一、独立主格结构的构成形式 1、逻辑主语+V-ing 这种构成形式内部的逻辑主语是分词的 动作执行者，分词表示的动作不是整句 主语发出的动作，而是其逻辑主语发出 的动作。如：
A 1).________no bus, we had to walk home. A.There being B.Being C.Having been D.There was
1. All our savings gone, we started looking for jobs.
2. The question settled, we went home.
3. The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible.
主格名词/代词 + 形容词
1. His mother being ill, he had to stay home to look after her.
2. Other things being equal, I would buy the black dress.
主格名词/代词 + 副词
The meeting being over, our headmaster soon left the meeting-room.
主格名词/代词 + 不定式
We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.
Our English teacher came into the classroom, papers in hand.
with复合结构 与 独立主格结构 它们都可以在句中作原因状语、伴随状况状语、 条件状语、时间状语或结果状语用，一般也可以 相互转换。虽然它们的语法功能和意义相同，但 其结构形式和名称却不相同。
1、With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. 2、With the traffic light green, the bus got moving. =The traffic light green, the bus got moving.
1、With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves. = The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.
2、With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room. = The key having been lost, she could not enter the room.
1、With time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. = Time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. 2、With the car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain. = The car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.
1、The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed. =The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed.
2、Last night I followed him, with a sword in my hand.
= Last night I followed him , sword in hand.
无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构，都不可有 动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语。如下例中 的was就必须去掉：
He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.
with复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词，而 独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词. Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. = Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.