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Unit 5 Canada—“The True North”
I.单元教学目标 技能目标 Skill Goals Talk about the basic information about Canada— location, main cities, customs and cultural diversity. Learn how to read a traveling report and use maps. Learn to express directions and positions. Master the Noun Clause- Appositive clause. Learn to write a report to express what you hear and see in a place. II. 目标语言 表示方向的句式 功 能 句 式 Where is...? How does one go to...? In what direction is...? Is... close to/far from...? How far is...? 表示位置的句式 It is/lies in the north/south of... It is/lies to the south/east/northwest of... It is within... Kilometers of... It is/lies on the west/east. The place is on the border. You go along the coast. It is east /west of... It is far away from... One goes northward. 1. 四会词汇 Quiz Canadian minister continent baggage chat scenery eastward westward

upward surround harbor measure aboard eagle within border slight acre urban topic mix mixture bush maple frost confirm wealthy distance mist misty 词 schoolmate booth downtown approximately dawn buffet broad nearby tradition terrify terrified pleased impress impressive 汇 2. 词组 Prime minister, rather than, settle down, manage to do, catch sight of, have a gift for, in the distance 语 法 Noun clause as the appositive

III. 教材分析与教材重组 1. 教材分析 本单元通过两位女孩李黛玉与刘茜的加拿大之旅, 向我们展示了加拿大的一些基 本概况,包括它的地理位置、主要城市、风土人情以及它的多元文化。通过学习 本单元, 让学生对加拿大有了更多的了解,使学生能够用所学的词汇与句式表达 方向与位置,并学会条理地写出旅游过程中的所见所闻。 1.1 Warming Up 部分通过四组问题激活学生有关旅行和加拿大的知识和经 历。本单元阅读是―在旅途中看加拿大‖,因此,Warming Up 通过五个关于加拿 大的问题的测试,目的是激活学生已有的知识,为介绍加拿大做好准备。 1.2 Pre-reading 部分通过四个问题激活学生有关旅行的经历和有关加拿大的 知识,使学生产生了解加拿大的兴趣,为阅读做好准备。 1.3 Reading 部分是―在旅途中看加拿大‖, 沿着从西向东的旅游路线向我们介 绍了加拿大的面积、地貌、主要城市、人口、生态环境等。两位女孩在旅途中看 到了自然美景及野生动物, 文章还介绍了加拿大的自然资源,让学生对加拿大的 美丽、富饶、幅员辽阔、地广人稀有了更深的了解。学生可以通过学习课文掌握 新的词汇、句型和游记的写法,提高学生的阅读能力。 1.4 Comprehending 部分设计了三种题型,前两个题是对 Reading 部分细节内 容的理解,一个是问答题,一个是改错题。最后是在地图上标出两位女孩的旅游 路线,相对简单一些。此部分不仅检测学生对细节的把握,还要求学生列举加拿

大蕴藏的两种自然资源, 而且检测学生根据课文内容进行推理和判断的能力以及 读图能力。抓住文中人物的行踪,就能够很好地把握文中的信息。 1.5 Learning about Language 部分首先是构词法,培养学生词汇生成能力,旨 在通过加上前缀或后缀的方法扩大学生的词汇量。 第二部分使用课文中的词汇和 信息进行填空和编对话, 旨在提高学生活用词汇的能力。语法部分是有关同位语 从句的练习。 1.6 Using Language 部分综合训练听说读写的能力。 通过听力填空及讨论的形 式进一步了解有关加拿大的知识——居民和语言。阅读部分继续加拿大之旅,从 多伦多到蒙特利尔, 介绍了加拿大的旅游景点及风土人情。写作部分要求以报告 的形式写旅游见闻,要求学生掌握旅游报告的写作方法。 1.7 Summing Up 部分要求学生就内容、词汇和结构三个方面进行归纳,对本 单元所学知识进行概括总结。 2. 教材重组 2.1 Reading(I): 从话题内容和功能上分析 Warming Up, Pre-reading Reading 与 Post-reading 话题相同,可以整合成一节阅读课。 2.2 Reading(II): 可将 Using language 中的 Reading 与 Workbook 中 Reading Task 放在同一节课中处理, 再上一节阅读课。因为话题都是关于加拿大的城市与风土 人情的。 2.3 Listening:可将 Using Language 中的 Listening and Writing, Speaking, Workbook 中的 Listening(P69) 与 Workbook 中的 Listening Task 三个活动整合成 一节―听力课‖。 2.4 Speaking: 把 Learning about Language 中 的 Exercise 4 Making up a dialogue(P36)与 Workbook 中的 Talking (P69) 和 Speaking Task (P74) 整合一 节―口语课‖。 2.5 Learning about language:将 Learning about language( P36 Exercise 4 除外) 与 Workbook 中的 Using words && expressions (P70) 和 Using structures (P71) 结合在一起,上一节―语言学习课‖。 2.6 Writing 可将 Using Language 中的 Writing(P39) 与 Workbook 中的 Writing Task (P74)整合成一节写作课。

3. 课型设计与课时分配 (经分析教材, 本单元可以用六课时教完) 1st period: 2nd period: 3rd period: 4th period: 5th period: 6th period: Ⅳ. 分课时教案 Reading (I) Reading (II) Listening Speaking Learning about Language Writing

The First Period Reading (I) Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 rather than, baggage, scenery, eastward, chat, surround, harbor, measure, aboard, have a gift for, within, manage to do, catch sight of, eagle, acre, urban b. 重点句子 2. Ability goal 能力目标 Learn how to describe the places that Li Daiyu and Liu Qian visit in Canada. Understand the noun clause used as appositive. Enable the students to understand the details of the passage about Canada and find the correct answers to the questions in the post-reading. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Improve the students’ reading ability - guessing words, searching for information. Learn the information about Canada. Master the expressions for describing directions and locations. Teaching important points 教学重点及难点 a. Find the answers to the questions in post-reading. Learn the methods of writing a traveling report about. b. Understand the use of noun clause - appositive clause. Learn to read the traveling report according to the traveling route.

Teaching methods 教学方法 1. Skimming and scanning; 2. Asking-and-answering activities; 3. Listening method. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer, a projector and a tape recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式

Step 1 Revision Check the students’ homework. T: Before we come to the new lesson, let’s check your homework. The teacher checks the assignment of the last class.

Step 2 Lead-in and Warming Up Show the students the maple flag and ask them some questions. T: Do you know which country uses this national flag? Ss: Canada. T: Which continent is Canada in? Ss: It is in North America. T: How large is it? Ss: I only know it is the second largest country in the world. I don’t know the exact number. T: Canada occupies an area of 9, 978, 4670 square kilometers. It is a bit bigger than China. Which country is its neighbor? Ss: The United States.

(The teacher shows a map of Canada to the students.) T: Right. The United State is its neighbor. Canada is a beautiful country.

Step 3 Pre-reading T: Now I want to ask you a question. Do you like traveling? Ss: Yes, we like traveling very much. (No, I don’t like traveling. It is tiring.) T: I know most of us like traveling. Have you ever been abroad? Ss: No / Yes. T: Few of us have ever been abroad. Then what is the longest trip you have ever taken? Sa: Beijing (Shanghai / Hainan / Harbin). Sb: I have never been out of my hometown. T: If you get a chance to go abroad, which three countries would you like to visit most? Why? Sc: I would like to go to French, Australia and Ireland. I think French is full of romantics and there are many beautiful buildings. Australia is famous for its beautiful scenery and people are very friendly. Ireland is also beautiful. I want to walk along the roads of the countryside. Sd: I think I will travel in china first, because China is my motherland and she is very beautiful. I would also like to go to Canada so that I can see the large and beautiful lakes, and there’s the wonderful snow scenery. I also feel like paying a visit to Australia because there are many sheep and rare animals there. T: Very good. We love our motherland, but if we want to make our country more

beautiful and more developed, we should know more about the other countries. Here are two questions. You may ask your partner for answers and give your answers to him/her. Show the questions on the screen or on the blackboard. If you take a trip to Canada, what do you expect to see? What three words would you use to describe Canada?

The teacher can ask some pairs to tell their ideas in class. T: Who’d like to tell us your opinions? Sa: I want to see the mountains and the forests. Canada is beautiful, wide and people are friendly. Sb: I want to see the big snow and polar bears, three words large, clean and mysterious. T: Are they right? You can find the answers in the text. Li Daiyu and Liu Qian will take us to visit Canada. Please turn to Page34, read ―A Trip on the True North‖.

Step 4 Fast reading Get the students read the passage quickly and carefully. Meanwhile, help the students form a good habit of reading. T: Do you feel puzzled when you read the title? What is ―the True North‖? Now, read the passage and get the general idea of the passage. Underline the main places mentioned in the text. Give the Ss five minutes for reading. Five minutes later. T: Time is up. Have you finished? Ss: Yes, we have. T: The first question is what the passage is mainly about? Sa: The passage is about a trip of two girls, and it tells us some information about Canada. T: Right. It mainly tells us the information about Canada. What are the main places mentioned in the text?

Sb: They are the Atlantic coast, Vancouver, Rocky Mountains, Calgary, Thunder Bay, Lake Superior and Toronto. T: Look at the map on Page33. Draw the traveling route of the two girls on the map. Give the students one minute to draw the route. T: You did a good job. Do you have any difficulty in reading? Let’s look at the difficult points together. The teacher explains some important or difficult points to the students.

Step 5 Reading aloud Let the students read the passage again and find the details from the passage. T: Now you read the questions on Page35 first, and then read the text aloud to find the answers to the questions. After a while, answer the questions in complete sentences without looking at your books. Give the students a few minutes to read and find answers. Then ask some students to give their answers. Suggested answers: 1. Which continent are the cousins crossing? They are crossing North American. 2. Why are they not flying directly to the Atlantic coast? They are not flying directly to the Atlantic Coast because they want to take the train from west to east across Canada./ They want to see Canada./ They want to travel across Canada. 3. What is ―The True North‖? ―The True North‖ is the train that runs through Canada. 4. Why is the population of Vancouver growing so rapidly? The population of Vancouver growing so rapidly because it is beautiful. 5. What happens at the Calgary Stampede? At the Calgary Stampede cowboys compete in riding wild horses for thousands of dollars. 6. How are ocean ships able to reach the centre of Canada?

Ships are able to reach the centre of Canada because they can follow the St Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. 7. What are some of Canada’s greatest natural resources? Canada has water from its lakes and rivers and wood from its forests.

Step 6 Homework 1. Remember the underlined sentences. 2. Write a short passage to report what Li Daiyu and Liu Qian saw in Canada.

Period two Extensive reading Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇与短语 figure, figure out, terrify, official, maple, frost, wealthy, tour, distance, flow, booth, downtown, as far as, dawn, broad b. 重点句子 1. They were not leaving for Montreal until later... 2. It’s too bad you can’t go as far as Ottawa Canada’s capital. 3. It’s about four hundred kilometers northeast of Toronto, so it would take too long. 4. As they sat in a cafélooking over the broad St. Lawrence River, a young man sat down with them. 5. In the distance, they could see the misty cloud that rose from the great Niagara Falls, which is on the south side of the lake. 6. I stay as far away from polar bears as possible. 2. Ability goal 能力目标 Enable the students to know more information about cities: Toronto, Montreal and Iqaluit. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Teach the students how to describe a city with the target language and functional

sentences. Teaching important points 教学重点 Find the correct information about cities of Canada according to the questions. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to write the traveling report. Teaching methods 教学方法 a. Skimming method; b Scanning; c.Task-based approach listening. Teaching aids 教具准备

A record, a projector and a computer. Teaching procedures and ways 教学过程与方式

Answer the questions about the passage. 1. How do we know it is fall in Canada? We know it is fall in Canada because the maple trees are red and gold and oranges, and there is frost on the ground. 2. What can sometimes be seen from the CN Tower in Toronto? Sometimes the misty cloud that rises from Niagara Falls can be seen from the CN Tower. 3. Where does the water from the lake go? The water from the lake goes into the Niagara River and over the falls on its way to the sea. 4.Which direction is the train going from Toronto? The train is going east ( northeast ) from Toronto. 5. What three things show us that Montreal is a French city? Good coffee, good bread and good music show that Montreal is a French city. Also the signs and ads were in French.

Period three Grammar Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 multicultural, figure, figure out, terrify, official, make comments b. 重点句子 The idea that they would cross the whole continent was exciting. The fact that ocean ships can go there surprises many people. The idea that you can cross Canada in less than five days is just wrong. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Learn new words by adding prefixes or suffixes to a word. Learn noun clause used as appositives. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Learn how to make new words. Learn what is noun clause and how to use it. Teaching important points 教学重点难点 Broaden vocabulary by adding prefixes or suffixes. Learn noun clauses used as appositives. Teaching methods 教学方法 a. Study individually; b. practice. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector. Teaching procedures && ways 教学过程与方式

同位语从句 1. 概念: 在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 2. 功能:

同位语从句对名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容。 3. 用法: 常 跟 的 抽 象 名 词 有 : fact/ idea/reason/ thought/order/ doubt/news/hope/ truth/belief … 4. 连词 that/whether/who/ which/ what /when /where/why/how 同位语从句与定语从句区别: 1. 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是 idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise, order 等有一定内涵的名 词,而定语从句的先行词可以是名词,代词,主句的一部分或是整个主句。 He told me the news that he would come home from aboard soon. Word came that he had been abroad. 据说他已经出国了。 Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 我们的队赢了, 这让我们很高兴。 (定语从句) 2.从性质上区别 定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位 语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴, 如: The news that our team has won the game was true. 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句, 补充说明 news 到底是一个什么消息) The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 (定语从句, news 在从句中作 told 的宾语) 3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别 有些引导词如 how, whether, what 可以引导同位语从句, 但不能引导定语

从句。 如: That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。 (同位语从句) 引导词 that 引导定语从句时, 在从句中一般作主语或宾语 (指物时还 可以用 which 代替), 并且作宾语时常常省略, that 在同位语从句中仅起连接作用, 不充当任何成分, 并且不能省略, 也不能用 which 来代替,如: The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了。 (同位语从句, 是对 order 的具体解释, that 虽不作成分, 但不能省略) The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组。 (定语从句, 是名词 order 的修饰语, that 在从句中作 received 的宾语, 可 以省略)

Period four Speaking Speaking and writing on page 39 A: Hi, Li Daiyu and Liu Qian! Welcome back from your trip! How was it? B: Oh, it was GREAT! We took the trip from the west coast of Canada all the way to the east coast. It was one of the best experiences of my life! C: Really? What was your favourite thing about the trip? B: That’s a hard question to answer! There were so many things. One thing that impressed me the most was the Rocky Mountains in the west of Canada. A: Why were you so impressed by the Rocky Mountains? B: They were amazing - so tall and clean and covered with pure white snow at the tops. I felt very small compared to the great mountain heights.

C: How about you, Liu Qian? Did you have a favourite experience in Canada? D: Yes! I loved the city of Montreal. Its culture was so different from the rest of what

we saw in Canada. A: What was so different about it? D: Everything was in French! The signs, the advertisements… everything! I couldn’t read any of it! C: How was the food? I hear that French culture is famous for its food! D: The food was pretty good – I didn’t pay attention to it very much, except the bread. The bread was really, really good!

背景知识 Background information about Canada 加拿大文化 Location and area 位置与面积 Canada is situated in the northern half of the North America Continent in the West Hemisphere. It stretches over 5,500 kilometers from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and over 4, 600 kilometers from the northern tip Of Ellesmere land to the United States border . The Country occupies an area of 9, 984, 670 square kilometers, which is a little bit larger than China. The United States, the only country adjacent to Canada on land,is to the south of Canada. The borderline shared by the two countries is as long as more than 5,500 kilometers,and this borderline is undefended. Citizens Of both countries can cross the border without a visa . On the other three sides Canada is surrounded by water. To the east Of the country is the Atlantic Ocean, and to the west, the Pacific Ocean. The Arctic Ocean is to the north of the country. Population and races 人口与民族 Canada is a country with a large territory, but with a small population. The population of the country is only 25,000,000 people. Since Canada is a country made up mainly of immigrants, its people have diversely different ethnic origins. The two largest groups are made up of people of the French and English origins. Indians and Inuit, the native people, made up only 1.2% of Canada’s total population. Most Canadians believe in Catholicity and Christianity.

Official languages 官方语言 English is Canada’s first official language, and the other is French. Capital 首都 Canada composes ten provinces and two territories. And it is a federation of provinces. The capital of Canada is Ottawa. National anthem 加拿大国歌 The title of the National Anthem of Canada is “O, Canada” 加拿大的国歌由 卡力沙·拉瓦雷(Calixa Lavalee)作曲、阿多尔夫·贝西·卢提尔(Adolp he Basile Routhier)作词,1880 年首次被演唱。国歌的歌词原先只有法文,1908 年,罗伯 特·斯坦利·维尔写了英文词。1980 年 7 月 1 日加拿大政府宣布《啊,加拿大》 为正式国歌,并在首都渥太华举行了国歌命名仪式。因此,加拿大的国歌有英、 法两种歌词。 加拿大的英文歌词及中文大意是: O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts, we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, We stand on guard for thee. God keeps our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. 啊,加拿大!我们的祖国,我们的家乡! 您的子女对您充满真爱! 颗颗闪亮的心儿深情凝望, 那一片强大自由的北方! 啊,加拿大!无论身处何地, 我们都保卫您。 上帝使我们的祖国自由辉煌! 啊,加拿大!我们保卫您!

National flag 加拿大国旗 The national flag of Canada is popularly called the Maple Leaf Flag. That ’s because its most outstanding feature is the large maple leaf in the middle against a snow-white background. National emblem 加拿大国徽 There are actually two national emblems of Canada. The first one is the Canadian beaver, a clever and hardworking semi-aquatic animal. Its use as the national emblem can date back to the early seventeenth century. The second national emblem of Canada is the Canadian maple leaf, which used as the national symbol, has a shorter history, dating back only to the mid nineteenth century. In Canada, you may find that there is always a maple leaf symbol on their business cards of most Canadian government officials. The leader of Canada 加拿大的领导 As Canada is a member of the British Commonwealth, the Queen of the United Kingdom, Queen Elizabeth II, is also the Queen of Canada and the Head of the Commonwealth, i.e., the Head of State of Canada. Actually, the Queen is away from Canada most of the time. During her absence, the Governor General represents her as the Head of State. The Head of the Canadian Government is the Prime Minister. Climate, industry and agriculture 气候,工业及农业

The eastern part of Canada, the country’s industrial area, is plain. It is cold here and the coast is zigzag. The middle western part of the country is a prairie, and the climate in this area is typically continental. It is the major agricultural area of the country which people used to call the "granary" of Canada. Western Canada, which is

an area for timber, mining and fishing, is not very cold. Water freezes in rivers and lakes for most time of the year in Northern Canada, where the population density is very low. The area is mainly inhabited by Indians and Inuit. The Northwest Territories, which stretches from the Yukon border in the west to Baffin Island in the east, is now regarded as the roof of Canada. The country’s highest mountain, Mount Logan, which has a height of 5,951 meters, is situated in here. The region’s most northerly islands reach within 820 kilometers of the North Pole. Rivers and lakes 河流和湖泊 The surface of Canada is well-marked with lakes and rivers. Water surfaces account for almost 10% of Canada’s total area. Besides the Great Lakes, of Canada’s share is nearly 88,060 square kilometers. It is estimated that there are tens of thousands of lakes of all shapes and size in Canada. Canada also has many rivers. The largest and longest river in the arctic drainage area is the Mackenzie River, measuring 4,320 kilometers. The largest rivers draining to the Pacific Ocean are the Yukon, the Fraser and the Columbia. The largest river in the Atlantic drainage is the St. Lawrence River. Of all countries the world over, Canada has probably the most extensive and irregular coast line. On the three oceans and Hudson Bay, it totals 100,000 kilometers. The climate of Canada is under the influence of three great air masses: cold, usually dry air from the arctic region; warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean and the mild, moist air from the North Pacific Ocean. Sometimes, a fourth air mass, originating over the deserts of southwestern United States, may invade southern Canada in mid-summer, causing extended hot dry periods in this area. On the basis of temperature and moisture conditions, and the length of the growing seasons, Canada can be divided into several climatic regions: the Arctic Region, the Northern Region, the Prairie Region, the Cordillera Region , the Pacific Region and the Southeastern Region. Four seasons 加拿大的四季 Generally speaking, Canada is a country with four comparatively clear-cut seasonal variations. Spring is short and usually begins in mid-March and ends in

mid-May. It is regarded as a transitional season in Canada. Summer is longer than spring, lasting for about four months in places near the US-Canadian border, from mid-May to mid-September. Summer is considered to be the golden time for traveling and vacation in Canada. Autumn is brief but spectacular, beginning from mid-September to mid-November. Winter is the longest season in most of Canada, prolonging from mid-November to mid-March the next year. But in some places winter can last for as long as eight to ten months. Natural resources 自然资源 Canada is rich in natural resources, especially rich in forests. The forested area of Canada has been estimated at about 4, 404, 000 square kilometers, which is about 44% of the world total. Canada is a country with a large territory. Although only about 7% of the land is suitable for farming there are still millions of hectares of fertile soil. About 80% of Canada’s farm and is in the prairie, which is considered to be one of the world’s largest granaries. The western provinces of the country also have ranches for raising beef cattle. Mixed farming is found in the St. Lawrence lowlands. Almost all minerals necessary to modern economy are found in the Canadian subsoil. Canada is a major world producer of nickel, zinc, asbestos, potash, gold, copper and iron ore. It is also a major world supplier of uranium and is virtually self-sufficient in coal. For reasons of geography and economics, Canada is not exporter of energy but also a net importer of oil. But recently, petroleum and natural gas have been found in Alberta Province of the country. Canada is also rich in water resources. About 70% of all electric power in the country is generated by water. It is estimated that Canadian rivers carry one-tenth of the water carried by the world’s waterways, and this has enabled Canada to become a leader in the design and construction of hydroelectric power stations and electrical transmission and distribution systems. Since Canada is a country rich in forest, where many animals dwell, it is also rich in wild animal resource, particularly in fur-bearing animals. And this enables the country to become one of the world-known fur-trading countries.

Canada also has good fishing grounds off the coasts both of the Atlantic Ocean and of the Pacific Ocean. The country is rich in fish resources. In Canada, agriculture is still of great importance to the various regional economies and to the economy as a whole. Following the mechanization and enlargement of farms, the number of persons engaged in agriculture has steadily declined. As in the United States, greater production has come from fewer people, owing to improved varieties, better tillage practices, chemical weed killers and increased use of fertilizers. It is said that the grain which one Canadian farmer can produce is enough to feed fifty-five people. Canada’s major industries include forest industry, fisheries, mining and metallurgical industry, petroleum industry, electric power generating industry and manufacturing industries. Because of Canada’s rich forest resources, the forest industries play an important role in the country’s economy. The major aspects of forest industry include logging industry, lumber and plywood manufacturing industry and pulp and paper industry. Owing to the good fishing grounds off the coasts both of the Atlantic Ocean and of the Pacific Ocean, Canada’s fishery is quite developed. It has a fishing fleet of about 40, 000 vessels, most of which operate in the sea fisheries. The total amount of yearly fish landing is about 1.5 million tons. Besides, the electric power generating industry and the manufacturing industries are also of great importance in the country’s economy. The total generating capacity of Canada’s power stations and plants, including hydroelectric power stations and the various types of thermal generating plants, is about 100, 000 MW per year, among which about 65% are generated by the hydro-power stations. The most important manufacturing industries in Canada are the petroleum refining industry, and the motor vehicle manufacturing industry. Transportation 交通 Canada has a network of transportation. Routes is as impressive as it is indispensable to a continent—wide country with a highly mobile population. Linking the two coasts is the Trans—Canada Highway, some 9,600 kilometers

long. The ships on the St .Lawrence Seaway and the railway (95,000 kilometers of track) continue to be the bulk carriers. Buses and private cars dominate passenger travel of shorter distances, while airlines now provide the principal means of travel across Canada. The country’s “ nervous system ” today is its highly sophisticated

telecommunications web. The Canadian telephone network operates the two largest microwave circuits in the world. Besides, there are also hundreds of television and radio stations originating programs in Canada with several hundreds more broadcasting stations. Character of the people 民族特点 Canada is a very sparsely populated country. It is estimated that the population density of the country is 2.6 people per square kilometer (China ’s population density is over 130 people square kilometer.) There is no permanent settlement in approximately 89% of Canada’s territory. It is said that over 90% of Canadian—U.S border. Furthermore, about 75% of the Canadians live within 160 kilometers of the border. It is evident that in Canada, the further north the area is, the more sparse the population. The life expectancy of a Canadian is at present 76.3 years, which is one of the longest in the world. The average male Canadian can expect to live to only 72 years, whereas the average female Canadian can expect to live to over 79 years. Long life expectancy indicates that the country’s population is getting older. It is estimated that with the lengthening of life expectancy, in the year of 2001 A.D, the number of old people in Canada will reach 14 percent of the country’s total population. This means that Canada will become a country of aged people. The Canadian people are a nation with sharp characteristics. In general, Canadians can be described as intelligent, hardworking, friendly, hospitable, open, reasonable and least dogmatic. But influenced by some historical factors, some Canadians do not think highly of themselves. On the whole they are all modest, which makes it easier for them to get on well with others. Most Canadians are willing to help strangers. If you are in need of any help, they will be most happy to lend you a hand.

Education 教育 What is different from other countries is that there is not a federal minister of education in Canada. According to the British North American Act, education is a provincial and not a federal government has no ministry of education. Instead of a national ministry of education there are provincial ministries of education or their equivalents, which are responsible for the management of their education in Canada, the federal government is still deeply involved in education. First, it has the responsibility of maintaining schools for native people and for children of service personnel overseas. Secondly, is is responsible for running and maintaining college for the three services of the army, the navy and the air force. Thirdly, it gives financial support to programs of adult occupation training and retraining. In addition, it also finances some of the programs of post-secondary education. In Canada, over 80%of its population have had at least a nine-grade schooling and over 35%of them have been to a post-secondary institution of higher learning. In Canada there are mainly three kinds of schools: the public school, the separate school and the private school. Public schools are usually provincially-supported, nondenominational schools. All the Canadian children are entitled to free education in public schools. ―Separate schools‖ often refer to religious schools, which are run by the Roman Catholic Church and in return, for its service. Private schools are set up for specific educational or social purposes. Main cities 主要城市 Ottawa Ottawa is the national capital with a population of 750,000. The city is centered on Canadian government buildings, especially the Parliament Buildings and Conferderation Square in front of them. Toronto Today Toronto replaces Montreal as the largest metro polis of Canada populated by over 3 million people. The city has achieved new prominence in finance, popular arts and culture. Its skyline has sprouted banks. Many Canadians banks and companies have head offices in Toronto.

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