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情态动词用法详解


情态动词用法详解
Can
1.(表示能力)能,会 Can you drive a car? 你会开车么?

◆表示人或动物的内在能力。有某种知识或者技能而能够做某事, 可以用 can 和 be able to,这两个可以表示能力,在许多场合换用。 His foot is hurt and can’t (isn’t able to)play

football. 但 can 指单纯的表示一个人有某种能力,而 be able to 则还可以表示某人通过某种努力 克服困难做成某事。另外 be able to 还可以用于各种时态;而 can 一般只能用于现在或 过去时态(could) 。 Although he can’t (couldn’t) swim, yet he was able to cross the river. 尽管他不会游泳,但他还是过了那条河。 2.(表示推测、可能性,主要用于否定句和疑问句)可能,会 Difficulties can and must be overcome. The wheel of history cannot be turned back. 困难能够而且必须克服。 历史的车轮绝不会倒转。

He cannot/could not have seen me yesterday, because I wasn’t there. 昨天他不可能见到我,因为当时我不在那里。 Can the news be true? How can/could you be so careless!(用 could 语气较婉转 这消息会是真的么? 你怎么会这么粗心呢!

3.(句首有疑问词而 can 又重读,表示惊异、迷惑、不耐烦等)究竟能,到底可能 What can he mean? Where can it be? 他究竟是什么意思? 这东西究竟放哪里去了?

4. (口) (表示许可或请求,代替 may,might,一般人表示说话人和一般的许可,用 could 要比用 can 显得更加迟疑不决和没把握,当你没有把握得到允许是,这样更婉转)可以 Can/could I borrow two books at a time? Can/could I ask you a few questions? Can/could you give me a hand? Stop, you can’t play ball on the street! 5.(和感觉动词连用,代替现在或过去时态) 我可以一次借两本书吗? 我可以问你几个问题么? 你可以帮帮我么? 停下来,街道上不准玩球!

It was so dark that I could see(I saw)nothing. 天太暗了,我什么也看不见。 I can smell(I smell)something burning. 6.(表推测,表示偶尔发生的事情)有时会 The writer can be(is sometimes)quite sarcastic. 这个作家有时也会很挖苦的。 The climate of East China can be pretty cold in winter. 华东地区冬天的气候有时会是相当冷的。 我闻到有什么东西烧焦的气味。

Could
1.(用于虚拟语气) (表示与事实相反的设想)能,可以 If I could go with you,I should feel very glad. 假使我能同你们一起去,我会感到非常高兴。 If I could have gone with you,I should have felt very glad. 当时假使我能同你们一起去,我会感到多么高兴啊。 I could do it(if I would) 倘若我愿意的话,我是能办到这一点的。 (指说话人不愿意) 2.(表示推测、可能性)能,可能 The weather in shanghai could be very cold. 3.(表示许可、请求,用于婉转语气)能 Could you do something for me? 你能替我做件事么? 上海冬季有时可能很冷。

(注意:本句因用了 could,语气比之用 can 要婉转、客气很多) ◆You could do with a haircut. 你该理发了。

(因为是向别人提出劝告或建议,句中的 could 不能用 can 代替)

may
1.(表示推测、可能性,一般用于肯定句或否定句)可能,也许 He may be right. He may not be right. He cannot be right. You may have been there before. 他可能是对的。 他也许不对。 他不可能是对的。 你以前也许去过那里。

2.(表示许可或用于请求许可,相当于 can;如用于疑问句或条件状语从句表示请求)可以 A: May I go now? B: Yes,you may.(表示否定用 No,you must not.或 No,you cannot.)

May I make a suggestion? If I may say so... If I may say so,you are not right.

我可以提一个建议吗? 要是我可以这样说的话。 。 。 你是不对的,如果我可以这么说话。

◆may/might:说话人给予的许可。也可是一般的许可。同 can 相比,may 和 might 用于 比较正式的文体,往往含有尊敬之意。might 表示比较迟缓、婉转,不很常用。 You may smoke here. Visitor may ascend the tower. Might I borrow your bike? 3.(用于问句中,表示不确定)会,究竟 Who may the man be? 4.(表示希望、祝愿、祈求等)祝,愿 May you succeed! 祝你成功! 这个人会是谁呢? 你可以在这里吸烟。 参观者可以登塔。 我可以借用你的自行车吗?

5.(常与 well 连用,表示有充分的理由) (完全)能, (满)可以 You may well say so. 你完全可以这么说。

6.(用于从句中表示目的) (以便)能, (使...)可以 Hold the flag higher(so)that all may see.把旗子举高一些,让大家都能看见。 7.(用于从句中表示让步)不管,不论,尽管 be that as it may come what may,I will try it. 8.(用于从句中表示期望)能够,会 I hope we may succeed. 我希望我们会成功。 无论如何 无论发生什么,我总要试一试。

9. (用于法令条款中,相当于 shall,must,用的较少)须,得,必须,应该 Payment may be paid by check. 应用支票付款。

might
1.(表示推测、可能、不确定、期望、许可等,相当于 may,但更带迟疑、婉转、谦逊等色 彩)可能,也许,可以 I’m afraid it might rain tonight. Who might the man be? 我看今晚恐怕要下雨。 这个人会是谁呢?

I wish I might find time to go into the question.

但愿我能找到时间去深入研究一下这个问题。 Might I ask a question? 我是不是可以提个问题?

He studies hard (so) that he might serve the people well. 他努力学习,以便很好地为人民服务。 Well might you be surprised! 你蛮有理由感到惊奇嘛!

2.(用于表示与事实相反情况的虚拟语气中)会,能 If he were older,he might understand. 要是他年龄大些的话,他就可能懂了。

I might have fulfilled the work earlier.我本可以早一些完成这件工作的。 3.(表示请求或婉转的责备)请,应该 You might post this letter for me. You might well try again. You might write more frequently. 能否请你代我把这封信寄一下。 你不妨再试一下。 你应该经常写信才是。

You might ask me before you borrow my bike. 在借我的钱之前你应该先问问我。

Shall
1.(表示单纯的将来,用于第一人称。第二人称只用于问句中。美国人常用 will 代替。口 语中可缩写为’ll)将要,会 We shall reach Beijing tomorrow. I’ll be twenty next month. I’m afraid I shan’t be able to come. Shall we be back in time? Shall you be free tonight? 明天我们将到达北京。 下个月我将满 20 岁。 我恐怕不能来。 我们会及时回来么? 今天晚上你有空吗?

2.(表示说话者的意图、允诺、警告、命令、决心、威胁等,用于陈述句的第二、第三人称 中)必须,应,可 You shall get the answer right this afternoon. 你今天下午就可以得到答复了。 You shall not leave your post. No,he shan’t go. The enemy shall be wiped out. 你不得离开岗位。 不,他不能去。 敌人一定会被消灭的。

3.(在条约、规章、法令等文件中表示义务或规定,一般用于第二、第三人称)应该,必须 The National Party Congress 【shall be】=is convened every five years.

党的全国代表大会每五年举行一次。 Each player shall wear a number.
st

每个运动员必须带上号。

The new regulation shall take effect on June 1 . 新章程自六月一日起施行。 4.(在疑问句中表示征求对方意见,主要用于第一、第三人称)……好吗?要不要……? Shall I fetch the hammer? 我去把锤子拿来好吗?

Shall we take umbrellas with us? (或 Let’s take umbrellas with us,shall we?) 我们带雨伞去好吗? Shall he come to see you? 要不要他来看你?

Shall those goods be sent over to you at once? 那些货物要不要马上给你送来? Shall he go or stay? 5.(在用表示意图、要求等从句中)应该,要 I wish that you shall stay at home tonight. 我希望今晚你会留在家里。 He desires that we shall go there with him tomorrow. 他希望明天我们和他一起到那儿去。 I am anxious that it shall be done in time. 我急于要把这件事及时做好。 My demand is that you shall get it ready before five. 我要求你在百忙之中五前把它准备好。 6.(用于将来时态的间接引语中,与直接引语中的 shall 相应)将 He says that he shall be glad to see you.(=He says:“I shall be glad to see you.” ) 他说他将乐意来看你。 (注意:这里也可以用 will) 7. shall/should 表示意愿、意志,只用于第一人称,用于表示说话人的意图。同 will 可 以互换。 We shan’t/won’t go if it rains. I shan’t stay here long. 如果下雨,我们不打算走了。 我不打算在这待很长时间。 他是走还是留?

一般用于肯定句,与第二、第三人称连用,表示说话人的意愿;在疑问句中表示征询听 话人是否意愿。 He shall get the money. You should stay here as long as you like. 他愿意拿到钱。 只要你乐意你可以待在这里。

用于第二、第三人称肯定句,表示说话人的意志和决心。Shall 要重读。

You shall marry him. No one shall stop me. You shall obey orders.

你应该和他结婚。 谁也别想阻挡我。 你要服从命令。

Should
1.(表示过去将来时,常用于间接引语)将 The group leader announced that we should begin to work soon. 小组长宣布过,我们不久将开始工作了。 2.(表示语气特强的假设,用于虚拟语气)万一,竟然 If he should fail to come, ask Peter to work in his place. = If he failed to … / If he were to fail … 万一他不来,就叫 Peter 代替他工作。 Should it rain tomorrow ( =If it should rain tomorrow ) ,the meeting would be postponed. 万一明天下雨,会议就会延期。 3.(用于第一人称时表示某种条件下会产生的结果;用于第二、第三人称时表示说话者的意 愿)就,该,想必应该 If you were here, I should be very glad. 如果你在,我会很高兴。

I should have seen you if you had been at the meeting. 要是你参加会议的话,我该看到你的。 If the book were in the library, you should have it. 这本书如果在图书馆里的话,我就让你借了。 He should not have gone if I could have pretended it. 如果我能阻止的话,就不会让他去了。 4.(表示可能性、推测或推论)可能,该 They should have arrived in Peking by this time. 他们这时应该已经到北京了。 The report is written after careful investigation, so it should be reliable. 这份报告是经过周密调查写成的,所以应该是可靠的。 5.(表示义务、责任,表示主语的职责和义务或说话人的劝告,强调主观上,但不像 must 那么独断专横)应当,应该,必须 We should emulate the heroic fire fighters. 我们应该向消防队员学习。

You shouldn’t be so careless. You shouldn’t judge a man always by her clothes.

你不应该这样粗心大意。 你不应该总是以貌取人。

◆ (表示责备)should(ought to)have done 过去该做什么但没有做; Shouldn’t(oughtn’t to)have done 过去不该做什么但做了。 You should(ought to)have started earlier. 你应该早点开始 He should have told me the news earlier. 他本来应该早些告诉我这个消息的。

You shouldn’t have helped him! He could do it himself. 你不应该帮助他,他自己能做的。 6.(表示委婉、谦逊)可,倒 I should think so. I should like to have talk with you. 我想跟你谈一谈。 (意指:如果你愿意或方便的话。 ) You are mistaken, I should say. Should you like tea? 在我看来,你错了。 你喜欢喝茶吗? 我也是这样想的。

7.(用于表示必要、适当、惊奇、遗憾等的从句中)应该,竟然会(虚拟语气) It is necessary that we should bring in all the crops in a week’s time. 必须在一星期之内把庄稼都收进来。 It is most desirable that he should attend the conference. 非常希望他能出席会议。 It is proper that no hasty decision should be made. 不应当做出仓促的决定。 It is simply a miracle that rice should grow in such a place. 稻子竟然能在这样的地方生长,这实在是奇迹。 8.(与 why,who,how 等连用,表示意外、惊异等)竟会 How should I know? Why should you be so late today? 我怎么会知道? 你今天怎么来得这么晚?

When I went out, whom should I meet but our old friend Young Li! 当我外出时,想不到竟会碰见我们的老朋友小李。 9.(用于表示建议、命令、决定等的从句中,用于虚拟语气)应该、必须

The young doctor proposed that he (should) try the experiment on himself. 年轻医生建议在他自己身上做实验。 The commander ordered that the enemy’s stronghold should be taken in three hours. 司令员下令必须在三小时内占领敌人的堡垒。 It was decided that we should start a clean-up at once. 决定立即开展一次大扫除。 10.(用于表示目的或有 lest 等引导的从句中)可以,会,万一 We worked hard so that we should fulfill our task ahead of schedule. 我们努力工作,争取提前完成任务。 I’ll remind him lest he should forget it. 为了怕他忘记,我会提醒他的。

Write to me in case you should need my help. 如果需要我帮忙,可以写信给我。

Will
1.(表示单纯的将来,用于第二、第三人称。第一人称的单纯将来,英国人用 shall,美国 人常用 will 代替。口语中可缩写为’ll)将要,会 He will come back soon. There will be another bumper harvest this year. Press the button and the wheel will turn Will they be here tomorrow? I won’t be back for supper. 他很快就会回来了。 今年将会获得大丰收。 按一下电钮,轮子就会转动。 他们明天会到这儿来吗? 我不回来吃晚饭了。

2.(表示意志、意愿、建议,陈述句用于各种人称,疑问句用于第二、第三人称表示询问别 人是否愿意做某事,还可以用于条件等状语从句中,表示主语的意愿,would 比 will 语 气更婉转)愿,要 We will fight on until final victory is won. I have made up my mind to go and I will. I will do my best to help you. 我们一定要战斗到最后赢得胜利。 我已经决定要走就一定要走。 我愿尽力帮助你。

She will not shove the heavy load on to others.她不愿把重担子推给别人。 Will you join our discussion? I won’t do so. Come whenever you will. 你愿意加入我们的讨论吗? 我不愿这样做。 你愿意什么时候来就什么时候来。

If he will, he can come. Will/Would you have another cup of tea? He won’t stay there too long. 3.(表示功能)行,能 This will do if there is nothing better. Each bench will seat four persons. The door won’t open. A: I want someone to copy it for me. B: Will I do? 4.(表示推测)可能,该是

如果他愿意,他就会来。 你想再来一杯茶吗? 他不愿在那儿待得太久。

如果没有更好的,这个也行。 每条凳子能坐四个人。 这门打不开。 我要人帮我把它抄一下。 我行吗?

That will be the postman at the door, I suppose. 我想门外可能是邮递员。 He will have got home by now. 5.(表示习惯、经常性、倾向性)惯于,总是 He will sit for hours reading. Boys will be boys. Sometimes the screw will work loose. 6.(表示命令、指示)务必,必须,应 You will please do so. You will do as I say at once. 请你这样办吧。 你马上照我说的话去做。 他常常接连坐上几个小时看书。 男孩子终究是男孩子。 这只螺钉有时要松开。 现在他应该到家了。

7.(表示请求,一般用于第二人称疑问句,would 语气更客气)好吗? Will/Would you pass me the salt, please? Will/Would you please spell your name? 请把盐递过来,好吗? 请拼写一下你的名字,好吗?

Would
1.(表示过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称;美国也用于第三人称)将 The peasants were sure that they would have another bumper harvest that year. 农民们肯定他们在那年将获得丰收。 2.(表示意愿)愿,要,偏要 He would not leave before he finished his work. 他在完成工作以前不愿意离开。

I promised that I would do my best.

我答应过要尽力而为。

I told him not to go, but he would not listen to me. 我叫他别去,可他偏不听。 The wound would not heal. 3.(表示过去习惯性动作)总是,总会 On Sundays he would come to our farm and work with us. 星期天他总是到我们农场来和我们一起劳动。 4.(表示推测)大概 That would be in spring 2000. 那大概是 2000 年春天的事情。 伤口老不肯好。

I would be about ten when my brother left home. 我哥哥离家时,我大概十岁。 That would be the book you are looking for. 5.(表示设想的意志)愿意,要 I could do so if I would. 要是我愿意,我能够这样做。 那该是你在寻找的那本书吧。

If you would do this for me, I should be grateful indeed. 假使你愿意为我做这件事,我将感激万分。 6.(表示虚拟、假设、条件等,用于第二、第三人称;美国也用于第一人称)要,将要,会, 就会 What would you say to him if he should come? 要是他来的话,你将怎么跟他说? If you had come earlier, you would have seen him. 如果你来得早一点的话,你就可以看见他了。 He treats customers as they would be his own folk. 他对待顾客像对待自己亲人一样。 It would be better to adopt the new method. 采用新方法更好。 7.(表示请求或个人的想法、看法,使语气婉转)愿,倒 Would you take a seat? Reach me that book, would you? I would like to join your discussion. 请坐! 请把那本书递给我好吗? 我想参加你们的讨论。

It would seem (One would think) that he was right. 看来他是对的。

8.(表示愿望)但愿,要是……多好 Would (I would) (that) I were a PLA man! 9. 能,能够 (=could) The barrel would hold 100 litres. 10.(表示愿望、请求、劝告等)会,要 We wish that he would come again. We prefer that you would not go. 我们但愿他会再来。 我们希望你不要去。 这桶能装 100 升。 我真希望我是一个解放军战士。

Must
1.(表示义务、命令或必要,用于肯定句,表示说话人的意志和义务,或要求对方必须做某 事,否定一般用 need not/needn’t 或 don’t have to)必须,应当 We must obey orders. You must be there on time. I told him what he must do. A: Must you go so soon? B: No, I need not go yet. (Yes, I must.) I must say you’re looking much better. 我们必须服从命令。 你务必要按时到达那里。 我告诉过他应该怎么做些什么。 你那么早就得走吗? 不,我没有。 (对,我现在就走) 我得说你看上去好多了。

◆have to 表示客观上的需要,某人不得不做某事。多用于肯定句和否定句,也用于疑 问句,有时态和数的变化。 It is time for the meeting, I have to go now. You don’t have to hurry. = You needn’t hurry. There was no bus last night, so they had to walk home. 2.(表示不可避免性或肯定性或推测)必然要,必定会 So long as a state remains a state, it must bear a class character. 只要是国家,总是具有阶级性。 If he had really been there, I must have seen him. 如果他当时真的在那里,我必定会看到他。 3.(表示主张)一定要,坚持要 He must always have his own way. 他总是自行其是。

He said he must see the Party branch secretary. 他说他一定要见党支部书记。

If you must go, at least wait till the storm is over. 如果你坚持要走,至少也要等这场暴风雪过去了再走。 4.(表示推定或指具有较大可能性)很可能,谅必 This must be the book you want. 这谅必就是你要的那本书。

I think my letter must have miscarried. 我想我的信一定是误投了。 If he started at 2 o’clock, he must be in Peking by now. 假如他两点钟动身的话,这会儿应该到北京了。 Something must have happened or he would have been here. 很可能发生了什么事情,否则他应该已经来了。 It must be time. 该到点了。

You must have overcome the difficulties if you had tried harder. 要是你当时多使一把劲的话,你肯定已经克服那些困难了。 They must have been enjoying themselves. 他们谅必玩得很痛快。 5.(表示与说话人愿望相反及不耐烦)偏要 Why must you be so stubborn? 为什么你偏要那么固执呢?

As I was sitting down to supper, the telephone must ring. 正当我坐下来用晚餐的时候,偏偏电话铃响了。 6.(表示许可、请求,一般用于否定句,表示说话人“不许”或“禁止”某人做某事,有很 强的劝告语气;疑问句用于征求意见表示“可以” ) You mustn’t touch the machine, child. Cars must not be parked here. Must I go now? Must I come early tomorrow? 孩子,不许碰那台机器。 此地不许停车。 我现在可以去了吗? 明天我必须早来吗?

Ought to
无时态和人称变化,后接动词原形 1.(表示责任、合适性、可能性等,ought to 和 should 的含义大致相同,ought to 强调在 客观上如法律、章程和道义上等比 should 语气强)应当,应该,总应该 We ought to make a greater contribution to the world revolution. 我们应当对世界革命作出更大的贡献。

- Ought I to go? - Yes, you ought (to). 我该去吗? 对,你该去。 医院里不该喧闹。

There ought not to be much noise in a hospital. If he started at seven, he ought to be here now. 要是他七点出发,这会儿总应该到了。 You ought to go and see Mary tomorrow. You ought to have an operation at once.

明天你应该去看 Mary。 你应该马上动手术。

2.(表示责备,后接动词不定式的完成式,否定用 ought not to have done)早应该,本 应,本当 You ought to have done the work yesterday. 你昨天就该把这工作做好了。

The child ought not to have been allowed to go alone. 本不应该让这孩子一个人出去的。

dare
1.(作情态动词用 dared not + V 原;后接不带 to 的不定式;主要用于疑问句、否定句或 条件状语从句中,一般不用于肯定句中) (1)敢 Dare he swim across? Who says he dare not (do it)? How dare you say I’m unfair? 他敢游过去吗? 谁说他不敢(做这件事)? 你怎么能说我是不公平的?

He daren’t speak English before such a crowed, dare he? 他不敢在这么多人面前说英语,是吗? (2)竟敢 If the aggressors dare come, they will never be able to get away. 只要侵略者敢来,让他们有来无回。 特别注意:I dare say/I daresay 是一个固定搭配。表示“我猜测,可能,或许,我想, 我认为” ,后面一般跟宾语从句。 I dare say he will come. 我想他会回来的。

2.(做实义动词用:vt.&vi.)敢,竟敢,敢于面对,敢于承担(风险) ,激(将) ,估计… 没有胆量

Dare to struggle and dare to take revolution.

敢于斗争,敢于革命。

Wipe out any enemy who dares to invade our country.消灭任何敢于来犯的敌人。 We will dare any hardship and danger. I dare you to do it! Try it if you dare. I dare say = I daresay 我们敢于承担任何艰险。 量你也不敢! 要是你敢的话,你就试试看。 (做插入语用)我想,大概

There is something wrong with the radio, I dare say.收音机恐怕有点毛病。

need
1.(作情态动词用:无时态、人称变化,仅用于疑问句和否定句;在肯定句中一般用 must, have to,ought to 或 should 代替)需要,必须 --Need/Must we buy any new equipment? --No, we needn’t / Yes, we must.

needn’t have done 表示“过去没有必要做但已经做了的事” Your elder brother need not have done come last night. 你哥昨晚本来不需要来的。 (注意:need not have come 指“来了,但实际不必来” ;did not need to come 则表 示“不必来,实际上没有来” ) 2.(作实义动词用:vt.&vi.)需要,必需;生活穷困;是需要的,是必要的 ① sb.+ need + sth. ② sb. + need to do sth.(主动) need 这里是需要的意思 需要帮助 这汤需要盐。 这件农具需要修理。 有人需要看医生吗? 比需要的多(少)

③ sth. + need + doing/to be done (被动) need help This soup needs salt.

This farm tool needs repairing. = … to be repaired Does anybody need to see the doctor? Be more (less) than needs

had best
最好,顶好(后接动词原形,其否定式为 had best not + 动词原形) We had best do it at once. 我们最好马上干。

had better
还是…好,最好还是…,最好

You had better set off at once. (Better set off at once.) You hade better not follow his behaviour. 你最好不要学他的样。

had rather…than=would rather…than
与其…不如…,宁愿…不愿… Had rather die on one’s feet than live on one’s knees. 宁可站着死,不愿跪着生。 I would rather stay home than go out. = I’d (’d = would/had)

would rather/would sooner
宁愿,宁可(表示选择。它有两种用法,一是带肯定句中后面直接跟动词原形,其否定 句是在 would rather 后加 not,即情态动词 would rather not + 动词原形;二是实义 动词 would rather 后面可以跟从句,该从句的谓语动词一般用一般过去时表示虚拟语 气。另外,由于 would rather 表示选择,它后面可接 than。 ) I’d rather not say anything. Would you rather stay here? 我宁可什么也不说。 你愿意待在这儿吗?

The soldiers would rather (或 sooner) die than surrender. 士兵们宁死不降。

used to
过去常常,过去惯常(表示过去的习惯动作或状态,说明过去和现在的对比,强调现在 不再重复这一动作。在否定陈述句中,一般用 didn’t use to,也可用 used not to, usedn’t to,usen’t to;在疑问句中用 Did…use to…?或 Used…to…?还可与 never, often,always 等连用。 ) I do not swim so often as I used (to). You used to go there, usedn’t you? (或【口】didn’t you) There used to be a bookshelf in this room It used to be said that… 过去常常说

He usedn’t (didn’t use) to come. Used he (Did he use) to come by bus? Cf: He used to get up at six. 他过去常常六点起床。 (现在已经不这样了) He would get up at six. 他过去总是六点起床。 (现在可能还这样)

Would 也能表示过去习惯性或反复性的动作,但 would 无对比的含义

may as well
还是…的好 We may as well go and have a look. 我们还是去看一下吧。

may as well…as…
(做)…与(做)…一样 We may as well go as not 我们去不去都行。

表示推测:
1. 对现在的事情进行把握较大的推测或判断时: 肯定句一般用 must 加动词原形, 此时 must 不再表示“必须”而是表示“肯定” ;否定句一般中 can’t 加动词原形,此时 can 不再 表示“能够” ,而是表示“肯定不,肯定没有” 。 He must be in the bathroom, he can’t be still in bed now. He must be reading in his own room, for the light in his room is still on. He can’t be in his own room. He must be in Xiao Wang’s dorm. Listen! That’s he’s singing. 他肯定不在他房间,他肯定在小王宿舍。听,那是他在唱歌。 2. 对过去的事情进行把握较大的推测和判断时:肯定句一般用 must 加动词的完成形式 (must have done) ,同样,must 不再表示“必须”而是表示“肯定” ;否定句一般用 can’t/couldn’t 加动词原形的完成形式(can’t/couldn’t have done) ,同样 can 不再表示“能够” ,而是表示“肯定不。肯定没有” 。 He can’t have been in his own dorm last night, for when I passed his dorm, the light wasn’t on. 他昨晚肯定不在他自己的宿舍,因为我路过他宿舍的时候,他房间的灯都没亮。 It must have rained last night, for it is wet outside. 昨晚肯定下雨了,因为地上是湿的。 ◆当对 must have done 的句型变成反义疑问句时,试比较: You must have stayed here yesterday, didn’t you? You must have stayed here yesterday, haven’t you? 3. 对现在的事情进行把握较小的猜测和判断时:肯定句一般用 may 加动词原形,此时 may

不再表示“可以” ,而是表示“可能” ;否定句一般用 may not 加动词原形。 She may not be annoyed because she is very patient. The news may, or may not, be true. 这个消息可能是真的,也可能不是。

4. 对过去的事情进行把握较小的猜测和判断时:肯定句一般用 may 加动词完成形式(may have done) ,同样,may 不再表示“可以” ,而是表示“可能” ;否定句一般用 may not 加动词完成形式(may not have done) 。 He may have gone back home, because he didn’t say he would take part in her birthday party. 他可能已经回家了,因为他并没有说他会参加她的生日聚会。 5. 对现在的事情进行把握更小的猜测和判断时:肯定句一般用 might 加动词原形;否定句 用 might not 加动词原形。 She might not be annoyed because she usually is very patient. 她可能不会生气,因为她通常有很好的耐心。 If you took some exercise, you might not be so fat. 要是你锻炼锻炼,就不会那么胖了。 6. 对过去的事情进行更小的猜测和判断时: 肯定句一般用 might 加动词的完成形式 (might have done) ;否定句一般用 might not 加动词的完成形式(might not have done) He must be at home. He may be at home. He would be at home. He should (ought to) be at home. He must know you. He may know you. He can’t be at home. He may not be at home. Can he be at home? 他一定在家。 他可能在家。 他大概在家。 他应当在家。 他肯定认识你。 他可能认识你。 他不可能在家。 他不太可能在家。 他可能/会在家吗?

情态动词高考真题训练
2011 年高考 1.---Shall I inform him of the change of the schedule right now? ---I am afraid you ____ , in case he comes late for the meeting. A. will B. must C. may D. can

2.---I don’t really like James. Why did you invite him? ---Don’t worry. He ____ come. He said he wasn’t certain what his plans were. A. must not B. need not C. would not D. might not/may not

3.---Why didn’t you come to Simon’s party last night? ---I want to, but my mom simply ____ not let me out so late at night. A. could B. might C. would D. should

4.It ___ be the postman at the door. It’s only six o’clock. A. mustn’t B. can’t C. won’t D. needn’t

5.---No one ___ be compared with Kobe Bryant in playing basketball. ---Oh, you are really his big fan. A. can B. need C. must D. might

6.The police still haven’t found the lost child, but they’re doing all they ___. A. can B. may C. must D. should

7.---How’s your new babysitter? ---We ___ ask for a better one. All our kids lover her so much. A. should B. might C. mustn’t D. couldn’t

8.If you ___ go, at least wait until the storm is over. A. can B. may C. must D. will

9.I ___ worry about my weekend – I always have my plans ready before it comes. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. daren’t D. needn’t

10.They ___ have arrived at lunchtime but their flight was delayed. A. will B. can C. must D. should

11.If you ___ smoke, please go outside. A. can B. should C. must D. may

12.---Will you read me a story, Mummy? ---OK. You ___ have one if you go to bed as soon as possible. A. might B. must C. could D. shall

13.Some young people these days just ___ go out of their homes to contact the real world. A. mustn’t B. won’t C. mightn’t D. shouldn’t

2010 年高考 1.Just be patient. You ___ expect the world to change so soon. A. can’t B. needn’t C. may not D. will not

2.I’m afraid Mr. Harding ___ see you now. He’s busy. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t

3.Jack descried his father, who ___ a brave boy many years ago, as a strong-willed man. A. would be B. would have been C. must be D. must have been

4.---Good morning. I’ve got an appointment with Miss Smith in the Personnel Department. ---Ah, good morning. You ___ be Mrs.Peter. A. might B. must C. would D. can

5.You ___ buy a gift, but you can if you want to. A. must B. mustn’t C. have to D. don’t have to

6.---I haven’t got the reference book yet, but I’ll have a test on the subject next month. ---Don’t worry. You ___ have it by Friday. A. could B. shall C. must D. may

7.I have told you the truth. ___ I keep repeating it? A. Must B. Can C. May D. Will

8.Doctor say that exercise is important for health, but it ___ be regular exercise. A. can B. will C. must D. may

9.I ___ have watched that movie --- It’ll give me horrible dreams. A. shouldn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t

10.---May I take this book out of the reading room? ---No, you ___ . You read it in here. A. mightn’t B. won’t C. needn’t D. mustn’t

11.---___ I take the book out? ---I’m afraid not. A. Will B. May C. Must D. Need

12.Mark ___ have hurried. After driving at top speed, he arrived half an hour early. A. needn’t B. wouldn’t C. mustn’t D. mustn’t

13.You ___ park here! It’s an emergency exit. A. wouldn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t

14.“You ___ have a wrong number,” she said. “There’s no one of that name here.” A. need B. can C. must D. would

15.---Sorry, Professor Smith. I didn’t finish the assignment yesterday. ---Oh, you ___ have done it as yesterday was the deadline. A. must B. mustn’t C. should D. shouldn’t

16.It is important to know about the cultural differences that ___ cause problems. A. must B. dare C. need D. may

2009 年高考 1.---I don’t care what people think. ---Well, you ___. A. could B. would C. should D. might

2.He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he ___ it differently. A. could express B.would express C.could have expressed D.must have expressed 3.What do you mean, there are only ten tickets? There ___ be twelve. A. should B. would C. will D. shall

4.---It’s the office! So you ___ know eating is not allowed here.

---Oh, sorry. A. must B. will C. may D. need

5.The traffic is heavy these days. I ___ arrive a bit late, so could you save me a place? A. can B. must C. need D. might

6.I can’t leave. She told me that I ___ stay here until she comes back. A. can B. must C. will D. may

7.---Hi, Tom. (Do you have) Any idea where Jane is? ---She ___ in the classroom. I saw her there just now. A. shall be B. should have been C. must be D. might have been

8.One of the few things you ___ say about English people with certainty is that they talk a lot about the weather. A. need B. must C. should D. can

2008 年高考 1.When I was young, I was told that I ___ play with matches. A. wouldn’t B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. daren’t

2.Liza ___ well not want to go on the trip – she hates traveling. A. will B. can C. must D. may

3. It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it ___ be rather cold sometimes. A. must B. can C. should D. would

4.You don’t have to know the name of the author to find a book. You ___ find the book by the title. A. must B. need C. can D. would

5.---What sort of house do you want to have? Something big? ---Well, it ___ be big – that’s not important. A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. can’t D. won’t

6.She ___ have left school, for her bike is still here. A. can’t/couldn’t B. wouldn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t

7.---I can’t find my purse anywhere. ---You ___ have lost it while shopping. A. may B. can C. should D. would

8.Although this ___ sound like a simple task, great care is needed. A. must B. may C. shall D. should

9.Peter ___ be really difficult at times even though he’s a nice person in general. A. shall B. should C. can D. must

10.You ___ be hungry already – you had lunch only two hours ago! A. wouldn’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t

11.---I’m sorry. I ___ at you the other day. ---Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself. A. shouldn’t shout C. mustn’t shout B. shouldn’t have shouted D. mustn’t have shouted.

12.According to the air traffic rules, you ___ switch off your mobile phone before boarding. A. may B. can C. would D. should

2007 年高考 1.The teacher ___ have thought Johnson was worth it or she wouldn’t have wasted time on him, I suppose. A. should B. can C. would D. must

2.In crowded places like airports and railway stations, you ___ take care of your luggage. A. can B. may C. must D. will

3.My MP4 player isn’t in my bag. Where ___ I have put it? A. can B. must C. should D. would

4.The biggest problem for most plant, which ___ just get up and run away when threatened, is that animals like to eat them. A. shan’t B. can’t C. needn’t D. mustn’t

5.---She looks very happy. She ___ have passed the exam. ---I guess so. It’s not difficult after all. A. should B. could C. must D. might

6.---Where is my dictionary? I remember I put it here yesterday. ---You ___ it in the wrong place. A. must put B. should have put C. might put D. might have put

7.---Turn off the TV, Jack. ___ your homework now? ---Mum, just ten more minutes, please. A. Should you be doing C. couldn’t you be doing B. Shouldn’t you be doing D. Will you be doing

8.---How’s your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful? ---It ___ be, but it is now heavily polluted. A. will B. would C. should D. must

9.I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I ___ have driven her there. A. could B. must C. might D. should

10.---Guess what! I have got A for my term paper. ---Great! You ___ read widely and put a lot of work into it. A. must B. should C. must have D. should have

11.---What does the sign over there read? ---“No person ___ smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar or pipe in this area” A. will B. may C. shall D. must

12.---My cat’s really fat. ---You ___ have given her so much food. A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t

13.---What do you think we can do for our aged parents? ---You ___ do anything except to be with them and be yourself. A. don’t have to B. oughtn’t to C. mustn’t D. can’t

14.The boss has given everyone a special holiday, so we ___ go to work tomorrow. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t

2006 年高考 1.---What’s the name? ---Khulaifi. ___ I spell that for you? A. Shall B. Would C. Can D. Might

2.If it were not for the fact that she ___ sing, I would invite her to the party. A. couldn’t B. shouldn’t C. can’t D. might not

3.---Must he come to sign this paper himself? ---Yes, he ___. A. need B. must C. may D. will

4.Black holes ___ not be seen directly, so determining the number of them is a tough task. A. can B. should C. must D. need

5.Some aspects of a pilot’s job ___ be boring, and pilots often ___ work at inconvenient hours. A. can; have to B. may; can C. have to; may D. ought to; must

6.---I think I’ll give Bob a ring. ---You ___. You haven’t been in touch with him for ages. A. will B. may C. have to D. should

7.The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I ___ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. A. should have taken C. needn’t have take B. could have taken D. mustn’t have taken

8.There’s no light on – they ___ be at home. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t

9.---May I smoke here? ---If you ___, choose a seat in the smoking section. A. should B. could C. may D. must

10.As you worked late yesterday, you ___ have come this morning. A. may not B. can’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t

11.You know he is not going to let us leave early if we ___ get the work done. A. can’t B. may not C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t

12.---Is Jack on duty today? ---It ___ be him. It’s his turn tomorrow. A. mustn’t B. won’t C. can’t D. needn’t

13.We ___ have proved great adventurers, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years. A. needn’t B. may not C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t

14.---Could I have a word with you, mum? ---Oh, dear, if you ___. A. can B. must C. may D. should

15.We hope that as many people as possible ___ join us for the picnic tomorrow. A. need B. must C. should D. can

答案: 2011 年高考 BDCBA ADCDD CDD

2010 年高考 AADBD BACAD BADCC D

2009 年高考 CCAAD BCD

2008 年高考 CDBCB AABCB BD

2007 年高考 DCABC DACDC CCAC (11 题也可选 D)

2006 年高考 ACBAC DCADD ACBBD


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