The Freedom Givers A gentle breeze swept the Canadian plains as I stepped outside the small two-story house. Alongside me was a slender woman in a black dress, my guide back to a time when th
e surrounding settlement in Dresden, Ontario, was home to a hero in American history. As we walked toward a plain gray church, Barbara Carter spoke proudly of her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson. "He was confident that the Creator intended all men to be created equal. And he never gave up struggling for that freedom." 微风轻轻拂过加拿大平原为我走出小两层楼的房子。 我身边是一位苗 条的黑衣女子，我的向导返回时，周围的德累斯顿，安大略的结算， 是美国历史上的一位英雄。当我们走向一个普普通通的灰色教堂走 去，巴巴拉卡特自豪地谈到她的祖父的祖父，约西亚之后。”他坚信 上帝要所有的人都是平等的。他从来没有放弃争取自由。” Carter's devotion to her ancestor is about more than personal pride: it is about family honor. For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom, the long-suffering slave in Harriet Beecher Stowe's . Ironically, that character has come to symbolize everything Henson was not. A racial sellout unwilling to stand up for himself? Carter gets angry at the thought. "Josiah Henson was a man of principle," she said firmly. 卡特对她的祖先不仅仅是个人的骄傲，它是关于家族的荣誉。约西亚 Henson 一直生活在美国小说中的人物，他帮助激励：汤姆叔叔，哈
丽特比彻 Stowe 的长期遭受苦难的奴隶。具有讽刺意味的是，这个 角色来象征汉森不是一切。 一个种族的背叛不愿意自己站起来？卡特 对此颇为愤慨。”约西亚汉森是个有原则的人，”她坚定地说。 I had traveled here to Henson's last home -- now a historic site that Carter formerly directed to learn more about a man who was, in many ways, an African-American Moses. After winning his own freedom from slavery, Henson secretly helped hundreds of other slaves to escape north to Canada -- and liberty. Many settled here in Dresden with him. Yet this stop was only part of a much larger mission for me. Josiah Henson is but one name on a long list of courageous men and women who together forged the Underground Railroad, a secret web of escape routes and safe houses that they used to liberate slaves from the American South. Between 1820 and 1860, as many as 100,000 slaves traveled the Railroad to freedom. 我远道前来亨森最后的家——现在的一个历史遗址， 卡特曾管理更多 地了解一个人，在许多方面，一个黑人摩西。从奴隶制中赢得自己的 自由后，他暗中帮助其他黑奴逃奔北方加拿大——和自由。许多在这 里定居在德累斯顿与他。 然而，本站只是我一个更大的使命的一部分。约西亚 Henson 不过是 一个名字在一长串的勇敢的男人和女人共同创建了这条地下铁路， 一 个秘密的 Web 的逃生路线和安全的房屋，他们用来解放美国南方黑 奴。1820 和 1860 之间，多达 100000 的铁路旅行自由的奴隶。
2000 年十月，克林顿总统批准 16000000 美元用于纪念这一伟大的 民权运动在美国的斗争的中心将在辛辛那提 2004。这是关于时间。 为英雄依然很少为人，他们的业绩依然默默无闻。我要讲述他们的故 事。
In October 2000, President Clinton authorized $16 million for the to honor this first great civil-rights struggle in the U. S. The center is scheduled to open in 2004 in Cincinnati. And it's about time. For the heroes of remain too little remembered, their exploits still largely unsung. I was intent on telling their stories.
John Parker tensed when he heard the soft knock. Peering out his door into the night, he recognized the face of a trusted neighbor. "There's a party of escaped slaves hiding in the woods in Kentucky, twenty miles from the river," the man whispered urgently. Parker didn't hesitate. "I'll go," he said, pushing a pair of pistols into his pockets. 约翰派克紧张时，他听到轻轻的敲门声。从他的门到深夜，他认识到 受信任的邻居的脸。”有一群逃亡奴隶躲在肯塔基的森林里，离河二 十英里，”男人迫切地说道。帕克没有犹豫。”我会去的，”他说，把两 支手枪插在口袋里。
Born a slave two decades before, in the 1820s, Parker had been
taken from his mother at age eight and forced to walk in chains from Virginia to Alabama, where he was sold on the slave market. Determined to live free someday, he managed to get trained in iron molding. Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom. Now, by day, Parker worked in an iron foundry in the Ohio port of Ripley. By night he was a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, helping people slip by the slave hunters. In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive. Crossing the Ohio River on that chilly night, Parker found ten fugitives frozen with fear. "Get your bundles and follow me, " he told them, leading the eight men and two women toward the river. They had almost reached shore when a watchman spotted them and raced off to spread the news. 一个从出世前二十年，在 19 世纪 20 年代，派克曾从他八岁的母亲 被迫拖着镣铐从弗吉尼亚走到阿拉巴马，在那里他在奴隶市场卖。确 定有一天能够自由的生活，他努力的学习铸铁。最终，他存了足够的 钱在这个贸易对侧买他的自由。现在，一天，帕克在俄亥俄州里普利 港铁铸造厂工作。晚上他是一个“导体”的“地下铁路”，帮助人们避开 的奴隶猎人。在肯塔基，在那里他现在正，有一个 1000 美元的奖励， 他捕获，是死的还是活的。
在那寒冷的夜晚穿越俄亥俄河，帕克发现十个丧魂落魄的逃亡者。” 把你的包，跟着我，”他告诉他们，带领八名男子和两名妇女向河。 他们快到岸边的时候，有人发现了他们，跑着去的消息。
Parker saw a small boat and, with a shout, pushed the escaping slaves into it. There was room for all but two. As the boat slid across the river, Parker watched helplessly as the pursuers closed in around the men he was forced to leave behind. The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them to the next "station" on the Underground Railroad -- the first leg of their journey to safety in Canada. Over the course of his life, John Parker guided more than 400 slaves to safety. 帕克看见一只小船，大喝一声，把逃亡黑奴推它。有只有两个房间。 小船徐徐驶向对岸， 帕克只能无助地看着周围的人关在他被迫留下的 人。 其他的人都上了岸，帕克急忙安排了一辆车把他们带到下一个“站”在 地下铁路的第一站——他们走向安全的加拿大之旅。在他的一生中， 约翰派克带领 400 多名黑奴走向安全。
While black conductors were often motivated by their own painful experiences, whites were commonly driven by religious convictions. Levi
Coffin, a Quaker raised in North Carolina, explained, "The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color." In the 1820s Coffin moved west to Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana, where he opened a store. Word spread that fleeing slaves could always find refuge at the Coffin home. At times he sheltered as many as 17 fugitives at once, and he kept a team and wagon ready to convey them on the next leg of their journey. Eventually three principal routes converged at the Coffin house, which came to be the Grand Central Terminal of the Underground Railroad. 幸运的是，出于自己的痛苦经历，白人一般是由宗教信仰。利维的棺 材，一个贵格会在北卡罗莱纳州长大，解释说，“圣经，在投标中我 们饥饿的人提供食物，衣服，没有颜色说。” 在 19 世纪 20 年代棺材搬到西新港（现在的喷泉市），印第安娜， 在那里他开了一家店。有传言说，逃亡黑奴在科芬家总是能找到避难 所。有时他为多达 17 人在一次，他还备有一组人员和马车把他们送 往下一段行程。最终有三条主要路线在科芬家汇合，这是地下铁路的 大中央车站。 For his efforts, Coffin received frequent death threats and warnings that his store and home would be burned. Nearly every conductor faced similar risks -- or worse. In the North, a magistrate might have imposed a fine or a brief jail sentence for aiding those escaping. In the Southern
states, whites were sentenced to months or even years in jail. One courageous Methodist minister, Calvin Fairbank, was imprisoned for more than 17 years in Kentucky, where he kept a log of his beatings: 35,105 stripes with the whip. As for the slaves, escape meant a journey of hundreds of miles through unknown country, where they were usually easy to recognize. With no road signs and few maps, they had to put their trust in directions passed by word of mouth and in secret signs -- nails driven into trees, for example -- that conductors used to mark the route north. 他的努力， 经常收到死亡威胁和警告的棺材， 他的店铺和住宅被烧毁。 几乎每一个导体面临类似的风险——或者更糟。在北方，治安官会处 以罚款或判处短期监禁为帮助逃亡的人。在南方各州，白人被判处几 个月甚至几年的监禁。一位勇敢的法的卫理公会的牧师，加尔文费正 清，被囚禁在肯塔基超过 17 年，在那里他记录他的殴打：35105 条 鞭子。 对于奴隶逃跑，意味着数百英里的长途跋涉通过未知的国家，在那里 他们通常容易识别。在没有路标和地图也很少，他们只能靠口耳相传 的方向和秘密记号——钉子钉在树上，例如 ——用来标记路由北导 体。 Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces sometimes caked with white powder. Quakers often dressed their "passengers," both male and female, in gray dresses, deep bonnets and full veils. On one
occasion, Levi Coffin was transporting so many runaway slaves that he disguised them as a funeral procession.
Canada was the primary destination for many fugitives. Slavery had been abolished there in 1833, and Canadian authorities encouraged the runaways to settle their vast virgin land. Among them was Josiah Henson. As a boy in Maryland, Henson watched as his entire family was sold to different buyers, and he saw his mother harshly beaten when she tried to keep him with her. Making the best of his lot, Henson worked diligently and rose far in his o 许多黑奴走在夜色的掩护下，他们的脸 上也涂上了白色的粉末。贵格会教徒经常让他们的“乘客”，“男性和女 性，在灰色的衣服，深的帽子和面纱。有一次，利维科芬运送的逃亡 黑奴实在太多，他他们假扮成一个葬礼。 加拿大是许多逃亡者的首选目的地。奴隶制被废除 1833 那里，加拿 大当局鼓励逃亡来解决他们的辽阔的处女地。其中约西亚 Henson。 在马里兰州的一个男孩，他看着他的整个家庭被出售给不同的购买 者，他看到妈妈狠狠地毒打时，她试图阻止他。做最好的自己的很多 努力，亨森的玫瑰在他的主人的方面。 wner's regard.
Money problems eventually compelled his master to send Henson,
his wife and children to a brother in Kentucky. After laboring there for several years, Henson heard alarming news: the new master was planning to sell him for plantation work far away in the Deep South. The slave would be separated forever from his family. There was only one answer: flight. "I knew the North Star," Henson wrote years later. "Like the star of Bethlehem, it announced where my salvation lay. " At huge risk, Henson and his wife set off with their four children. Two weeks later, starving and exhausted, the family reached Cincinnati, where they made contact with members of the Underground Railroad. "Carefully they provided for our welfare, and then they set us thirty miles on our way by wagon." 钱的问题最终迫使主人把汉森， 他的妻子和孩子在肯塔基州的一个兄 弟。在那儿干了几年，亨森听说了一个可怕的消息：新主人准备把他 卖到遥远的南方种植园在深工作。奴隶将与自己的家人永远分离。 只有一个答案：飞行。”我知道北极星，”许多年后亨森写道。”像伯利 恒之星，它告诉我在哪里可以获救。” 在巨大的风险，汉森和他的妻子把他们的四个孩子。两周后，饥饿和 疲惫，一家人来到了辛辛那提，在那里他们与地下铁路的成员取得了 联系。”他们仔细地为我们提供的福利，然后他们把我们三十英里的 路上被车。” The Hensons continued north, arriving at last in Buffalo, N. Y.
There a friendly captain pointed across the Niagara River. "'Do you see those trees?' he said. 'They grow on free soil.'" He gave Henson a dollar and arranged for a boat, which carried the slave and his family across the river to Canada. "I threw myself on the ground, rolled in the sand and danced around, till, in the eyes of several who were present, I passed for a madman. 'He's some crazy fellow,' said a Colonel Warren." “Oh, no! Don't you know? I'm free!”
该 hensons 继续向北，到最后在水牛城，纽约有一个友好的船长指 着尼亚加拉河。”你看见那些树吗？”他说。”它们生长在自由的土地 上。”他给了亨森一美元，安排了一个船，进行奴隶和他的家人过江 到加拿大。 “我扑倒在地，滚在沙子和跳舞，直到，在一些人眼里，我通过了一 个疯子。”他是个疯子，”有个沃伦上校说。”