宾 语 从 句
Mary said that she was hungry.
将句子变为宾语从句时要注意的变 化： 1) 人称变化 2) 时态变化 3) 时间状语变化 4) 指示代词
变化 5) 地点状语变化
She said, “I have read the book.”
She said that she had read the book _________________.
1. 引导词 （从属连词）
由that引导的宾语从句（that没有词义） that引导的宾语从句陈述句,that可以 省略。 他说他正在做作业。 that was doing He said ____ he __________ his homework. 他告诉我他不会来。 that would not come He told me ____he____________.
whether, if表示“是否”,“会不会”的 意思 宾语从句是一般疑问句,要用陈述句语序。
He asked me, “Will you come to the party?” whether/if I would He asked me _________ ___ _____ come to the party.
我不知道她是否说英语。 I don’t know if/whether he speaks _________________ English _________. 我不知道有没有下雨。 whether it is I don’t know ___________ raining or not.
当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,用相应的疑问词 引导,并在从句中充当一定的语法成分(作主 语,宾语,定语,状语等)。 Where is our teacher? I want to know where our teacher is _________________.
注意 1)从句必须用陈述句语序(主谓结构), 标点符号随主句。 Do you know__________(现在几点)? what time it is I don’t know_____________(他什 when he will come 么时候来). He asked_______________(这是谁 whose bike this was 的自行车).
2)如果引导宾语从句的疑问词在从句中 充当主语或主语的定语,从句的其余部分 仍然保持主谓结构。 Whose English is the best in the class? whose English is the Do you know _________________ ______________? best in the class
“Shall we clean our classroom.”
if they should clean Tom ask me __________________ their classroom ____________________ He said, “Where have you been?” where I had been He asked me _________________.
He asked me, “Who is reading English in the room?” who was reading English He asked me ___________________ in the room _________________.
主句是现在的时态(一般现在时,现在完 成时或将来时等),宾语从句可以根据实 际需要使用各种时态。 says is He has said that English has been was will say will be useful to his work.
主句若是过去时,从句视具体情况用相 应的过去时态(一般过去时,过去将来时, 过去进行时、过去完成时等）。 John said that he was very happy. They said that they were playing games then. He said that he had seen the film. Mother told me that she would buy a bike for me.
时态变化： 原句 当主句为 一般现在时 过去时态 一般将来时 时 现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时 can may must
宾语从句 一般过去时 过去将来时
过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时
could might must/had to
从句如说明的是客观真理和科学事实, 不管主句是何种时态，都用一般现在时。 The teacher told us (that) the moon is __ (be) much smaller than the sun. 6)从句中有具体的过去时间状语,一般不 用过去完成时，而是用一般过去时。 bought He said (that) he ______ (buy) the house in 1988.
3.如果主句谓语动词是过去时,从句要用 相应的过去时态。 4.由特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句可以和疑问 词加不定式的结构互换。
I don’t know where we will meet.
where to meet I don’t know _______________.
5.whether和if都可作宾语从句的引导词， 意为“是否”，在一般情况下可以互换。 If常用在口语中。 她问我是否能帮她学英语。 if／whether She asked me ___________ I could help her with her English．
六种情况下,只能用whether,不能用 if： 1.在带to的动词不定式前。 她还没有决定去还是不去。 whether She hasn't decided _______ to go or not. 2．在介词后面。 我在想我们是否该去钓鱼。 whether I'm thinking of ________ we should go fishing.
3．直接与or not连用时。 他能否准时来，我说不准。 whether I can't say ________ or not he will come on time.
4．在动词discuss后面的宾语从句中。 我们讨论下周我们是否举行运动会。 We discussed _________ we had whether a sports meeting next week.
5．宾语从句提前时只能用whether. Whether _________ this is true or not, I can't say. 这是不是真的，我说不准。 6．引导位于句首的主语从句或表语 从句用 whether。 Whether ________ he is right or wrong is a question． 他是对还是错仍是个问题。
引导否定概念的宾语从句时一般用if。 if He asked me ____ I hadn't finished my homework． 他问我是否没有完成作业。
be+形容词+that引导的从句 “be+形容词+that”从句在概念上也可视 作宾语从句,常用形容词有sure, afraid, happy, surprised, glad, sorry等。 I’m afraid that I have made a mistake.
1．When do the Smiths leave Haikou？ He asks． when the Smiths leave He asks____________________ Haikou． 2．Where did you find the book？ Could you tell me？ found where Could you tell me ______ you _____ the book？ 3．How can we get to the plane？ I didn't know． how we could I didn't know_______________ get to the plane．
4. What time will they show their tickets? Did you know? what time they would Did you know___________________ show their tickets? 5. Will you go there by bus? Could you tell me? if/whether you Could you tell me_______________ will _____ go there by bus?