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独立主格结构讲解


一、独立主格结构的构成形式 1、逻辑主语+V-ing 这种构成形式内部的逻辑主语是分词的 动作执行者,分词表示的动作不是整句 主语发出的动作,而是其逻辑主语发出 的动作。如:
A 1).________no bus, we had to walk home. A.There being B.Being C.Having been D.There was

/> 独立主格结构
独立主格结构的模式是:

主格名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
(作逻辑主语) (作逻辑谓语)

主格名词/代词+分词 (过去分词/现在分词)
1. All our savings gone, we started looking for jobs.

2. The question settled, we went home.
3. The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible.

主格名词/代词 + 形容词
1. His mother being ill, he had to stay home to look after her.

2. Other things being equal, I would buy the black dress.

主格名词/代词 + 副词
The meeting being over, our headmaster soon left the meeting-room.

主格名词/代词 + 不定式
We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.

主格名词/代词 +介词短语
Our English teacher came into the classroom, papers in hand.

with复合结构 与 独立主格结构 它们都可以在句中作原因状语、伴随状况状语、 条件状语、时间状语或结果状语用,一般也可以 相互转换。虽然它们的语法功能和意义相同,但 其结构形式和名称却不相同。
with复合结构的模式是:

with+名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
独立主格结构的模式是:

主格名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语

一、作时间状语
1、With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. 2、With the traffic light green, the bus got moving. =The traffic light green, the bus got moving.

二、作原因状语
1、With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves. = The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.

2、With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room. = The key having been lost, she could not enter the room.

三、作条件状语
1、With time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. = Time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. 2、With the car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain. = The car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.

四、作伴随状语

1、The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed. =The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed.

2、Last night I followed him, with a sword in my hand.

= Last night I followed him , sword in hand.

无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构,都不可有 动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语。如下例中 的was就必须去掉:

He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.

with复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词,而 独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词. Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. = Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.


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