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虚拟语气归纳整理


虚拟语气归纳整理
概述 英语有三种语气,即陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。陈述语气 用于陈述事实、提出看法或问题等;祈使语气用于表示请求、命令或 警告等;虚拟语气则表示假想或主观愿望,不一定是事实或与事实相 反。如: He is honest. 他很诚实。 (陈述语气) Don?t be late next time. 下次别迟到。 (祈使语气) If I were yo

u ,I would not go. 我要是你,我就不会去。 (虚拟 语气) I wish I had a lot of money. 要是我有很多很多钱就好了。 (虚拟语气)

第一类 虚拟语气在条件句中的用法: 条件句有真实条件句和虚拟条件句两种。真实条件句所表示的 假设是有可能发生的,此时主句不用虚拟语气;而虚拟条件句则表示 一种假想,与事实相反或不大可能会发生,此时用虚拟语气。如: If I have time,I will go. 假若我有时间,我就去。 (陈述语气) If I were you,I would go. 假若我是你,我就去。 (虚拟语气 )

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条 件 句 的 时态类型 主句谓语形式 谓 语 形式 1. If I were 动 词 you, I should 过 去 study 与现在事 实相反 would/should/could/might+ V原 式 did English. *be 多 2. I would 用 certainly go were if I had time. 1. If you had taken advice, 动 词 would 过 去 have 与过去事 实相反 would/should/could/might + have done 完 成 in the test. 式 2. If I had had left a little done earlier, would caught I have the
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例句

my you not failed

train. 1.If came ① 动 词 过 去式 与将来事 实相反 would/should/could/might + V原 ② should +V 原 ③were + to do tomorrow, we have would the you

meeting. ① 2. If it were to rain

tomorrow, the meeting would be put off.③

* 规 律 总 结:从句都 往过去推 一个时态, 如:与现在 相反的 if 从 句就用过 去时;与过 去相反用
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过去完成 时(即过去 的过去)

注:几点特别说明
1、 l would/should/could/might 主句谓语中的 should 主要用于第一 人称后;would 表示结果还表示过去经常常常做某事,might 表示可 能性,could 表示能力、允许或可能性。比较: If you tried again ,you would succeed. 要是你再试一试,你就会 成功的。 (would 表结果) If you tried again, you might succeed. 要是你再试一试,你可能 会成功的。 (might 表可能) If you tried again ,you could succeed. 要是你再试一试,你就能 成功了。(could 表能力) 2、 错综时间虚拟条件句 即条件从句与主句所指时间不一致, 如从句指过去,而主句即指的是现在或将来,此时应根据具体的语境 情况,结合上面提到的三种基本类型对时态作相应的调整: If it had rained last night, the ground would be wet now. 要是昨晚 下过雨的话,现在地面就会是湿的。 You would be much better now if you had taken my advice. 假若你 当时听我的话,你现在就会好多了。 3、 If 虚拟条件句的否定 (含蓄条件句)常考两个句型: If it weren?t for…和 If it hadn?t been for…,其意为“若不是(有)” “要不是”。如:
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If it weren?t for water, no plant could grow. 要是没有水植物就无 法生长。 If it hadn?t been for your assistance ,we wouldn?t have succeeded. =But for your assistance ,we wouldn?t have succeeded. =Without your assistance ,we wouldn?t have succeeded. 4、If 虚拟条件句的倒装形式,即把 were, had, should 置于句首。 例: Were I in school again (= If I were in school again), I would work harder. Had you asked me, I would have told you. (=If you had asked me,…) 第二类 使用虚拟语气的常见结构或从句: 1.*wish 与 hope 接宾语从句的区别在于: hope 表示一般可以实现 的希望, 宾语从句用陈述语气。 wish 表示很难或不大可能实现的希望, 宾语从句用虚拟语气。试比较: (1) We hope they will come. (We don?t know if they can come.) (2) We wish they could come. (We know they are not coming.) 2.if only 与 I wish 一样, 也用于表示与事实相反的愿望, 其后所 虚拟语气的时态与 wish 后所接时态的情况相同: If only she had had more courage! 她再勇敢一些就好了。 If only I had listened to my parents! 我要是当时听了父母的话就
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好了。 If only she would go with me! 她要是愿意和我一道去就好了! *if only 通常独立使用,没有主句。 3.l would rather 后句子用虚拟语气 只分现在和过去 在 would rather, would sooner, would just as soon 后的 that 从句中, 句子谓语习惯上要用虚拟语气, 表示"宁愿做什么" ,具体用法为: ① 一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望 I?d rather you went tomorrow (now). 我宁愿你明天(现在)去。 ② 用过去完成时表过去的愿望 I?d rather you hadn?t said it. 我真希望你没有这样说过。 4.l as if (though) 从句用虚拟语气 以 as if (as though)引导的方式状语从句或表语从句,有时用虚拟 语气,则与 wish 用法相同,例: He acts as if he knew me. 他显得认识我似的。 They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。 He talks as if he had been abroad. 他说起话来好像曾经出过国。 注:两点说明 (1) 从句所表示的内容若为事实或可能为事实,也可用陈述语 气: It looks as if we?ll be late. 我们似乎要迟到了。 (2) 注意 It isn?t as if…的翻译: It isn?t as if he were poor. 他不像穷的样子(或他又不穷)。
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第三类 从句中 should+动词原形,should 可省略 1. 在 lest ,for fear that( 以免) ,in case(以防)引导的目的状语从 句中的虚拟语气 She walked quietly lest she (should) wake up her roommates. 她走 得很轻以免吵醒她的室友。 2. 表应当做 值得做 一类动词后的宾语从句 建议 advise, suggest, propose, recommend 命令 order, command 请求 ask, demand, require, request 指示 direct 敦促 urge 提议 move, vote 希望 desire 坚持 insist 打算 intend 安排 arrange 例如: I insisted that he (should)stay. 我坚持要他留下。 He urged that they go to Europe. 他敦促他们到欧洲去。 He suggested that we shouldleave early. 他建议我们早点动身。 He ordered that it (should) be sent back. 他命令把它送回去。 I ask that he leave. 我要求他走开。 He requires that I (should) appear. 他要求我出场。 I move that we accept the proposal. 我提议通过这项提案。 He arranged that I should go abroad. 他安排我去国外。 She desires that he do it. 她希望他做此事。
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The general directed that the prisoners should be set free. 将军指示 释放那些俘虏。 *suggest 表“暗示”insist 表“坚持认为”不用虚拟语气 比较: Heinsistedthat Ihad readhis letter. 他坚持说我看过他的信。 Heinsistedthat I should readhis letter. 他坚持要我看他的信。 Hesuggestedthat we (should) stayfor dinner. 他建议我们留下吃饭。 I suggested that you had a secretunderstanding with him. 我觉得你 与他心照不宣。 3. order,suggestion,idea,plan, proposal, advice, demand 等名词后的 表语从句或同位语从句 Oursuggestionis that you( should)be the first to go. 我们的建 议是你应该第一个去。 4.*advice, agreement, command, decision, decree, demand, determination, indication, insistence, order, preference, proposal, request, requirement, stipulation, suggestion, idea, plan, order l “It is (was)+ 紧急 重要-- 带感情色彩 上述 demand/suggest 等动词过去分词 或 important,natural,strange ,necessary,surprised, appropriate 等形容 词 后的主语从句 1. It is ordered that the army (should)get there by 4 a.m. 2. It is necessary that she (should) besent there at once.
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注: *It is necessary, important, strange, natural, advisable, anxious, compulsory, crucial, desirable, eager, essential, fitting, imperative( 绝对必 要 ), impossible, improper, obligatory, possible, preferable, probable, recommended, urgent, vital etc. ; it is a pity ; It is

requested/suggested/desired/proposed

第四类 It?s time 后的从句用虚拟语气 从句谓语通常用过去式表示 (早)该干某事了 *有时也用过去进行时或 “should+动词原形”(较少见,且 should 不能省略) ex. It?s time we went [were going, should go]. 我们该走了。 It?s time I was in bed. 我该上床睡了。(不用 were) It's time = It is (the very/high/right/about) time 至善教育将根据每位高三学生的学习方法、学习态度的不同,制 定特有的学习方案,提供最全的高考英语学习策略。 wish 和 as if 引导的虚拟 1.表示与现在事实相反的愿望 构成:主语 + wish (that) + 从句主语 + 动词过去式 (be 一律 用 were) 例如:I wish I knew everything in the world. I wish that the experiment were a success.
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We wish we had wings. 2.表示与过去事实相反的愿望 构成:主语 + wish (that) + 从句主语 + would/could + have + 过 去分词或 had + 过去分词 例如:I wish that you had called yesterday. I wish that I could have gone with you last night. I didn?t go to the party, but I do wish I had been there. 3.表示将来不大可能实现的愿望 构成:主语 + wish (that) + 从句主语 + would/should/could/might + 原形动词 例如:I wish that he could try again. I wish that someday I should live on the moon. We wish that they would come soon. II. AS IF 引出的虚拟。 As if….表好像……我们经常会利用一下句型来表达不能实现的 虚拟状态:It is as if……。 (就好象是……) As if + 从句, 主句。 (好像…… Sb.+ do…)表达一种假设的 条件。而 As if 之后的假设内容的语法结构和 wish 虚拟的结构一样。 L. 33 A Day to Remember 中原句, “As if this were not enough to reduce you to tears, your husband arrives.” 就利用了和现在事实相反的 假设虚拟。 北京新东方名师指出, 要善于总结出一些学习语法的技巧, 如利用对比,举例等方法进行学习。
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注:Something is to happened,I'm to face it。 注意事项: 使用虚拟条件句时要注意的几点: 1.当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间 不一致时,被称为“错综时间条件句”,动词的形式要根据它所表示的 时间作出相应的调整。如: If you had followed my advice just now, you would be better now. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now, and you would graduate from a college in four years? time. 2.if 省略句 在条件句中可省略 if, 把 were, had, should 提到句首 , 变为倒装 句式。如: If I were at school again, I would study harder. → Were I at school again, I would study harder. If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus. → Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. → Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. 注意:若省略的条件句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,不能用动词 的缩略形式。如:我们可以说:Were it not for the expense, I would go abroad now. 但不能说:Weren't it for the expense, I would go abroad now.
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3.用介词短语代替条件状语从句。常用的介词有 with, without, but for。如: What would you do with a million dollars? ( = if you had a million dollars) We couldn't have finished the work ahead of time without your help. ( = if we hadn't got your help) But for the rain ( = If it hadn't been for the rain ), we would have finished the work. 4.含蓄条件句 有时为了表达的需要, 在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件 句,而通过其他手段来代替条件句。 I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the sports meet. (副词) He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it. (连词) A man who stopped drinking water would be dead in about seven days. (定语从句) I might have given you more help, but I was too busy. (连词) Everything taken into consideration, they would have raiser their output quickly. (独立主格结构) 混合型与含蓄型虚拟语气 1。混合型虚拟语气:
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当虚拟条件从句与结果主语所表达的时间不一致时,被称为“混 合条件句”,这种虚拟语气被称为“混合型虚拟语气”,动词的形式要 根据它所表达的时间作相应调整。如: If you had followed the doctor's advice ,he would be all right now.(条件从句表达的时间是过去,因此用 had+过去分词;主句表示 的时间是现在,因此用 would+动词原形) 2.含蓄型虚拟语气: 有时候, 虚拟条件不是通过 if 引导的条件句来表示, 而是暗含在 上下文中 (1).用 but for 、without(如果没有)等来代替条件从句,如 Without electricity human life would be quite different=If there were no electricity ,human life would be quite different (2) 用 otherwise、or(or else),even though 等表示与上文的情况相 反,从而引出虚拟语气。如: I lost your address. Otherwise, I would have visited you long before. =I lost your address. If I hadn't lost your address ,I would have visited you long before. (3) 虚拟条件通过 but 暗示出来。如: He would have given you more help, but he was too busy 他本来会给你更多的帮助,但是他太忙了。也就是说,如果那时 他不忙,他可以给你更多的帮助。句中 but he was too busy 实际上暗 示了一个虚拟条件——如果那时他不忙
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He would lose weight, but he eats too much 他本来可以减肥的,但是他吃的太多了。也就是说,如果他吃得 不多的话,他是可以减肥的。句中的 but he eats too much 实际上暗示 了一个虚拟条件——如果他吃得不多。

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