.” “But English predominates in the business world, and for such countries to be able to compete for work, including lucrative (profitable) outsourcing contracts, English is being pushed heavily from kindergarten on.” The potential bonanza (source of wealth) on offer from outsourcing means even maths and science are being taught in English at secondary schools in Malaysia. But demand for English teaching would drop as children progress through academia, and more universities across the world choose to teach in the language. Mr. Graddol also estimated that the boom would be over by 2050.“English?language students will be down from two billion to 500 million then,” he said,“Increasingly, as English spread across the globe, more people will become bilingual, even multi?lingual and such skills are highly prized in business. But Britain has not got the best reputation for learning other languages.”

The report also showed that English was not the only language spreading, and the world, far from being dominated by English, was to become more multi-lingual. Mr. Graddol said,“Chinese, Arabic and Spanish are all popular, and likely to be languages of the future.” 21. It is estimated that in a decade English will be [A] actively studied by over 200 million people. [B] freely spoken by global English learners. [C] popular with over 80% of world inhabitants. [D] really mastered by 50% of people worldwide. 22. According to the text, “linguistic globalization” will [A] eliminate French from the globe. [B] defeat other European languages. [C] fail all languages except English. [D] make English the biggest winner. 23. David Graddol predicts that the thriving period of English will [A] terminate within half a century. [B] climax in the middle of the century. [C] endure for no less than five decades. [D] quit till the beginning of the 2050s. 24. The report “The Future of English” factored in all of the following EXCEPT [A] the educational condition and policy. [B] the directions and designs of Unesco. [C] the statistics about population.

[D] the movements of overseas students. 35. The writer of the report deems that outsourcing is to [A] result in the increase of English subjects. [B] lead to the drop of interest in English study. [C] account for the further spread of English. [D] bring about transition in college curricula. Text 2 Perhaps only a small boy training to be a wizard at the Hogwarts school of magic could cast a spell so powerful as to create the biggest book launch ever. Wherever in the world the clock strikes midnight on June 20th, his followers will flock to get their paws on one of more than 10m copies of “Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix”. Bookshops will open in the middle of the night and delivery firms are drafting in extra staff and bigger trucks. Related toys, games, DVDs and other merchandise will be everywhere. There will be no escaping Pottermania. Yet Mr. Potter’s world is a curious one, in which things are often not what they appear. While an excitable media (hereby including The Economist, happy to support such a fine example of globalization) is helping to hype the launch of J.K. Rowling’s fifth novel, about the most adventurous thing that the publishers (Scholastic in America and Britain’s Bloomsbury in English elsewhere) have organized is a reading by Ms Rowling in London’s Royal Albert Hall, to be broadcast as a live web cast. Hollywood, which owns everything else to do with Harry Potter, says it is doing even less. Incredible as it may seem, the guardians of the brand say that, to protect the Potter franchise, they are trying to maintain a low profile. Well, relatively low. Ms Rowling signed a contract in 1998 with Warner Brothers, part of AOL Time Warner, giving the studio exclusive film, licensing and merchandising rights in return for what now appears to have been a steal: some $500,000. Warner licenses other firms to produce goods using Harry Potter characters or images, from which Ms Rowling gets a big enough cut that she is now wealthier than the queen ―if you believe Britain’s Sunday Times rich list. The process is self-generating: each book sets the stage for a film, which boosts book sales, which lifts sales of Potter products.

Globally, the first four Harry Potter books have sold some 200m copies in 55 languages; the two movies have grossed over $1.8 billion at the box office. This is a stunning success by any measure, especially as Ms Rowling has long demanded that Harry Potter should not be over commercialized. In line with her wishes, Warner says it is being extraordinarily careful, at least by Hollywood standards, about what it licenses and to whom. It imposed tough conditions on Coca Cola, insisting that no Harry Potter images should appear on cans, and is now in the process of making its licensing programme even more restrictive. Coke may soon be considered too mass market to carry the brand at all. The deal with Warner ties much of the merchandising to the films alone. There are no officially sanctioned products relating to “Order of the Phoenix”; nor yet for “Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban”, the film of the third book, which is due out in June 2004. Warner agrees that Ms Rowling’s creation is a different sort of commercial property, one with long-term potential that could be damaged by a typical Hollywood marketing blitz, says Diane Nelson, the studio’s global brand manager for Harry Potter. It is vital, she adds, that with more to come, readers of the books are not alienated. “The evidence from our market research is that enthusiasm for the property by fans is not waning.” 26. When the author says “there will be no escaping Potter mania”, he implies that . [A] Harry Potter’s appeal for the readers is simply irresistible [B] it is somewhat irrational to be so crazy about the magic boy [C] craze about Harry Potter will not be over in the near future [D] Hogwarts school of magic will be the biggest attraction world over 27. Ms Rowling’s reading in London’s Royal Albert Hall is mentioned to show . [A] publishers are really adventurous in managing the Potter’s business [B] businesses are actually more credible than media in Potter’s world [C] the media are promoting Pottermania more actively than Hollywood [D] businesses involved with Potter are moving along in an unusual way 28. The author believes that . [A] Britain’s Sunday Times rich list is not very convincing as it sounds

[B] Time Warner’s management of licenses is a bit over commercialized [C] other firms may produce goods using Harry Potter images at will [D] what Ms Rowling got in return for her offering to Warner is a real bargain 29. Paragraph 4 intends mainly to show Warner’s . [A] determination to promote Potter [B] consistence in conducting business [C] high regard for Ms Rowling’s request [D] careful restrictions on licensing to Coco-Cola 30. It can be concluded from the last paragraph that . [A] products of Potter films have brought enormous profits to Warner [B] current Hollywood’s marketing of Potter may damage its potential [C] readers could get tired of Ms Rowling’s writings sooner or later [D] Warner will maintain the same strategy with Potter in future Text 3 What accounts for the astounding popularity of Dr.Phil McGraw? Why have so many TV viewers and book buyers embraced this tough warrior of a psychologist who tells them to suck it up and deal with their own problems rather than complaining and blaming everyone else? Obviously, Oprah Winfrey has a lot to do with it. She made him famous with regular appearances on her show, and is co-producing the new "Dr.Phil" show that’s likely to be the hottest new daytime offering this fall. But we decided to put Dr. Phil on the cover not just because he’s a phenomenon. We think his success may reflect an interesting shift in the American spirit of time. Could it be that we’re finally getting tired of the culture of victimology? This is a tricky subject, because there are very sad real victims among us. Men still abuse women in alarming numbers. Racism and discrimination persist in subtle and not-so-subtle forms. But these days, almost anyone can find a therapist or lawyer to assure them that their professional relationship or health problems aren’t their fault. As Marc

Peyser tells us in his terrific profile of Dr. Phil, the TV suits were initially afraid audiences would be offended by his stern advice to "get real!" In fact, viewers thirsted for the tough talk. Privately, we all know we have to take responsibility for decisions we control. It may not be revolutionary advice (and may leave out important factors like unconscious impulses). But it’s still an important message with clear echoing as, a year later, we contemplate the personal lessons of September 11. Back at the ranch (livestock farm)-the one in Crawford, Texas-President Bush continued to issue mixed signals on Iraq. He finally promised to consult allies and Congress before going to war, and signaled an attack isn’t coming right now ("I’m a patient man"). But so far there has been little consensus-building, even as the administration talks of "regime change" and positions troops in the gulf. Bush’s team also ridiculed the press for giving so much coverage to the Iraq issue. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld called it a "frenzy," and Press Secretary Ari Fleischer dismissed it as "self-inflicted silliness." But as Michael Hirsh notes in our lead story, much of the debate has been inside the Republican Party, where important voices of experience argue Bush needs to prepare domestic and world opinion and think through the global consequences before moving forward. With so much at stake, the media shouldn’t pay attention? Now who’s being silly? 31. Faced with diversified issues of injustice, Dr. Phil McGraw advised that people should __. [A] strongly voice their condemnation of those responsible [B] directly probe the root of their victimization [C] carefully examine their own problems [D] sincerely express their sympathy for the victims 32. One possible response, when the program "Dr. Phil" was first presented on TV, that people were afraid of was _____. [A] suspicion [B] satisfaction [C] indifference [D] indignation

33. The word "tough"(Line 7, Paragraph 2) most probably means_____. [A] piercing to the truth [B] using vulgar language [C] mean and hostile [D] difficult to understand 34. The author advises the public to _____. [A] leave out factors such as unconscious impulses [B] draw lessons of their own from September 11 [C] respond decisively to September 11 tragedy [D] accept decisions beyond our control 35. With a series of questions at the end of the text, the author _____. [A] feels uncertain of what his own opinion is [B] differentiates two conflicting views [C] criticizes the Bush Administration [D] argues for the US policy on Iraq Text 4 With the extension of democratic rights in the first half of the nineteenth century and the ensuing decline of the Federalist establishment, a new conception of education began to emerge. Education was no longer a confirmation of a pre-existing status, but an instrument in the acquisition of higher status. For a new generation of upwardly mobile students, the goal of education was not to prepare them to live comfortably in the world into which they had been born, but to teach them new virtues and skills that would propel them into a different and better world. Education became training; and the student was no longer the gentleman-in-waiting, but the journeyman apprentice for upward mobility.

In the nineteenth century a college education began to be seen as a way to get ahead in the world. The founding of the land-grant colleges opened the doors of higher education to poor but aspiring boys from non-Anglo-Saxon, working-class and lower-middle-class backgrounds. The myth of the poor boy who worked his way through college to success drew millions of poor boys to the new campuses. And with this shift, education became more vocational: its object was the acquisition of practical skills and useful information. For the gentleman-in-waiting, virtue consisted above all in grace and style, in doing well what was appropriate to his position; education was merely a way of acquiring polish. And vice was manifested in gracelessness, awkwardness, in behaving inappropriately, discourteously, or ostentatiously. For the apprentice, however, virtue was evidenced in success through hard work. The requisite qualities of character were not grace or style, but drive, determination, and a sharp eye for opportunity. While casual liberality and even prodigality characterized the gentleman, frugality, thrift, and self-control came to distinguish the new apprentice. And while the gentleman did not aspire to a higher station because his station was already high, the apprentice was continually becoming, striving, struggling upward. Failure for the apprentice meant standing still, not rising. 36. Which of the following is true according to the first paragraph? [A] Democratic ideas started with education. [B] Federalists were opposed to education. [C] New education helped confirm people’s social status. [D] Old education had been in tune with hierarchical society. 37.The difference between "gentleman-in-waiting" and "journeyman" is that _____ . [A] education trained gentleman-in-waiting to climb higher ladders [B] journeyman was ready to take whatever was given to him [C] gentleman-in-waiting belonged to a fixed and high social class [D] journeyman could do practically nothing without education 38. According to the second paragraph, land-grant College _____. [A] belonged to the land-owning class

[B] enlarged the scope of education [C] was provided only to the poor [D] benefited all but the upper class 39.Which of the following was the most important for a "gentleman-in-waiting"? [A] Manners. [B] Education. [C] Moral. [D] Personality. 40. The best title for the passage is _____. [A] Education and Progress [B] Old and New Social Norms [C] New Education: Opportunities for More [D] Demerits of Hierarchical Society Part B Sample one Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the lish A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices that do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) As more and more material from other cultures became available, European scholars came to recognize even greater complexity in mythological traditions. Especially valuable was the evidence provided by ancient Indian and Iranian texts such as the Bhagavad-Gita and the Zend-Avesta. From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely, not only by geographical region but also by historical period.

(41) __________ He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the concerns of a basic agricultural community, whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society. Scholars also attempted to tie various myths of the world together in some way. From the late 18th century through the early 19th century, the comparative study of languages had led to the reconstruction of a hypothetical parent language to account for striking similarities among the various languages of Europe and the Near East. These languages, scholars concluded, belonged to an Indo-European language family. Experts on mythology likewise searched for a parent mythology that presumably stood behind the mythologies of all the European peoples. (42) __________ For example, an expression like "maiden dawn" for "sunrise" resulted first in personification of the dawn, and then in myths about her. Later in the 19th century the theory of evolution put forward by English naturalist Charles Darwin heavily influenced the study of mythology. Scholars researched on the history of mythology, much as they would dig fossil-bearing geological formations, for remains from the distant past. (43) __________ Similarly, British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a three-stage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough. According to Frazer’s scheme, human beings first attributed natural phenomena to arbitrary supernatural forces (magic), later explaining them as the will of the gods (religion), and finally subjecting them to rational investigation (science). The research of British scholar William Robertson Smith, published in Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), also influenced Frazer. Through Smith’s work, Frazer came to believe that many myths had their origin in the ritual practices of ancient agricultural peoples, for whom the annual cycles of vegetation were of central importance. (44) __________

This approach reached its most extreme form in the so-called functionalism of British anthropologist A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, who held that every myth implies a ritual, and every ritual implies a myth. Most analyses of myths in the 18th and 19th centuries showed a tendency to reduce myths to some essential core-whether the seasonal cycles of nature, historical circumstances, or ritual. That core supposedly remained once the fanciful elements of the narratives had been stripped away. In the 20th century, investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves. (45) __________ [A] German-born British scholar Max Müller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India-the oldest preserved body of literature written in an Indo-European language-reflected the earliest stages of an Indo-European mythology. M?ller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena. [B] The myth and ritual theory, as this approach came to be called, was developed most fully by British scholar Jane Ellen Harrison. Using insight gained from the work of French sociologist Emile Durkheim, Harrison argued that all myths have their origin in collective rituals of a society. [C] Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud held that myths-like dreams-condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols. [D] This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor. In Primitive Culture (1871), Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages. [E] The studies made in this period were consolidated in the work of German scholar Christian Gottolob Heyne, who was the first scholar to use the Latin term myths (instead of fibula, meaning "fable") to refer to the tales of heroes and gods. [F] German scholar Karl Otfried M? ller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology, 1825). Sample Two Directions:

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41?45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A?G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) [A] Chinese culture and Western cultures are polarized in many aspects. Communication might appear easy where they share commonalities, but unfortunately there are many cultural gaps. Bridging them is always a difficult problem, sometimes even an impossibility. [B] On the contrary, traditional Chinese are apt to refer to oneself with expressions like “your underling (zai xia, 在下)”, “my humble self (bi ren, 鄙人)”, “the poor?talented (bu cai, 不才)”, “the base one (jian ren, 贱人)”, “your servant (nu bi, 奴婢)”; and even emperors would refer to themselves as “the one who lacks morality (gua ren, 寡人)” or “the solitary (gu, 孤)”, showing a mentality of self?restraint, self?discipline, and respect for others. [C] I have had the unhappy experience at customs offices where without hesitation foreigners often “kindly helped” me to change my name order. For this, I would always argue and fight with them until the name order was changed back. Nowadays, many Chinese make it a matter of course to accept Western customs in their way of self?introduction. But foreigners do not necessarily acknowledge the contrary Chinese customs. Many potential culture clashes are actually rooted in such misreadings and prejudices. [D] Also, the orders of listing names and addresses for Chinese and Westerners are actually opposite, which may be taken to reveal that Chinese tend to respect wholeness and collectiveness, and their thinking pattern is more often from big to small, and from macro to micro. Meanwhile, Westerners tend to respect subdivided parts and individuals, more often moving from small to big, and from micro to macro. When Chinese present their names, they put surnames before their own given names, thus showing respect to their ancestors. Westerners act in a contrary way, showing self?respect. [E] A language epitomizes the cognitive pattern of a worldview. Any new language one has learned is as good as a new way one views the world. Important values are usually embedded within languages, which to some extent affect our fortunes at every moment. The extent that one can break out of language obstacles is a measure of one’s capacity to break away from bondages of one’s own fortune.

[F] Before we have a clear idea of the above problem, it might be misleading or extremist to discuss such topics as whether we should maintain the traditional Chinese ethical and political systems as the core of Chinese culture while making use of Western science and technology as the practical means to strengthen China \[zhong ti xi yong, 中 体西用\] or whether we should mainly adopt Western ethical and political systems to improve Chinese culture \[xi ti zhong yong, 西体中用\]. [G] The great disparities between Chinese and Western cultures can be identified even in some everyday linguistic usages, Chinese or Western. For example, in English, the only pronoun that is capitalized is “I”. Capitalization is an emphasis. No doubt, a capitalized “I” stresses egocentrism or individualism as a value, with its implications of self?dependence, self?strengthening, self?interestedness and self?importance. Order: E→ 41?→ 42?→ 43?→ 44?→ 45?→ C Sample Three Directions: You are going to read a text about animation, followed by a list of explanations. Choose the best explanation from the list A?F for each numbered subheading (41?45). There is one extra explanation which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Animation is a kind of motion pictures created by recording a series of still images—of drawings, objects, or people in various positions of incremental movement—that when played back no longer appear individually as static images but combine to produce the

illusion of unbroken motion. The term animation applies to creations on film, video, or computers, and even to motion toys, which usually consist of a series of drawings or photographs on paper that are viewed with a mechanical device or by flipping through a hand?held sequence of images. (41) Techniques There are many ways to create animation, depending on whether the materials used are flat (such as drawings, paintings, or cut?out pieces of paper) or dimensional (such as clay, puppets, household objects, or even people). (42) Production process After choosing an idea for a film, an animator must think about a concept in terms of individual actions. (43) History Animation has been a part of cinema history from the time the first motion pictures were made in the late 1800s. (44) Walt Disney The company’s founder, Walt Disney, was born in Chicago, but grew up in Kansas City, Missouri, where he met animator Ub Iwerks and composer Carl Stalling, who were to be important to his future success. (45) Japanese animation Japanese animation, known as anime, blossomed after World War II ended in 1945 and today is immensely popular both within Japan and worldwide. Current trends Two trends in the animation industry are likely to have a profound influence on its future: a significant increase in production and exhibition opportunities, and the growing importance of new technologies. [A] Some early live?action films, known as trick films, used the animation technique of stop action, whereby the camera is stopped and an object is removed or added to a shot before filming is resumed.

[B] Disney (with his then?partner Iwerks) created a character that was to become the most famous animated figure in history: Mickey Mouse. [C] Aside from television, perhaps the largest influence on the style of recent animation worldwide has come from computer technologies. Experiments with electronic animation began in the 1930s, but it was not until the late 1970s that computer animation became viable beyond scientific and government applications, particularly for use by the entertainment industry. [D] In each case, an animator must keep in mind the basic principle of frames per second (the number of images needed to produce one second of film). Because sound film runs at twenty?four frames per second, a film animator must make twenty?four images for each second of animation that he or she wishes to create. [E] The most important figure in Japanese animation, Osamu Tezuka, created in 1963 the first animated made?for?television series in Japan, “Tetsuwan Atom” (Astro Boy). [F] For instance, if an animator decides on an action that will take 3 seconds of animation to complete, the animator will have to create images to fill 72 frames of film (3 seconds of movement multiplied by a running speed of 24 frames per second). Sample Four Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and several selections from the “Top Ten Worst Reasons” for selecting a college. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A?F for each numbered paragraph (41?45). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) [A] They’ve offered me the most scholarship money. [B] It’s the cheapest. [C] It’s a great party school. [D] They’re ranked number one in the “Moron’s Guide to Colleges and universities.” [E] “I know I’ll get in.”

[F] They offer the hottest “Who?Wants?To?Be?a?Millionaire?By?Age?25” major. “It’s where my boyfriend or girlfriend is going.” Get real! If the relationship ends, you may find yourself scratching your head, trying to figure out how you ended up at a college that doesn’t suit you in any way. If the relationship survives, the distraction might just affect your grades and /or stifle your social life. Either way, you’ll most likely find yourself wishing you’d given your college choice more serious thought. 41.It’s important to pick a school that has an active campus life, whether you plan to live on campus or commute. A major part of your college experience, after all, will come from interacting with other students in clubs, organizations, and social situations. If there are too many distractions, however, you may have difficulty concentrating on studying, not to mention attending 8 a.m. classes. 42.While it’s important to apply to a “safety school”, one for which you are well qualified, don’t cross your dream college off the list without first doing your homework. Although most schools are vague when it comes to revealing admissions criteria, you can get a sense of your chances of acceptance by reviewing the profile of the previous year’s freshman class. Ask about the mean Sat score, the range of high school averages, the number of students with a class ranking similar to yours, and the percentage of all applicants. 43.While it’s fine to set high goal for yourself (including financial goals), it’s important to be realistic. No college can guarantee financial success for each of its graduates. That’s not to say you won’t be rich by your mid?twenties, but it’s going to depend largely on your ambition, had work, and luck. Also, since many college students end up changing majors, its’ a good idea to enroll at a college that has a wide selection of programs. 44.There are a number of excellent guidebooks that offer information about colleges and universities, all of which should be considered important resources in your selection process. However, be careful about those rankings. Take a good look at the criteria on which the rankings are based; some of these factors may not be all that important to you. Stick to the hard facts (student?faculty ratio, class size, percentage of courses taught by teaching assistants, etc.) 45.Don’t compare apples with oranges. If college “A” is offering $ 5,000 in grants, and college “B” is only offering $ 1,000, college “A” must be the better deal, right? Not

necessarily! Subtract the amount grants from the total cost of education at each school in order to get the real cost of attending. And remember: most scholarships have conditions attached (i.e., you must maintain full?time status and a certain grade point average in order to retain the award). Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) There is no question that science-fiction writers have become more ambitious, stylistically and thematically, in recent years. (46) But this may have less to do with the luring call of academic surroundings than with changing market conditions-a factor that academic critics rarely take into account. Robert Silverberg, a former president of The Science Fiction Writers of America, is one of the most prolific professionals in a field dominated by people who actually write for a living. (Unlike mystery or Western writers, most science-fiction writers cannot expect to cash in on fat movie sales or TV tie-ins.) (47) Still in his late thirties, Silverberg has published more than a hundred books, and he is disarmingly frank about the relationship between the quality of genuine prose and the quality of available outlet. By his own account, he was "an annoyingly verbal young man" from Brooklyn who picked up his first science-fiction book at the age of ten, started writing seriously at the age of thirteen, and at seventeen nearly gave up in despair over his inability to break into the pulp magazines. (48) At his parents’ urging, he enrolled in Columbia University, so that, if worst came to worst, he could always go to the School of Journalism and "get a nice steady job somewhere". During his sophomore year, he sold his first science-fiction story to a Scottish magazine named Nebula. By the end of his junior year, he had sold a novel and twenty more stories. (49) By the end of his senior year, he was earning two hundred dollars a week writing science fiction, and his parents were reconciled to his pursuit of the literary life. "I became very cynical very quickly," he says. First I couldn’t sell anything, then I could sell everything. The market played to my worst characteristics. An editor of a schlock magazine would call up to tell me he had a ten-thousand-word hole to fill in his next issue. I’d fill it overnight for a hundred and fifty dollars. I found that rewriting made no difference. (50) I knew I could not possibly write the kinds of things I admired as a reader-Joyce, Kafka, Mann-so I detached myself from my work. I was a phenomenon among my friends in college, a published, selling author. But they always asked, "When are you going to do something serious?" -meaning

something that wasn’t science fiction-and I kept telling them, " When I’m financially secure." Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51. Directions: In almost every vocation, college students are supposed to undertake such activities as offering their knowledge to those who need most performing some social investigations, taking part time jobs, or volunteering to do whatever that the society needs. Write something you did that was worth mentioning in previous summer vocation as a letter to one of the editors of a newspaper. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming ” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: study the following picture carefully and write 1)describe the picture 2)Deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture, and 3)suggest counter—measures. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET(20 points) Section ⅠUse of English? 1.[答案] B 本题考查形容词词义辨析。 [解析]本句意思是:拥有大量资本不仅可以带来经济和政治权利,还可以获得丰厚的利 润。 extensive “大量的, 广泛的”, 可以修饰 profit;quantitative “量的, 定量的”;comprehension “综合的,全面的”;sophisticated“复杂的,世故的”。根据句意,大量的资本或广泛的资本拥 有量用 extensive 来修饰,所以答案选择 extensive。?

2.[答案]B 本题考查副词辨析。 [解析]根据上下文判断此处是转折逻辑关系,argued 提示这里前后两句是转折关系, 因此选 however。意思是:然而,最近历史学家争论说社会发展到一个新的阶段,他们称之 为后工业社会。moreover 表递进关系,therefore 表会发展到一个新的阶段,他们称之为后 工业社会。”moreover 表递进关系,therefore 表因果关系,nevertheless 意思是“尽管如此, 仍然,然而”。? 3.D 本题考查名词词义辨析。 根据上下语义考查工业的发展中发展的用词, 此处讲的是后工业社会是社会发展的新阶 段。evolution“演变,发展”,符合文意。aggression“侵略”;proficiency“熟练”;productivity“生 产力”。? 4. D 本题考查形容此词义辨析。 根据上下文中的 large amounts of capital 和 huge amounts of capital,此处应当选表 示“量大”的词。 dominant“最重要的, 最突出的”;impressive“给人印象深刻的”;magnificent“壮 丽的,宏伟的”,均不合文意。significant“重要的,重大的”,是正确答案,它表示这个数量 的重要性。? 5. A 本题考查近义词词义。 本句意思是“后工业社会的一个变化就是拥有大量资本不再是惟一的或是最重要的利润 和权势来源”。component“组成部分,元件”;element“成分,元素”。 6. C 本题考查形容词词义辨析。 knowledge 指精神财富,material 指物质财富。本句意思是“资本能带来利润和权势, 知识也能带来利润和权势”,因此选 material。其他选项:adequate“足够的”;profitable“有利 可图的”;spiritual“精神的,心灵的”。? 7. C 本题考查语义逻辑。 根据上下文, 有钱的资本家可以买到知识, 这显然是一种弊端, 一种问题, 故选 problem。 advantage“优点”;consequences“后果”;potential“潜力”。? 8. C 本题考查语义逻辑。

此空应填入的是一个关系代词,引导定语从句。本句意思是“上文提出的论点(在现实生 活中)有许多问题, 特别是富有的资本家可以用钱买到保持利润和权势所需的专家和知识。 ”9. A 本题考查语义逻辑。 在转折语义逻辑下前后句中的用词又具有语义的相对性, 句首连词 but 表明本题意思与 上文矛盾,意思是“但是这并不是否认知识的重要性”。? 10. A 本题考查名词词义辨析。 emergence “出现”与下文新兴工业相呼应。innovation“革新,更新”;extinction“灭绝, 消亡”。所以这个考题应选择 emergence 作为与后面语义照应的选项。 11. B 本题考查介词短语。 根据前一句话的语义总结, 后文中的详细解释和说明是一种具体的详细地细化过程, 而 这一句话就是一个细化过程,本句是对新兴工业做进一步的举例说明。 12. B 本题考查动词的近义词辨析。 本句意思是:遗传工程和计算机技术使许多新公司诞生。facilitate 意思是“使便利,促 进”。13. A 本题考查固定搭配。 in line with 是固定搭配,意思是“与……一致,按照”;need for sth.“需要”;in doubt“不肯 定的,不确定的”;be a match for“配得上的,可匹敌的”。? 14. B 本题考查动词词义辨析。 本句中 it 是形式主语, 此句意思是: 根据对后工业社会理论的批判, 我们必须认识到……。 idealize“使理想化”;supervise“监督,管理”;summarize“总结,概括”。? 15.A 本题考查动词短语。 本句接着指出后工业社会的另一缺陷, 即资本雄厚的大公司很快要插手进来, 夺走知识 产业的大部分利润。step in 有“走进,介入”的意思。settle down“安顿,解决”;lean over“探 身,倾斜”;turn out“结果是,原来是”。? 16.B 本题形容词词义辨析。 本句意思是“知识除带来利润与权势外,在其他方面越来越重要”。accessible 意思是“可 获得的,易接近的”;abundant“丰富的,充裕的”。? 17.D 本题考查固定搭配。

表示某个行业只能用 industry 一词,service industries 是固定词组,意思是服务业。? 18.D 本题考查固定搭配。 in the pursuit of knowledge 意思是“追求学问,学习知识”;in control of“控 制”;mastery“精通,熟练”;in search of “寻找”。? 19.A 本题考查名词词义辨析。 此处意思是“不懂英语在美国长期以来就是一种严重的就业障碍”,下文的 hinder 一词 也提示此处应选 handicap,妨碍。penalty 意思是“惩罚”。? 20.D 本题考查固定搭配。 本句意思是“但我们已经发展到了这样的时刻,不懂电脑使更多的人受到阻碍,注定他 们一辈子只能干低报酬的非技术性的工作”。condemn sb. to sth./to do sth.意思是“宣告某 人要受的惩罚,判某人刑”。confine sb. to 意思是“将某人限制在”,不合文意。? 译文 资本主义的一个基本特征是主要生产资料的私有制。 大量资本的私人占有会带来高额的 利润和经济政治权力。不过最近有些理论家认为我们的社会已经到达了一个新的发展阶段, 称作“后工业化”社会。 在这种社会中的一个重要的变化是大量资本的私人占有不再是惟一的 或者是最重要的利润和权势的来源;知识与资本一样也能带来利润和权势。 上述理论也存在许多问题。 其中的一个问题就是富有的资本家可以购得他们所需的知识 来保证他们的利润和权势。 不过这并没有否定知识在发达的工业社会的重要性, 新兴的工业 也证明了这一点。例如,基因工程和新的计算机技术创造了许多新的公司,也使许多科学家 发财致富。 还有一点是与对后工业社会的批评相一致的, 那就是必须认识到已经控制了大量 资本的公司马上会涉足这些基于新知识的行业,并获得大部分利润。 从有钱有势的人往下看, 我们仍然发现知识越来越重要。 许多新的高科技职业属于中上 层阶级,但有更多的新的工作是属于低技能、低报酬的服务行业。一种以知识为基础类似于 等级制度的东西出现了。 年轻时在知识上过于落后的人会发现以后几乎不可能赶上, 无论他 多么努力。许多年来,在美国不会英文是一个严重的障碍。但是现在的发展趋势是,不懂计 算机会成为许多人的障碍,而且迫使他们只能从事低技能、低报酬的工作。 Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Text 1

21.[答案] C [解析] 通读全文可知,此文是对一篇题为 The Future of English 的研究报告的介绍,该报告对 英语教学在世界范围的发展做了预估。 据题干中的“in a decade”可知, 此题答案应在第一段。 该段第 2 句说,今后 10 年中将有 20 亿人学英语,30 亿人说英语。我们知道,目前世界人 口有 60 亿, 亿占其中 83%。 50 由此可知, 项中的“over 80%”与此相符, C 其中 popular with 意为 well liked by people(受人们喜爱的/接受的)涵盖了 learn 和 speak,为正确答案。 项的 A 200 million(2 亿)与 Two billion (20 亿)相差 10 倍。B 项的 global(全球的)未免过分。D 项的 master(learn or understand sth. completely 精通;掌握)并非一般的 learn 或 speak 所能达 到的。故皆不可取。 22. D [解析] 题干中的“linguistic globalization”(语言全球化运动)出自第 2 段第 1 句。 该句说, “其他语言,例如法语,有成为‘语言全球化运动’牺牲品的危险”。文章末段又说,英语并非 是惟一广泛传播的语言。据此判断,D 项说法最为妥当。其余 3 项皆与文意不符。 23. A [解析] 题干中的 thriving period 相当于第 2 段第 2 句中的 boom(风靡期)。请注意介词 “by+时间名词”意为 not later than; before(不迟于;在……之前)。 据此, 只有 A 项与“by 2050” 意思相符。其余 3 项皆超出了此意。 24. B [解析] 题干中的 factored sth. in(=included sth. in 把……因素包括在内)出现在第 4 段 末, 答案必在该段。 该段第 1 句说, 此报告是 compiled by looking at various estimates from the Unesco on…(在仔细核查了联合国科教文组织对……提出的各种估计数字的基础上编写 的),并未提到 B 项中的 directions(提示)和 designs(计划),故 B 项应属 EXCEPT 之列。A、 C、D 三项皆可在该段找到根据,其中 C 项相当于文中的 demographic projections(人口统 计预测)。 25. C [解析] 题干中 outsourcing(外购/包)一词出现在第 6、7 两段。第 6 段说,……由于外 包合同有利可图,一些有包工竞争力的国家,从幼儿园开始就大力推行英语教学。第 7 段则 进一步说,外购所提供的潜在财源使得马来西亚中学里的数学和理科课程都在用英语教授。

据此,只有 C 项体现了此意。A 项的 English subjects 意为“英语科目”。B 项与文意相悖。 D 项的 transition(转变)与文意不符,文中只说有更多的大学选择用英语授课。 译文 研究人员说,到 2015 年,全球将有一半人口会说英语或者学习英语。英国委员会预测 说,未来十年内会有 20 亿人学习英语,会说英语的人口将达到 30 亿。 其他语种,比如法语,将会沦落成“语言全球化”的牺牲品。不过据《英语的未来》的作 者大卫?格兰德说,英语的蓬勃发展将终止于 2050 年,此后,英语语言教学自身将会成为英 语扩张的受害者。 格兰德的研究建立在电脑模型的基础上, 考虑到了全球对英语语言教学的种种需求。 这 位在电视大学专攻教育和语言研究达 25 年之久的研究者指出,该模型还纳入了从现在到 2050 年间学生人数的可能性变化。 该模型的编纂综合考虑了多方因素,涵盖了联合国教科文组织在教育规定、人口预测、 政府教育方针和留学生流动指数等多方面。此外,教育改革,以及包括像中国的计划生育政 策等会影响世界人口的因素,在模型中也都悉数予以考虑了。 在研究发现的基础上,格兰德先生预计说,英语浪潮将会波及全球。许多国家,尤其是 刚独立不久的国家,基于实用目的,都会引入英语教学。 “鉴于英语在商业圈中的主导地位,这些国家为了能在有利可图的外购合约等等商业活 动中得以展开竞争,就会从幼儿园开始大力推广英语。” 在马来西亚的初中,包括数学、科学等科目都是用英语授课的。然而,随着学生英语水 平的提高以及全球更多的高校采用英语授课,英语科目本身的教学需求将呈下降趋势。 格兰德先生预测说,英语的发展将止于 2050 年。英语学生将从 20 亿锐减至 5 亿。随 着英语在全球的扩展, 越来越多的人将会两种语言甚至多种语言, 这在商业界是极为有利的。 但是英国人学习其他语言的名声却一向欠佳。 报告还表明,英语并不是惟一向全球扩张的语言,全世界也不会被英语一统天下,世界 将会是多语并存的。格兰德先生说,汉语、阿拉伯语和西班牙语都很流行,也都可能会成为 世界主要语种。 Text 2 26. [答案]A

[解析]这是一道句意题。第一段描述了波特迷们的世界性狂热,没有人能躲过哈利波特 狂潮,暗示哈利波特的吸引力不可抵挡,所以 A 项为正确答案。 27. D 这是一道例证题。文章说到 Rowling 应邀朗读一事是为了说明此次商家的行为比较低 调,这种举措并不常见。故此答案为 D。 28. D 这是一道作者观点题。 依据“in return for what now appears to have been a steal: some $500,000.”,作者称之为 steal,可知答案为 D。 29. C 这是一道主旨题。段落的主要意思是华纳按 Rowling 的要求做了,严禁过分的商业化。 故答案为 C。 30. D 这是一道推论题。A 项可以从上面推测到,但并不是最后一段的引申,B 项,本文对华 纳采取的政策时予以肯定的,C 项与本文内容相反,前文说华纳不想过分商业化 Potter,最 后一段重申这种做法的正确性,并说市场调研表明 Potter 迷们的激情未减,可以推论,公 司在未来还将保持这一策略。故答案为 D。 译文 也许只有在 Hogwarts 魔术学校受训并成为魔术师的小男孩才能产生如此大的魅力,造 就有史以来最大的销书狂潮。6 月 20 日,无论在世界的什么地方,午夜的钟声一响,他的 追随者就蜂拥而至,抢购 1000 万册《哈利波特和菲尼克斯命令》中属于自己的一本。书店 半夜开门,送货公司招募更多的雇员、租用更多的卡车。相关的玩具、游戏、DVD 及其他 商品处处皆是。哈里波特热潮无所不在。 然而,波特的世界很奇怪,事情与往常不一样。尽管易于激动的媒体(包括《经济学家》 杂志也乐于宣传这样一个全球化的经典之作)帮着鼓吹 J.K. Rowling 的第五部小说的发行, 出版商所做的最大胆的宣传不过是请 Rowling 小姐到伦敦皇家阿尔伯特大厅朗读一段, 并在 网上实况转播。拥有除出版权之外与哈里波特有关的一切的好莱坞,动作也不多。真是不可 思议,商标的拥有者说,为了保护与哈里波特相关的权利,他们正试图保持低姿态,真的够 低。

Rowling 小姐于 1998 年与华纳兄弟,美国在线时代华纳的一部分,签订了合约,赋予 电影厂独有的许可及商品开发权,而她所得到的现在看起来十分廉价:约 50 万美元。华纳 许可其他公司使用哈里波特的人物形象生产产品,Rowling 小姐也从中分得一大块,使她比 女王还富有——只要你相信英国 Sunday Times 所列的富人名单。这是一个增值的过程:书 籍为电影搭建平台,电影促进书的销售,书的销售又带动哈里波特产品的销售。 从全球来看,哈里波特的前四册已被翻译成 55 种语言的文字,并销售 2 亿册;两部电 影的票房也达到 18 亿美元。怎么说,这也是令人震惊的成功,尤其是 Rowling 小姐还一直 要求不要将哈里波特过于商业化。与她的要求一致,华纳说他们一直很小心,至少按好莱坞 的习惯标准来说是这样,无论是发放哪类许可还是发放给谁都这样。华纳对 Coca-Cola 实施 了严格的要求, 坚持哈里波特的形象不能出现在易拉罐上, 而目前正将许可的发放进一步严 格化。Coca-Cola 太大众市场化了,不能持用波特商标。 与华纳的交易使得商品的开发多系于电影本身。 还没有官方认可的与 《哈利波特和菲尼 克斯命令》相关的产品出来,《哈利波特和阿兹卡班囚徒》也没有,后者是第三部书的电影 版,电影将在 2004 年 6 月发行。华纳也认为,Rowling 小姐的创作是一种不同的商品,它 具有长期的潜力, 用好莱坞的闪电式营销方式会破坏它的前景, 电影厂的哈里波特全球商标 经理 Diane Nelson 就这么认为。她还说,由于更多的系列还未出版,不能将读者疏远很关 键。“市场研究表明,波特迷们对波特的激情并没有消减”。 Text 3 31.C [解析] 本题考查事实细节。第一段第二句中 who 引导的定语从句介绍了菲尔?麦格劳 博士的观点。他告诉人们"要忍气吞声,找自己的问题而不要抱怨或责备其他人"。因此[C] 正确。 32.D [解析] 本题考查推理引申。第二段第五句提到,正如马克?佩瑟在他对菲尔博士的精彩 简介中告诉我们的,电视工作组起初害怕观众会被他"面对现实"的强硬建议惹怒(be offended)。因此[D]正确。 33.A [解析] 本题考查词义理解。tough 一词出现在第二段第六句,该句指出,观众渴望这 种 tough 谈话。 其上文提到, 电视工作组起初害怕观众会被菲尔博士"面对现实"的强硬(stern) 建议惹怒。因此 tough talk 指的就是上文 stern advice,即呼吁人们"面对现实"的建议。因 此最接近的含义是[A]。

34.B [解析] 本题考查推理引申。第一段提到,菲尔博士告诉人们要找自己的问题而不要抱 怨或责备其他人。第二段最后两句提到,菲尔博士呼吁人们"面对现实"的建议不是革命性的 建议,甚至没有考虑到影响人们行为的基本因素,但它仍然是有意义的,并得到了公众的回 应。比如,它在我们对"9?11"事件的反省中就很有意义。由此可推知,作者认为对待"9?11" 事件我们可以采用菲尔博士的建议,即面对现实,总结自己的经验教训,不把责任推卸到别 人身上。因此[B]正确。[A]在第二段倒数第二句的括号中出现,是作者认为菲尔博士的建议 中可能忽略的一些重要因素,并不是作者建议大家做的事情。[C]也无从推知。[D]项是根据 第二段倒数第三句臆造的选项,也不是作者提倡的观点。 35.C [解析] 本题考查写作目的。文章最后作者提问到,有这么多的利害关系在里面,媒体 难道不应该关注吗?到底是谁愚蠢呢? 由上文可知,"这么多的利害关系"指的是"对国家和世 界可能带来的不良影响","愚蠢"是在回应"新闻秘书长批评新闻界过多报道伊拉克问题是自 寻烦恼的愚蠢行为",显然,作者是在讽刺布什政府一意孤行地发动战争。因此[C]正确。 译文 是什么让菲尔?麦格劳博士如此受欢迎?为什么这么多电视观众和读者都喜爱这位如同 钢铁战士一般,告诉他们要忍气吞声,找自己的问题而不要抱怨或责备其他人的心理学家? 显然,奥普拉?温弗里为此作了许多工作。她让博士在她的电视节目上频繁亮相而出名,并 联合制作了新的节目--"菲尔博士"秀,该节目很可能成为今年秋季最火爆的白天档节目。但 是我们决定把菲尔博士作为封面人物并不仅仅因为他是个天才。 我们认为他的成功可能反映 了美国人时代观念的一个有趣的转变。也许是我们最终厌倦了受害者学的文化? 这是一个棘手的问题, 因为在我们之中有许多令人痛心的真正受害者。 男子虐待妇女的 数字仍然惊人,种族偏见和歧视仍然以微妙或明显的方式存在着。但现如今,几乎每个人都 可以找到治疗师或律师来让他们相信职业关系或健康方面的问题都不是自己造成的。 正如马 克?佩瑟在他对菲尔博士的精彩简介中告诉我们的,电视工作组起初害怕观众会因为他 "面 对现实"的强硬建议而被惹怒。但事实上,观众渴望这种一针见血的谈话。其实,我们每个 人都知道应该对自己所做的决定负责,因此它也许不是革命性的建议(可能会忽视像下意识 的冲动这样的重要因素),但它仍然是一条得到很大反响的重要信息,比如一年后的今天, 我们就从"9?11"事件中总结个人经验教训。 让我们追溯到位于德州克劳福德镇的大牧场(畜牧农场), 布什总统在那里对伊拉克问题 的态度仍然含糊不清。 他最后答应卷入战争之前会与国会和盟国磋商, 并表示不会立刻发动 攻击(他说"我是一个有耐心的人")。但如今,即使当布什政府谈论"制度变革"和向海湾地区 派兵的时候,几乎也没有达成共识。布什团队还嘲笑新闻界过多地报道了伊拉克问题。国防

部长拉姆斯菲尔德称它是"疯狂的活动",新闻秘书长阿里?弗莱舍说它是"自寻烦恼的愚蠢的 行为"。 但是正如迈克尔?赫西在头条新闻中报道的那样, 共和党内部已经产生了很大的分歧, 党内一些重要的有经验的人士指出, 布什在行动前需要考虑国内和世界舆论以及战争对全球 的影响。有这么多的利害关系在里面,媒体难道不应该关注吗?到底是谁愚蠢呢? Text 4 36.D [解析] 本题是推理引申题。文章第一段第一句指出,随着 19 世纪上半叶民主权利的扩 展以及随之而来的联邦主义机构的削弱, 一种新的教育观念出现了。 接下来的内容主要是围 绕这种新的教育观念展开论述。 从第一句话中可以得知, 是民主权利的扩展带来了新的教育 观念的产生,[A]项颠倒了二者的先后顺序,应排除。文中提到"新"的教育观念是在联邦主 义机构削弱的情况下产生的。由此只能得出,新的教育观念与联邦主义有些冲突,并不能得 出联邦主义者反对整个教育即[B]项的结论。第二句作者指出,教育不再是对人们先前存在 的地位的确定,而成了获得更高地位的手段。[C]项与文意相悖,因此不正确。通过该句" 不再"(no longer)可以推断出, 从前的教育可以确定人们的社会地位, 因此[D]项为正确答案。 37.C [解析] 本题考查了具体的细节。 解题的关键在于考生对文中关于两类人的论述的把握。 文章第一段末句提到,教育成了培训,学生也不再是等在那里的绅士,而是要提升自己经济 地位的熟练学徒。由此可知,"学徒"与"绅士"的不同就是,绅士不用将教育当成工具去努力 争取社会地位,因此可以推测出绅士们属于较高的社会阶层。[C]为正确选项。文中提到教 育训练学徒们而非绅士爬上更高的阶梯,所以[A]项错误,[B]项和[D]项在文中没有相关论 述。 38.B [解析] 本题考查了事实细节。解此类题的关键是根据题干定位到原文。Land-grant College 一词出现在第二段第二句话: 国家赠予土地的学校的建立为那些来自非盎格鲁?萨克 逊血统、 工人阶级和中下层背景的贫穷但有抱负的男孩们敞开了享受高等教育的大门。 由此 可知,[B]项为正确答案。作者提到为穷人提供了更多的机会,却并没有将上层人士排除在 外,也未曾说明只有穷人才能从中获益。因此[C]项和[D]项错误。[A]项中土地所有者阶级 是由 land-grant colleges 一词字面意思得来,文中没有依据。 39.A [解析] 本题考查了事实细节。文章第三段一开始,作者就提到,对于绅士们来说,美 德首先包括了高雅和风度, 与其身份地位相符的行为方式, 教育仅仅是学会高雅的一种方式

而已。由此可见,在绅士们眼中,[A]项"行为举止"是最重要的。[B]项与原文不符,[C]项和 [D]项在原文中没有明显的论述。 40.C [解析] 本题考查了文章的主旨大意。考生需通篇把握全文,不应将注意力放到某个事 实细节上。文章一开始就提到民主权利的延展和联邦主义的削弱带来了新教育制度的出现。 接下来,作者主要介绍了这一新的教育观念的内涵,及其与旧式教育观念的异同。并对新旧 两种教育体制下的学生进行比较。纵览全文可以推断,文章主要讲的是新的教育观念,并未 涉及教育的发展问题、社会准则问题,所以[A]、[B]项都错误。[D]项虽然在文中有所提及, 但只是部分内容,不能概括全文主旨。[C]项为最佳答案。 译文 随着 19 世纪上半叶民主权利的扩展和接踵而至的联邦体制的衰退,一种新的教育观念 开始浮现出来。教育不再是对先前存在的地位的确认,而成了获得更高地位的工具。对于不 断进步的新一代学生来说, 教育的目标不是培养他们在自己出生的环境中舒适地生活, 而是 教给他们一些新的品德和技能,从而把他们推进一个不同的更好的世界。教育变成了训练, 学生也不再是"等待的绅士",而成了一些寻求提高社会地位的职业学徒。 在 19 世纪,大学教育开始被看成是跻身世界前列的一种手段。国家赠予土地的大学为 那些来自非盎格鲁.萨克孙血统,工人阶级以及社会中下层的贫穷而有抱负的男孩们敞开了 高等教育的大门。 那些完成大学学业而获得成功的穷孩子的神话驱使数百万的穷人孩子涌入 新的大学校园。随着这种转变,教育变得更加职业化:教育的目标是获取实用的技术和有用 的信息。 对于那些准绅士来说,美德首先包括高雅的风度和作风,及符合自己身份地位的表现; 教育仅仅是达到优雅的一种方式。而笨拙,粗俗,无礼,招摇等都是恶行的表现。而对于那 些学徒来说,美德表现在通过努力获得的成功中。人物必备的品质不是优雅风度而是积极, 决心和寻找机会的锐利的眼光。当懒散的自由化及至挥霍浪费成了绅士的特色时,节俭,自 制就成了新学徒的标志。绅士的社会地位已经很高,因此不再渴望更高的社会地位,而学徒 却一直努力地向上攀登。对于学徒来说,原地不动,没有上升就意味着失败。 Part B Sample One 41.F 42.A 43.D 44.B 45.C 分析

本文是一篇介绍 19 世纪神话研究发展的文学艺术理论型文章。 译文 当从其他文化获得的资料越来越多时,欧洲的学者逐渐认识到神话传统的极大复杂性。 尤其有价值的是像《薄伽梵歌》和《亚吠陀》这样的古印第安和伊朗经文提供的证据。这些 来源很清楚地说明了神话人物变化多样, 不仅有地理区域的不同,也有历史时期的差别。 德国学者卡尔?奥特弗雷德?缪勒在其 1825 年出版的《科学神话绪论》一书中遵循了这 种研究思路。[F] 他认为, 希腊有关珀尔塞福涅的相对简单的神话反映了初级农业社会人们的忧虑,而 后来在荷马史诗中发现的更复杂的神话则是较发达社会的产物。 学者们也试图以某种方式把全世界各种各样的神话联系起来。从 18 世纪晚期到 19 世 纪早期, 为了解释欧洲和近东各种各样语言之间的惊人相似性, 对语言的比较性研究导致假 设母语的重构。学者们作出结论,认为这些语言属于一种印欧语系。研究神话的专家也在探 求一种共同神话,这种神话可能衍生了欧洲所有民族的神话。 德裔英国学者麦克斯?缪勒得出结论: 现存的用印欧语记载的量古老作品, 古印度的 《梨 俱吠陀》文集反映的是最初阶段的印欧神话。穆勒把后来的所有神话归结为人们的误解,这 些误解源于早期人们用来描述自然现象的生动语言。[A] 比如,用"少女般的黎明"来表示"日出"最初使得黎明人格化,后来演变成有关少女的神 话。 19 世纪末期, 英国的自然学家查尔斯?达尔文提出的进化理论对神话的研究产生了重要 影响。 学者们研究神话的历史, 就像他们为了寻找遥远的古代遗迹而钻研化石沉积的地质构 造一样。 在英国人类学家爱德华?伯纳德?泰勒的作品中可以发现这种方式。在他 1871 年出版的 《原始文明》 一书中, 泰勒把人类的宗教和哲学发展系统地分成单独的不同的进化阶段。 [D] 同样,英国的人类学家詹姆士?乔治?弗莱齐在《金枝》一书中提出了一个"三阶段进化 体系"。根据弗莱齐的体系,起初人们把自然现象归结为反复无常的超自然力量(魔法),后 来把它们解释为上帝的意愿(宗教),最后,把它们归类为理性的研究(科学)。 英国学者威廉?罗伯逊?史密斯 1889 年登载于《有关闪族人的宗教的演讲》一文中的研 究也对弗莱齐产生了影响。通过史密斯的作品,弗莱齐开始认为,许多神话源于古代农业社 会人们的宗教仪式习惯,对这些人来说,植物的年轮意义非凡。

这种方法被英国学者简?艾伦?哈里森发展得充分,并逐渐被称为"神话和宗教仪式理论 "。应用从法国社会学家埃米尔?德克海姆的作品中获得的见解,哈里森认为,所有神话都源 于一个社会的集体宗教仪式。[B] 这种方式在英国人类学家 A?R?拉德克利夫?布朗所谓的结构--功能主义中达到了极点, 他认为,每一种神话都预示着一种宗教仪式,而每一种宗教仪式也暗示着一种神话。 18 世纪和 19 世纪有关神话的大多数分析表现出一种把神话还原为本质核心的内容的 趋势--不管是自然的季节性循环、历史环境,还是宗教仪式。一旦叙述中的想象成分被剥离 后,留下的可能就是核心内容。在 20 世纪,研究人员开始更密切地关注叙述本身。 奥地利心理分析家西格蒙德?弗洛伊德认为,神话就像梦一样,浓缩了经验素材,并用 象征的方式表达出来。[C] 干扰项[E] 这个时期里进行的研究在德国学者克里丝汀?海尹的作品中得到巩固,他是 第一个用拉丁词 myths(而不是 fibula,意思是"神话")来表示英雄和神的故事。 Sample Two Sample Two:41. A 42. F 43. G 44. B 45. D 分析 注意本文的逻辑顺序是首先指出中西文化存在很大差异, 然后举例, 接着再进一步举例。 译文 一整套语言就是一种世界观的认知模式。 所以你学到一种崭新的语言, 等于学到一种崭 新的看待世界的方式。语言文字常常酝酿、蕴含着重要的价值观,总以某种方式控制着我们 的命运。怎么样破除语言文字带来的障碍就意味着你破除你自己的命运的枷锁。 中西方文化有很多方面在极性上是相反的, 共通之处容易沟通, 怎样填平差别则往往非 常棘手,甚而至于根本就不可能。 没把这个问题搞清楚以前,在讨论所谓中体西用或西体中用之类课题时往往会走上歧 途,或者容易走向极端。 从一些简单的实际语言运用中, 即可看出中西文化价值观的巨大差别。 如英语代词中只 有“我”是大写的,大写就是一种强调,大写的我,无疑强调了这种以个体为中心的价值观念 及由此而延伸出的自立、自强或自私、自重的意义。

传统中国人以“在下、鄙人、不才、贱人、奴婢”等自称,即是皇帝也自称“寡人”或“孤”, 体现克己、自律、尊重他人的心态。 又如,中西方之收信人姓名地址的排列顺序正好相反,这多少可以体现出:中国人重整 体,重集体,其考虑问题的思维模式更多地倾向于由大到小,从宏观到微观。而西方人则较 容易倾向重局部、重个人、由小到大,从微观到宏观。中国人表述姓名时,置姓于名前,表 示尊祖。西方人则一定倒过来,表示自尊。 我在海关按中国人姓名顺序习惯填写出入境单时,常被外国人毫不犹豫地、“善意地 ” 改过来, 为此我总要与之争辩、 斗争、 直至改回来。 现在很多的中国人在用外语介绍自己时, 通常理所当然地认同西方的习惯。 可外国人却未必认同中国的习惯。 文化冲突的潜在根源就 是这类东西:误解和偏见。 Sample Three Sample Three: 41. D 42. F 43. A 44. B 45. E 分析 本篇从技术、制作过程、历史、迪斯尼和日本动画五个方面介绍了动画。注意每个正确 的选项都有与标题相对应的文字。 译文 动画是一系列的静止的图像的集合,这些图像可以是图画、实物和运动中的人。动画在 连续播放时不再是静止的,而会造成不间断的错觉。动画这个词汇包括电影、录像和电脑等 方面的创作, 甚至还包括活动玩具。 它通常是一系列通过机器设备观看的图纸上图画或照片, 或是用手翻动的一系列图像。 技术 制作动画的方法有很多种,这取决于材料是平面的(例如,图画、剪下的纸)还是立体的 (例如,粘土、木偶、家庭用品或者甚至是人)。在任何情况下,动画制作者都需要记住每秒 的图片数。由于有声电影每秒 24 帧画面,电影动画制作人必须为每一秒的动画制作 24 幅 图像。 制作过程

在选取了一个主题之后,动画制作人必须考虑好每一个画面。比如,一个制作人决定要 有一个 3 秒的动画,制作人需要制作 72 帧图像(每秒 24 帧乘以 3 秒)。 历史 在 19 世纪晚期电影刚出现时,动画就成为了电影史上的一部分。一些早期的直接取景 于大自然或以真人表演摄制的电影就使用了止动动画技术, 也就是停止摄影机, 在重新摄影 之前将物品移开或移入镜头。 沃尔特迪斯尼 公司的创立者沃尔特迪斯尼出生于芝加哥, 但在密苏里州的堪萨斯城长大。 他在那里遇 到了动画制作人 Ub Iwerks 和作曲家 Carl Stalling,这两位对他将来的成功有很大的影响。 迪斯尼(与他当时的合作人 Iwerks 一起)创造了历史上最著名的动画人物:米老鼠。 日本动画 日本动画在 1945 年第二次世界大战结束后蓬勃发展,现在它在日本和全世界都很受欢 迎。日本动画业最重要的人物是手冢治虫。他在 1963 年创造了日本第一部动画连续剧“铁 臂阿童木”。 当今趋势 动画业的两种趋势可能对其未来发展产生重大影响: 生产和展示的机会显著增加以及新 技术的使用越来越重要。 Sample Four 41. C 42. E 42. F 44. D 45. A 分析 本文列举了六条最糟糕的选择上某所大学的理由。 六个备选项就是六个理由。 找出能够 最好的概况每段内容的选项。 译文 “这是我的男朋友或女朋友去的地方。” 现实一点吧!如果你们的关系结束了, 你会纳闷你怎么会在一个根本就不适合你的大学。 即使你们的关系继续,恋爱会使你分心,影响你的成绩而且/或者影响你的社交生活。无论 怎样,你很可能会后悔当初应该在选择大学的问题上更慎重地考虑。

这是一个课外生活丰富多彩的学校 无论你计划住校或走读,选择一所校园生活丰富多彩的学校是很重要的。毕竟,大学生 活的很重要的一部分是与各个俱乐部、组织里的同学交往。但是如果使人分心的东西太多, 你就不能专心学习,更不用说赶上早上八点的课了。 “我知道我能考上这所学校。” 虽然申请一所你符合条件的“保险学校”很重要, 但是不要在做作业之前就把你梦想中的 学校划掉了。 尽管大多数学校的入学条件并不是很明确, 你可以通过了解前一年的新生的情 况来估计自己成功的可能性。弄清楚他们的 Sat 的成绩、高中时的平均成绩、与你的班级排 名相当的学生的数量以及成功的学生在所有申请的学生中所占的比例。 他们提供最热门的“谁想在 25 岁之前成为百万富翁”的专业 对自己设置高目标(包括经济目标)是可以的,但是面对现实也是重要的。没有一个大学 能够保证它的毕业生都能够取得经济上的成功。这并不是说在 25 岁之前你不会发财,而是 说这在很大程度上取决于你的雄心、努力和运气。而且,由于很多大学生最后都转了专业, 所以最好进入一个专业较多的大学。 他们在“Monron 大学指南”上的排名是第一 提供大学信息的优秀的指南有很多, 在你选择学校的过程中, 所有这些都是重要的资源。 不过,看排名时要小心。注意排名的依据;有些因素对你来说并不是那么重要。重要的是无 可动摇的事实(学生—教师比例、班级大小、助教所教课程的比例等)。 他们提供的奖学金最多 不要将苹果与橘子作比较。 如果大学 A 提供 5000 美元的奖学金, 而大学 B 仅提供 1000 美元,那么大学 A 一定更好,是这样的吧?并不一定!将奖学金从总的学习费用中减去,这才 是真正的教育成本。还要记住:大多数奖学金是有条件的(也就是,你必须保持是脱产的学 生,而且平均成绩达到一定要求)。 Part C 46.但是这一点与其说是与学术环境具有诱惑力的召唤有关,还不如说是与变化的市场 状况有关--一这是一个学术评论家很少考虑的因素。 47.还不到四十岁,西尔弗伯格就已出版了一百多本书籍,而他对真正散文的质量与应 时之作的质量之间的关系十分坦诚,毫无掩饰。

48.在他双亲的敦促下,他报考了哥伦比亚大学,所以即便最糟他也能进入新闻学校," 将来总可以有一份稳定的好工作。" 49.到大四结束的时候,他每星期写科幻小说已经可以赚两百美元了,而他的双亲也接 受了他对于文学生涯的追求。 50.我知道我写不出作为读者的我所喜欢的东西,就像乔伊斯、卡夫卡、曼恩的作品, 所以我不再那么关注我所写的东西。 Section ⅢWriting Part A 51. Zhong Guancun Road, 100432 Beijing, China Sept.18.2004 Miss Zhang Li University News Dear Editor Li, I feel much honored that I was a Rainbow volunteer in 21st Universiad held in Beijing. I was very busy form early mornings to late evening during the 11 day Universiad, yet the experiences I have got are so previous that I will never forget in my life. In the 11 days I had experienced such a strong passion for our motherland. I felt what I did and how I performed in my service represented China. Being a volunteer means that one is offering assistance without expecting any economic compensation. “I am here to give, not to take.” This is what I said frequently to those athletes abroad who, whenever encountering, would give us such praises as “thank you very much”,“ I really appreciate it” and so on. I am sure the Universiad in Beijing provided people worldwide with an opportunity to get to know China and what we did leads them to get a nice image of China and the Chinese people. The 21st Universiad also offered our college students chances to apply what we learned to society and learned many things that we could not possibly learn elsewhere. In the service we had undergone various kinds of affairs that require knowledge of language,

etiquette, knowledge of sports and knowledge of all sorts of other things related to the sports and the life of athletes. It is quiet a different experience from learning at school. It is so impressive when we meet a person from different culture, when we hear praise, frequently used in the classroom, from a native speaker and when we face something challenging us to find the solutions. I am sure all the university volunteers share a common feeling of being useful and being pound of our contribution to the success of the 21st Universidad. Yours sincerely, Li Ming Part B 52. In this cartoon, a cock is running up the stairs with a placard in his hand……“promotion”, while an egg-laying hen is sitting there, laying eggs.Behind her, we can see a basket full of eggs and on that basket, the words……“outstanding achievement”……can be read. Although the picture, entitled “only because of his pleasant singing”, is merely a satirical drawing, yet, the phenomenon is not uncommon in our society.Some government officials, hoping to be promoted, have most of their thoughts on how to flatter their leaders instead of serving the people: The new year is coming.What gifts should I present to my boss; My leader’s kid is going to enter high school.How can I help him; My superior’s house needs decoration.Can I do something…etc. In my opinion, to prevent such things from happening, we should take following measures: First.We must educate our cadres to serve the people from the bottom of their hearts.They should know their position as a servant to the people.Second, we should have our government clerks be watched by the people.Only the people have the right to promote or depose them.Third, the leaders must be supervised by our press media.Their rise in rank must be transparent.Only in this way can we have a better and more efficient government.


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