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高考英语短文改错解题技巧


高考英语短文改错解题技巧(1)
来源:天星 更新日期:2012-06-07 点击: 397

一、高考英语改错题的常见错误类型 1、谓语动词的时态和语态 2、句子结构和句子完整性 3、名词单复数及主谓一致问题 4、上下文语意和代词 5、介词 固定搭配 6、固定(习惯)用法 7、形容词和副词是否误用及其比较等级是否正确; 8、冠词。取舍与选择是否正确

9、连词和从句引导词 10、非谓语动词的形式是否正确 短文改错口诀 短文改错要做好,常见类型要记牢。 名词爱考“数”与“格”,冠词在前“错”,“多”,“少”。 动词时态和语态,非谓搭配莫错了。 连,代,形,副错一样,多是故意来混淆。 介词多半考搭配,多,漏,误用想周到。 句法涉及到“一致”,从句多考关系词。 语法句法均未错,逻辑推理去寻找。

二、命题趋势 词法错误、句法错误和行文逻辑, 1.一致关系:包括主谓一致、时态一致、代词指代一致等。 2.平行结构:包括动词与动词相配,形容词与形容词相配,分词与分词相配,不定式与 不定式相配等。 常由并列连词或词组连接。 and, or , but, 如: neither…nor…, as well as 等. 3.非谓语动词的用法:如 to 的省略,过去分词与现在分词的误用等。 4.多余词:常常是介词、副词等的多余。 5.词性的混用。 6.行文逻辑判断等。 “短文改错意识原则”表
个数/类型 改错具体内容 be 的各种形式、介词、冠词、不定式 多缺词 2-3 符号、三大从句引出词、代词、副词、固 定搭配中的虚词 错词 连词、 三大从句引导词、 动词、 名词、 8-7 代词、形容词、副词等

10

尝试原则表
类 型 动 词 名 词

具体内容

时态、语态、主谓一致;非谓语动词(不定式、分词、动名词) 可数不可数、单数还是复数

(单数是否与不定冠词连用,复数形式是否正确) 冠 到底是用定冠词、不定冠词还是零冠词

词 连 词 词 性

行文逻辑即上下文意义是否连贯一致; 三大从句引出词是否正确

断定所需词到底是形容词还是副词或名词

注意:所改内容应最贴近原文; 可改可不改的,按不改对待。 三、短文改错错误类型: (一) 词法的测试 1.名词:主要是查名词是否可数,与其修饰语是否一致。 eg: 1)I have many hobby, such as football, sing, listen music. Hobby 是可数名词,在这要用复数形式;playing football 是一项运动,football 只是一种 球; sing 和 listen to 要用动名词形式。 2)Do exercises do good to our healthy. exercise 作运动讲是不可数名词,do exercise 作主 语要用动名词形式,谓动用单数;healthy 是形容词, 这里要用名词形式。 3)Reading books is one of my hobby. one of 后的名词应用复数形式。 2. 代词:对于短文中出现的每一个代词都要查一下它所指代的内容及在句中的作用, 注意其数、格、词性是否正确和前后是否一致,常考的代词包括人称代词、指示代词、反身 代词、关系代词及疑问代词等。 1)He drove too fast, and the police stopped her. 前面提到的是 he 而后面却用 her 来代,故应将 her 改为 him. 2)This is the best film which I have ever seen. 先行词前有最高级修饰应用关系代词 that 而不是 which。 3. 冠词:英语中只有三个冠词,但用起来却很复杂,在短文改错中,错误不外乎该用 冠词时没有用,不该用时却用了;该用 an 用了 a,该用 a(n)却用了 the. 1)I meant to write letter and tell you all the things… letter 为可数名词,故 write 后应加 a. 2) I like playing the football. 去 the

3) He is a honest boy.

a 改为 an

4. 介词:检查介词主要是查介词与动词、形容词、名词的搭配, 介词惯用词组等是否正确。 1) I am writing to thank you with your kind help. thank sb. for sth.为固定搭配,故应将 with 改为 for. 2) …I’m the happiest in all. 此句想表达的意思是“我是所有人中最高兴的”。故应将 in 改为 of. 3) Under the help of my father, I … 4) He went to Beijing in next Sunday. under 改为 with in 改为 on

5. 形容词、副词:形容词、副词的误用主要指在该用形容词的地方用了副词,该用副 词的地方用了形容词。改错行中出现形容词或副词时就要仔细分析该形容词或副词修饰什 么,形式是否正确,是原级、比较级还是最高级。形容词、副词误用也是常考的改错项目之 一。 1) I had not interest in English .interest 是名词,应用形容词 no 来修饰,而 not 是副词, 副词不能修饰名词 2) These are the happier girls I’ve ever seen.(NMET2007) 此处有 I’ve ever seen 限定,应用最高级,故 happier 应改为 happiest. 3) You can borrow a book very easy. easy 改为 easily.

4) These books are very worth reading. 用 well 修饰 6. 连词:短文改错中出现连词就要判断连词用的是否正确,是否 符合句子意思;连接 的是词还是句子,是否符合逻辑关系。此外如果是平行结构就要注意前后时态、语态、词性 一致问题。平行结构常借助与并列连词 and , or , but , not only…but also…, …not…but…, either…or…, neither …nor…, as well as 等。 1)As it has been raining these days, so we have decided to put off our sports meeting.

由于前句有 As 引导原因状语从句,因此后句不能再用 so,故应把 so 去掉。 2)The population is growing, but the earth must support too many people. 根据上下文意思判断,前后两个并列分句不存在意义上的折, 所以 but 应改为 and 或 so.这是典型的并列连词误用。 7. 动词:动词错误在短文改错中所占比重最大,它所涉及的错误包括动词的时态、语 态错误;易混动词的用法错误; 动词的第三人称单数错误;动词的非谓语形式,以及动词的 句型搭配错误等。在改错题中,动词方面的考查比例较大。 1) 动词的时态、语态错误 a. I will write again and send you the photos we take together. take photos 动作发生在过去,应用过去时. b. The book you borrowed from the library should returned in five days. 根据本句意义,should 后应加上 been,构成被动语态。 c. In school, I often playing football for my friends. playing 改为 play; for 改为 with 2) 易混动词使用错误 a. I persuaded him to stop smoking, but he didn’t listen. persuade 意为“说服”,强调成功的结果,而根据下句 he didn’t listen 可知,劝说并没有成功,故应改 persuaded 为 advised. b. You please rise your hands. rise 是不及物动词,而 raise 是及物动词,所以举手应用 raise your hands.这属于及物动词与不及物动词的误用。 3) 非谓语动词使用错误

a. We are looking forward to see you on the birthday party. look forward to 中的 to 是介词,应加动名词,将 see 改为 seeing. b. I’m sorry I keep you wait for a long time .I got caught in the traffic. 在任何情况下 keep 均和 doing 连用,如 keep doing sth.; keep sb. (sth).doing sth. ;keep …from doing… 等. c. I’d like to your pen friend, and get to know more about your country. to 后加 be。因其后是名词,而不是动词原形,不能直接用 to. 8. 词语固定搭配: 主要考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的固定搭配;副词、动词的固定搭配;及物动词后 多介词或副词以及不及物动词后少介词,英语中的一些固定句型与习惯搭配等。 1) My teacher advised me to keep my diary. keep a diary 是固定搭配,意思是“写日记”. 2) In my surprise, he did very well in his previous job. To one’s surprise 是固定搭配 3) I thought that was dull to watch a game…(NMET2005) 此题考查 it 的功能,It + be + adj. + to do 为固定结构。 4) …the activities are not only enjoyable and also helpful.解析: not only… but also…为固定结构,故将 and 改为 but. 5) I have no difficulty learn maths. have difficulty (in) doing sth.为固定结构 6) He spends too much time play games. spend some time (in) doing sth.为固定结构

(二) 句法的测试: 1. 主谓语在数上的一致; I hope everything are ok with you. are 改为 is 2. 名词性从句; A man came up to him and asked that he needed. that 是连词,在从句中无任何意义,而后 面的宾语从句缺宾语,用 what 引导宾语从句作宾语从句的宾语。 3. 定语从句; This would save the life of many animals, some of then have almost died out. them 改为 which 4. 强调句型;It is/was +被强调的部分+that/who… It was in 1949 when he joined the army. when 改为 that 5. 句子结构的连贯性、完整性、对等性及逻辑性。 (三)语篇的测试 语篇的测试包括: 1.上下文中的时态是否一致; 2.上下文中的代词是否一致; 3.上下文中的逻辑是否一致; 4.上下文中的词、词组、从句的替代是否正确。 四、复习建议: 除了多做改错专项练习外,也要做与短文改错题型相关的其他练习。比如:1.在平时写 作过程中就要十分注意自己容易犯的语法错误。2.还可以通过看其他同学的习作,欣赏的同 时也可有意识地把该习作进行一下“改错”。3.平时还可以多进行单句改错练习,逐渐体会和 把握短文改错这一题型的规律。

(一)改前通读全文, 切忌拿来就改,这一步很关键。这一步的目标是了解短文的中心 意思,把握全篇的时态、人称及行文逻辑。记叙文强调时间、地点、人物和事件四要素,在 通读全文理解全文的同时把一些比较容易的或是明显的错误先改好 (二)分句阅读,逐行找错。在纠错时要仔细地读懂每一个句子,这时就要对文中的词 法、句法和语篇(详见考查要点)角度着重分析和特别注意。把涉及 到以上错误类型的词 多斟酌一下。 (三)做将答案放回原文,再重读全文。其目的主要是查看有无不符合逻辑,语句不通畅, 不符合英语习惯的问题。 改错真题 1.(2011?陕西卷)短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 15 分) Last Sunday morning, when I was having a walk in the park near my home, I came across a crew make a new film with one of my favourite actor. I didn’t have my camera with me at that time, but I rushed back home to get . Unfortunately, by the time I got back, they have finished the scene and actor couldn’t be seen everywhere. I was really disappointing and about to leave when he walked out a building. He was right there in the front of me! I couldn’t believe my luck-not only did I had my photo taken wuth him, but he signed his name on my shirt! 2.(2011?全国 II)短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 15 分) Dear George, It's been a week after we left your family and we are now 76._______ back home. Thank you very much for showing them around your city and providing us for the wonderful meals. After we said goodbye to you, we went to Washington D.C., 77.______ 78._______ 79._______ 80._______

where we stayed for three days. My brother was so much fond

of the museums there that he begged my parents to staying another couple of day. However, my father had to return to work on Monday so we fly back last Saturday afternoon. It was really a nice experience. If you'd like to make trip to

81.________ 82.________ 83.________ 84._______

our city some day, I will be better than happy to be your guide. 85._______ Yours, Mike 3.(2011?四川卷)短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 15 分) Tom was having much troubles getting up in the 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

Morning and was always late with work.. His boss wanted to fire him if he didn’t start coming on time,but he went to the doctor for a help. The doctor gave him some medicine and told him to take them before he went to bed. The man did is told and slept.leally will,wake up before the alam had even gone off.He had time for a properly breakfast and was still the first reach the factory.”Boss,”he said ,”that medicine really works!””I’m pleasing to hear it ,”said his boss,”but where were you yesterday?”

4.(2011?全国新课标卷)短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 10 分) My summer travel started terribly .I was at the Shanghai Railway Station buy a ticket to Hang Zhou. I was going to visit a friend here and after that I would go to

Xiamen for long holiday. I bought my ticket but turned around to pick up my bag from the floor and then I realized that someone had stolen it. Luckily I had all my money on my pocket, but the only clothes I had was those I had on. It felt very strange to travel without any luggages. When I finally arrived at my friend he lent to me lots of clothes. I feel very happy that I could change my clothes at last. 5.(2011?重庆卷) 短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1 份,满分 10 分) Today is Sunday .I′ve been in Canada for two months . This is the first time that I′ve been away my family for such a long time. With the help of Katia, a roommate of me, I′ve soon got used to live without my parents around. Katia,like many other Russian girls, are nice and lively. We became friends shortly after we meet each other. Although her English is a little hardly to understand, we enjoy chatting and we usually talk a lot about our own family. We’re both surprised that Chinese culture or Russian culture are so different. Now, we are planning a small party for the next Sunday.There ,Katia will introduce me to some of her friends,one of who has been to China several times.I just can’t wait. 【答案】 1. Last Sunday morning, when I was having a walk in the park near my home, I came across a crew make a new film with one of my favourite actor. I didn’t have my making actors 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.

camera with me at that time, but I rushed back home to get ∧. Unfortunately, so/and it

by the time I got back, they have finished the scene and actor couldn’t be seen had everywhere. I was really disappointing and about to leave when he walked out ∧ a anywhere disappointed of

building. He was right there in the front of me! I couldn’t believe my luck-not only did I had my photo taken wuth him, but he signed his name on my shirt! have 2.(2011?全国 II) 76.after---since 77.them---us 78.for---with 79.正确 80.去掉 much 81.staying---stay 82.day----days 83.fly---flew 84.trip 前 a 85.better----more 3.(2011?四川卷)短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 15 分) 66、改 troubles 为 trouble 69、去 a 67、改 with 为 for 68、改 but 为 so

70、改 them 为 it

71、改 wake 为 waking 74、改 pleasing 为 pleased

72、改 properly 为 proper 75、√

73、reach 前加 to

4.(2011?全国新课标卷)短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 10 分) My summer travel started terribly .I was at the Shanghai Railway Station buy a buy 改为 buying ticket to Hang Zhou. I was going to visit a friend here and after that I would go to here 改为 there Xiamen for∧ long holiday. I bought my ticket but turned around to pick up my bag

for 后加 A

but 改为 and

from the floor and then I realized that someone had stolen it. Luckily I had all my money on my pocket, but the only clothes I had was those I had on. It felt very strange on 改为 in,was 改为 were to travel without any luggages. When I finally arrived at my friend he lent to me lots luggages 改为 luggage friend 改为 friend’s

of clothes. I feel very happy that I could change my clothes at last. feel 改为 felt 5.(2011?重庆卷) 短文改错(共 10 小题;每小题 1 份,满分 10 分) Today is Sunday .I′ve been in Canada for two months . This is the first time that I′ve been away ^ my family for such a 76. from long time. With the help of Katia, a roommate of me, I′ve soon got used to live without my parents around. Katia,like many other Russian girls, are nice and lively. We became friends shortly after we meet each other. Although her English is a little hardly to understand, we enjoy chatting and we usually talk a lot about our own family. We’re both surprised that Chinese culture or Russian culture are so different. Now, we are planning a small party for the next Sunday.There ,Katia will introduce me to some of her friends,one of who has been 77. mine 78. living 79. is 80. met

81. hard 82. families 83. and 84. the 85. whom


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