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高中英语语法讲解与练习之动名词


高中英语语法之动名词 定义:动名词是一种兼有动词和名词特征的非限定动词。它可以支配宾语,也能被副词修饰。动名词有时态 和语态的变化。解释:动词的 ing 形式如果是名词,这个词称动名词。 特征:动词原形+ing 构成,具有名词,动词一些特征 一、动名词的作用动名词具有名词的性质,因此在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语等。 1、作主语 Reading is an art. 读书是一

种艺术。 Climbing mountains is really fun. 爬山真是有趣 Working in these conditions is not a pleasure but a suffer. 在这种工作条件下工作不是一件愉快的事而是一件痛 苦的事。动名词作主语,有时先用 it 作形式主语,把动名词置于句末。这种用法在习惯句型中常用。如:It is no use/no good crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收 It is a waste of time persuading such a person to join us. 劝说这样 的人加入真是浪费时间。 was hard getting on the crowded street car. 上这种拥挤的车真难。 is fun playing with It It children. 和孩子们一起玩真好。There is no joking about such matters. 对这种事情不是开玩笑。动名词作主语 的几种类型 动名词可以在句子中充当名词所能充当的多种句子成分。 在这里仅就动名词在句子中作主语的情况进行讨论。 动名词作主语有如下几种常见情况: 1. 直接位于句首做主语。例如: Swimming is a good sport in summer. 2. 用 it 作形式主语,把动名词(真实主语)置于句尾作后置主语。 动名词做主语时,不太常用 it 作先行主语,多见于某些形容词及名词之后。例如: It is no use telling him not to worry. 常见的能用于这种结构的形容词还有:better,wonderful,enjoyable, interesting,foolish,difficult,useless,senseless,worthwhile,等。 注意:important,essential,necessary 等形容词不能用于上述结构。 3. 用于“There be”结构中。例如: There is no saying when he'll come.很难说他何时回来。 4. 用于布告形式的省略结构中。例如: No smoking ( =No smoking is allowed (here) ). (禁止吸烟) parking. (禁止停车)5. 动名词的复合结构作主语 当动名词有自己的逻辑主语时,常可以在前面加上一个名词或代词的所有格,构成动名词的复合结构(——这 时, 名词或代词的所有格做动名词的逻辑主语)。 动名词的复合结构也可以在句中作主语。 例如: Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. 6.例词 shopping fishing cycling 这些都是很常见的动名词 二、动名词作主语与动词不定式作主语的比较 动词不定式和动名词都可以用作主语。在意义上相近。但动名词多用来表示泛指或抽象动作,不定式多用来 表示特指或具体动作。比较: Smoking is not good for health. It is not good for you to smoke so much. 注意: 1)在口语中,用动名词作主语位于句首的较不定式多见。 2)在“It is no use...”,“It is no good...”,“It is fun...”,“It is a waste of time...”等句型中,通常用动名词作真实主语: It is no use/good/a waste of time talking about that. *It is no use/good/a waste of time to talk about that. 3)在疑问句中,通常用动名词的复合结构,而不用不定式的复合结构作主语: Does your saying that mean anything to him? *Does for you to say that mean anything to him? 4)在“There be”句型中,只能用动名词,而不能用不定式作主语: There is no telling what will happen. is believing. *To see is to believe. It is impossible to tell what will happen. 5)当句子中的主语和表语都是非限定动词时, 要遵循前后一致的原则, 主语和表语在形式上要求统一: Seeing 2、作宾语(1)作动词的宾语 某些动词后出现非限定性动词时只能用动名词作宾语, 不能用不定式。 常见的此类动词有: advise, allow, permit, avoid, consider, enjoy, finish, give up, cannot help, imagine, include, keep, keep on, mind, miss, put off, delay, practise, resist, suggest, depend on, think about, set about, succeed in, worry about, burst out, insist on, can’t stand, No

be used to, get used to, devote…to…, look forward to, pay attention to, get down to,escape 等。如: They went on walking and never stopped talking. 他们继续走,说个不停。 I found it pleasant walking along the seashore. 在海滩上走真是乐事。 Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations. 每当马克违反交通规则时,他常常企图逃避罚款的处分。 (2)作介词的宾语 We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term. 我们正考虑为下学期制定新的计划。 Shall we have a rest or get down to doing our work? 我们休息呢还是开始干活? (3)作形容词的宾语 The music is well worth listening to more than once. 这种曲子很值得多听几遍。 We are busy preparing for the coming sports meet. 我们正为马上到来的运动会忙着做准备。 3、作表语 动名词作表语时句子主语常是表示无生命的事物的名词或 what 引导的名词性从句。 表语动名词与主语通常是 对等的关系,表示主语的内容,主语、表语可互换位置。 Your task is cleaning the windows. 你的任务就是擦窗户。(Cleaning the windows is your task.) What I hate most is being laughed at. 我最痛恨的就是被别人嘲笑。 (Being laughed at is what I hate most.) 4、作定语 动名词作定语往往表示被修饰词的某种用途。如: a walking stick =a stick for walking=a stick which is used for walking a washing machine=a machine for washing=a machine which is used for washing a reading room=a room for reading=a room which is used for reading a measuring tape=a tape for measuring=a tape which is used for measuring sleeping pills=pills for sleeping=pills which is used for sleeping 二、动名词的逻辑主语 带有逻辑主语的动名词称为动名词的复合结构。当动名词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致时,要在动名词之 前加上物主代词或名词所有格,这便构成了动名词的复合结构。其中物主代词(名词所有格)是逻辑上的主 语,动名词是逻辑上的谓语。动名词复合结构在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等,分别相当于一个主语从句、 宾语从句、表语从句。如: Her coming to help encouraged all of us. 他来帮忙鼓舞了我们所有人。 (=That she came to help encouraged all of us.) Jane’s being careless caused so much trouble. 简的粗心惹来了不少麻烦。 (=That Jane was careless caused so much trouble.) What’s troubling them is their not having enough food. 烦扰他们的是食物不足。 (=What’s troubling them is that they have not enough food.) 在口语中,如果动名词复合结构作宾语,其中的物主代词常用人称代词宾格,名词所有格常用名词普通格来 代替,但在句首作主语时不能这样来代替。如: Would you mind my/me using your computer? 用下你的电脑介意吗? The father insisted on his son’s/his son going to college. 爸爸坚决要求儿子上大学。 Mary’s (不可用 Mary) being ill made her mother upset. 玛丽病了,使她妈妈很着急。 His (不可用 Him)smoking made his family angry. 他抽烟使他一家人非常生气。 在下列情况下动名词的逻辑主语必须用名词的普通格或人称代词宾语: a.无命名词 The baby was made awake by the door suddenly shutting. 这个婴儿被猛烈的关门声吵醒。 b. 有生命名词但表示泛指意义 Have you ever heard of women practising boxing? 你听说过妇女练拳击吗? c. 两个以上的有生命名词并列 Do you remember your parents and me telling about this? 你记得你父母和我都 告诉过你这事吗? 三、动名词的时态和语态

动名词的时态和语态如下: 主动语态、被动语态、一般式 writing、being written、完成式 having written、having been written 其否定形式是在 doing 前加上 not 1、动名词一般式表示的动作通常是一般性动作,即不是明确地发生在过去、现在或将来的动作,或是与谓语 动词所表示的动作同时发生的动作。如: I hate talking with such people. 我讨厌与这样的人说话。 Being careless is not a good habit. 粗心不是一个好习惯。 2、动名词的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前。如: I don’t remember having met him before. 我记不得以前见过他。 Thank you for having taking so much trouble to help. 谢谢你费力帮忙。 3、动名词的逻辑主语同时也是动名词动作的承受者,动名词用被动语态。 (1)它的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,或在其前发生。如: I don’t like being laughed at in public. 在公共场合下,我不喜欢被别人嘲笑。 (2)它的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前。如: I am very pleased at your having been honoured with a medal. 我很高兴你能获得这样的奖牌。 (3)在某些动词,我们常用动名词的一般式表示完成式,尽管动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,这似乎是一种 强大的习惯。如:Excuse me for being late. 我来晚了请你原谅。 I don’t remember ever meeting somewhere. 我记不得原来在什么地方见过。 Thank you for giving us so much help. 谢谢给我们这么大的帮助。 (4)在多数情况下都避免使用动名词被动语态完成式,而用一般式代替,以免句子显得累赘,尤其是在口语 中。如:I forget once being taken (having been taken ) to the city zoo. 我曾被带到过这个动物园,可我忘了。 (5) 动名词被动语态一般式与现在分词被动语态一般式同形,但无进行意义,being 不可省略。如: She is afraid of being taken to the public. 她怕被领到大众面前。 四、常见题型:1) 动名词做主语时,谓语动词为单数 2) 在动名词和不定式中,作为介词的宾语是动名词 3) 动名词的否定直接在其前加否定词,通过代词的宾格或所有格形式给出逻辑主语 例:I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon. A.you to call B.you call C.you calling D.you’re calling(Key:C;换成 your calling 也对) 4) 有些词后只能接动名词 admit; appreciate; avoid; celebrate; consider; contemplate; defer; delay; deny; detest; discontinue; dislike; dispute; enjoy; it entails; escape; excuse; explain; fancy; feel like; finish; forgive; can’t help; hinder; imagine; it involves; keep; it means; mention; mind; miss; it necessitates; pardon; postpone; practice; prevent; recall; report; resent; resist; risk; suggest; understand... 5) 另外还有一些接-ing 形式的常用说法 it’s no good; it’s no/little/hardly any/ use; it’s not/hardly/scarcely use; it’s worthwhile; spend money/time; there’s no; there’s no point in; there’s nothing worse than; what’s the use/point... 6) 有些词后面加不定式和动名词均可 remember, forget, try, stop, go on, cease, mean 后面均可用不定式和-ing 形式,但意义截然不容。 例:remember to do/doing: ①I remembered to post the letters.(指未来/过去未来将要做的动作) ②I remembered posting/having posted the letters.(我记得做过这个动作) forget 与 remember 的用法类似。regret 的用法: ①I regret to inform you that…(我很遗憾地通知你……) ②I regretted having left the firm after twenty years.(为了“二十年前的离开”而遗憾。 )

try to(努力)与 try +–ing(试验) :①You really must try to overcome your shyness. ②Try practicing five hours a day. 五、动名词与现在分词的同与不同 动名词它在形式上与现在分词相同,都是在动词原形的词末加-ing。在现代语法中,这两种形式同视为"-ing 形式"。 这两种形式的另一个相同之处是:它们都是由动词变化而成的,它们都保留了动词的某些特征,它 们都能带自己的宾语、状语,而构成动名词短语或是现在分词短语去担当句子成分。例如: Speaking in the public , he will surely be very cheerful .(现在分词短语,作状语)他在公众场所讲话时总是兴高 采烈的。 She hates speaking in the public.(动名词短语,作宾语)她不喜欢在公众场所讲话。 区别:1?动名词和现在分词都可以用于系动词之后作表语,区别方法是: ①作表语的动名词与主语指的是同一件事,此时系动词相当于“是”,通常把主语和表语的位置互换,语法和意思 不变,例如: My hobby is swimming.可改为 Swimming is my hobby.(可将原句中的主语与表语位置互换) ②现在分词作表语主要用以说明主语的性质,不能与主语互换位置,例如: The story is interesting .不可改为:Interesting is the story. 2?动名词和现在分词都可以用作定语来修饰名词,两者的区别在于: 动名词修饰名词时主要表示该名词的用途,而现在分词修饰名词时性质?状态或动作等?试比较: ①a swimming boy 和 a swimming suit 前者的意思是“一个正在游泳的男孩”,即 a boy who is swimming ,现在分词 swimming 表示被修饰名词 boy 的动 作;而后者的意思是“游泳衣”,即 a suit for swimming , 动名词 swimming 表示 suit 的用途? ②a sleeping child 和 a sleeping car 前者的意思是“一个正在睡觉的孩子”,即 a child who is sleeping ,现在分词 sleeping 表示被修饰名词 child 正处 于的状态;而后者的意思是“卧车(被用来睡觉的车厢)”,即 a car which is used for sleeping ,动名词 sleeping 表示 car 的用途? 1) Mark often attempts to escape ____ whenever he breaks traffic regulations。 A)shavingsbeen fined A) to have heard A) being seen A) to work A) to be able A) to be influenced A) of buying the house B) to have been fined B) to hear B) seeing B) to have worked B) being able C) to be fined D) hearing D) seeing him D) have working D) of being able D)shavingsinfluence D) to buy the house D) being fined 2) My wife said in her letter that she would appreciate ____ from you sometime。 C) for hearing C) him seeing C) working C) to been able C) influencing 3) The thief took away the woman‘s wallet without____。 4) People appreciate ____wit him because he has a good sense of humor。 (CET-4 1998,1) 5) I‘ve enjoyed ____ to talk with you。 6) No one can avoid ____ by advertisements。 B) being influenced 7) They are considering ____ before the prices go up。 B) with buying the house C) buying the house 8) He thought that ____。 the effort doing the job was not worth B) the effort was not worth in doing the jobC) A) it was not worth the effort doing the job A) to lock A) iron B) locking B) to iron D) it was not worth the effort by doing the job D)shavingslocked 9) If I had remembered ____ the door, the things would not have been stolen。 C) to have locked C) ironing 10) Your shirt needs ____。 You‘d better have it done today。 D) being ironed 11) You can‘t help ____ commercials; every few minutes the program is interrupted to give you one advertisement

or another。 A) to hear A) need repairing A) you tell B) to be heard B) needs to repair C) hearing D) with hearing D) need to be repaired D)shavingstold 12) My transistor radio isn‘t working。 It ____。 C) needs repairing 13) It is no use ____ me not to worry。 B) your telling C) for you to have told 14) He is very busy ____ his papers。 He is far too busy ____ callers。 A) to write ;to receive C) writing ;receiving A) receiving。。selling 。 C) to receiving。。to selling 。 C) not being able A) you to offer B) writing ;to receive D) to write ;for receiving B) to receive。。to sell 。 D) to have received。。to have sold 。 B) her being not able

15)The suspect at last admitted ____ stolen goods but denied ____ them。

16) She apologized for ____ to come。A) her not being able D) that she‘s not able to B) that you offer C) your offering

17)I really appreciate ____ to help me, but I am sure that I can manage by myself。 D) that you are offering 18) Please stop ____, boys, I have something important to ____ you。 A) saying 。。talk B) telling 。。 sayC) talking 。。speak D) talking 。。 tell 。 。 。 。 19) Tony, would you go and see if Sam has any difficulty ____ his tape recorder? A) to fix B) fixing C) for fixing D) fix 20)“Why isn‘t Nancy going to meet us?”“It‘s my fault。 I forgot all about ____ her。” A) telephoning to A) to get B) to telephone C) got C) to telephone to D) getting C) him to offer D) to offer him D) not to be going D) the telephoning to 21)“Why were you late?”“I had a hard time ____ up this morning。” B) get 22)I remember ____ to help us if we ever gotsintostrouble。 A) once offering A) not going A) sleep B) him once offering B) not to go B) to sleeping 23)John regretted ____ to the meeting last week。 C) notshavingsbeen going C) slept D) to sleep C) of being written C) to go。。having 。 D) to write D) going。。have 。 24) It is difficult to get used ____ in a tent aftershavingsa soft, comfortable bed to lie on。 25) He gives people the impression ____ many poems。 A) ofshavingswritten A) going。。to have 。 A) delivering B) to have written B) to go。。to have 。 26) Do you feel like ____ out or would you rather ____ dinner at home? 27) Prior to ____ the formal speech, first he will introduce himself。 B) deliver C) being delivering D) being delivered 28)I don‘t mind ____ by bus, but I hate ____ in queues。 A) to travel。。standing 。 C) traveling。。to stand 。 A) buying。。to shop 。 C) buying。。shopping 。 A) in finding。。knowing 。 B)shavingstraveled。。standing 。 D) traveling。。standing 。 B) buy。。shopping 。 D) to buy。。shopping 。 B) finding。。to know 。

29)What about ____ double quantities of everything today? We have hardly time to go____ next week。

30) We had some trouble ____ the house and nobody seemed ____swheresit was。

C) to find。。knowing 。 A) she succeeding

D) to find。。to know 。 B) her succeeding C) she succeed B) their laugh D) her to succeed D) them to have laughed

31)We can‘t imagine ____ in the entrance examination, for she has never been to school。 32)I don‘t like ____ at me。A) them laughing A) sleeping。。to camp 。 C) to sleep。。to camp 。 A) to spend C) them laugh

33)We suggested ____ in hotels but the children were anxious ____ out。 B) sleeping。。camping 。 D) to sleep。。camping 。 C) of spending D) spending D)shavingsinterviewed

34)I have no objection ____ the evening with them。 B) to spending 35) After ____ for the job, you will be required to take a language test。 A) being interviewed A) objected toshavings C) objected to have A) to prepare A) trying to B) interviewed C) interviewing 36)The match was cancelled because most of the members ____ a match without a standard court。 B) were objected to have D) were objected to having B) to be prepared B) to try to C) preparing D) being prepared

37)Jean did not have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy ____ for her examination。 38)It is no good ____ remember grammatical rules。 You need to practise what you have learned。 C) try to D) tried to 39)After ____ him better, I regretted ____ him unfairly。 A) getting to know。。to judge 。 C) getting to have know。。judging 。 A) spend B) have spent B) getting to know。。to have judged 。 D) getting to know。。having judged 。 C) spending D)shavingsbeen spending

40)He is looking forward to ____ his holiday in Britain。 41) Before ____ the house, you should get a surveyor____ over it。 A) buying。。looking 。 C) buying。。to have looked 。 A) to stay B) stay B)shavingsbought。。to look 。 D) buying。。to look 。 C) staying D) stayed B) to be C) to being D) shavingsbeen44) B) expecting C) wanting D) you expect45)“Why

42)In some countries people favor ____ together even though there is much more space。 43) “Why was Fred so upset?”“He isn‘t used _criticized。 ”A) be It‘s no use _ to get a bargain these days。A) to expect B) I drove C) To drive D) That I drove C) to leave, to say D) leaving, saying C) putting off writing D)

were you so late for work today?”“____ to the office was very slow this morning because of the traffic。 ”A) Driving 46)It was impolite of him ____without ____good-bye。 A) to leave, saying B) leaving, to say 47) He kept ____to his parents。A) putting off to write A) cleaning A) to take away?A) run B) to cleaning B) took B) to run C) to be cleaned B) to put off to write D)shavingscleaned

to put off writing48)I‘ll go with you after I get through with ____the house。 49) With apples at 25 cents a pound, we couldn‘t resist ____four pounds。 C) taking C) running D) have taken50) How can you keep the machine _when you are D) being run 答案:1)D 2)D 3)A 4)C 5)B 6)B 7)C 8)C 9)

A 10)C 11)C 12)C 13)B 14)B 15)A 16)A 17)C 18)D 19)B 20)A 21)D 22)B 23)A 24)B 25)C 26) D 27)A 28)D 29)C 30)B 31)B 32)A 33)A 34)B 35)A 36)A 37)C 38)A 39)D 40)C 41)D 42)C 43) C 44)B 45)A 46)A 47)C 48)A 49)C 50)C


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