Module 4 Music Born in America
I．教学内容分析 本模块以 Music Born in America 为话题，介绍了美国的本土音乐，其中包括了 Hip Hop，Soul music, Gospel music, Jazz, Blues 等。与此同时，还介绍了香港本土的音乐以及几位著名的美国音乐人。通过本模块的学习，要求学生能使用 恰当的词
汇与同学以音乐为主题展开讨论，了解中外音乐的相互影响，发表对音乐的观点和看法。 Introduction 部分介绍几种美国本土的音乐类型，为整个模块的学习提供了一些知识储备，教师可以适当地帮助学 生复习以前学过有关音乐的词汇，让学生能够形成比较系统的词汇网。 Reading and Vocabulary 部分通过阅读一篇介绍 Hip Hop 的文章，系统地了解 Hip Hop 的起源、发展及现状。由于 这是一篇说明文，在学习过程中教师可以适当地训练学生寻找主题句或归纳段落大意的能力。 Grammar (1) 部分是复习时间状语从句。教师应着重把握时间状语从句学习中常出错的两个方面，一是时态；二 是个别引导词的语序问题。 Listening 部分有三个内容，一是通过短语配对，让学生学习用英语来解释一些词组，并为后面的听力做好词汇基 础的铺垫；二是让学生听一段母子的对话，让学生获取信息完成书上的练习，并着重帮助学生理解几个省略句的意思， 为后面的语法课做好语言材料的准备。 Grammar (2) 部分利用听力原文的几个省略句，让学生学会看并知道运用省略句。 Function 部分学习使用比较过去与现在的功能句式。 Everyday English 部分围绕日常生活中常见的交际用语， 主要通过选择题的形式让学生进一步理解听力原文中出现 的几个短语。如：a bit, my cup of tea, it‘s one‘s turn to do sth.等。 Reading and Writing 部分通过阅读文章，回答三个开放性的问题，使学生开始思考音乐与学习的关系，为后面的 写作做好了铺垫。第二部分要求学生根据所提供的问题，写一篇关于学习习惯的文章。 Speaking 部分要求学生根据本模块所学的内容，学会就这些音乐的起源及其其他有关音乐的话题展开讨论。 Reading Practice 部分一篇介绍香港本土音乐的说明文，要求学生通过阅读文章，学会概括段落大意，并回答几个 与文章细节有关的问题，培养学生对文章理解的能力。 Cultural Corner 部分是一篇介绍三位对世界音乐的发展产生影响的音乐家，增加学生对音乐家的认识。 Task 部分是对本模块的一个复习与应用，要求学生运用本模块所学的内容，组织一场班级音乐会，并在当中介绍 音乐的类型、背景等内容。 Module File 部分有助学生对本模块学习内容进行归纳，对自己的学习进行总结和检验。 II．教学重点和难点 1. 教学重点 (1) 掌握一些与音乐相关的词汇。 (2) 学习使用一些比较现在与过去的句型。 (3) 学习时间状语从句和省略句。 2. 教学难点 (1) 听懂有关音乐的交谈并获取信息，听懂课文中有关音乐种类的介绍。 (2) 正确使用一些比较现在与过去的句型。 (3) 学会描写自己的学习习惯，并能写出自己对某种音乐的看法。
P43 consist of 包含，包括，由------组成 His job consists of helping old people who live alone. It‘s a simple dish to prepare, mainly_______rice and vegetables. A. consisting of B consists of C. consisting in D . consists in consist in 在于 The beauty of the plan consists in its simplicity . 这个计划妙就妙在简明扼要。 consist with 一致，符合 Theory should consist with practice.理论应当与实践相一致。
P44 1.20 世纪 70 年代街区舞会上音乐的主持人（DJ）播放很多灵乐，他们注意到大家很喜欢乐曲中的打击 乐，因为打击乐非常适合跳舞。(P44) The DJs at block parties in the 1970s played a lot of soul music and they noticed that people preferred the percussion breaks in the songs because they were the best parts to ________ ________.dance to …： 随着…… 跳舞 你喜欢跟着节奏快的音乐跳舞吗？ Do you prefer to dance to fast music? 纽约有许多牙买加人，他们从自己的国家带去了有关音乐的理念。 2.There were a lot of Jamaicans in New York who ___________ the idea _________ them. bring sth. with sth. 随身带去某物 你下次来的时候带点钱。 Bring some money with you next time when you come. bring … into 使……处于某种状态，使卷入 bring down 使倒下，使（价格等）降低 bring in 邀请，生产，逮捕，介绍引进 3. (…), but Herc and other DJs made them longer by using two records on two turntables, side by side. (P44) side by side 表示―并排‖， ―一起‖， ―肩并肩‖。 类似的短语还有：neck and neck ―并驾齐驱地‖, head to head ―交头接耳地‖。 The couple sat side by side. The two bottles stood side by side on the table. .He put two favorite toys, Snoopy and Kitty, on the bookshelf ,_______________ 4.后来他们尝试用不同的发声和奏乐方法，所使用的压韵词汇，经常是来自美籍非洲人的文化当中。 Later they _____________ _____________ different vocal and rhythmic approaches, using rhyming words, often words from African – American culture.(P44) experiment with …：to try something new, especially in order to gain experience 用……做实验 他们正在 实验新的教学方法。 They are experimenting with new methods of teaching. by experiment：通过实验 make / carry out / do an experiment on / upon / in / with 做……实验（试验） 5.―我一听‖他说，―就知道这是一种全新的音乐。‖―_______ ________ I heard it‖ he said, ―I knew it was a completely new kind of music.‖(p45) the moment = as soon as 一……就…… 我一拿起听筒就知道是有人打错了。 The moment I picked up the receiver, I realized that somebody had dialed the wrong number. 引导时间状语从句的连词类似的有： the second, the minute, immediately, directly, hardly (scarcely) … when, no sooner … than 6. People were bored with the pop music of the day—disco music and rock music were both in decline in the mid 1970s. (P45) 句中，be bored with sth/ sb, 表示―对……感到厌烦‖，这里要注意区别 bored 和 boring, bored 表示―感到 厌烦的‖，而 boring 表示―令人厌烦的‖，如： This job is so boring that everyone intends to give it up. Everyone is bored with this tough job. It is evident from his words that he has been this task, because he said he would never
do it again. in decline：在下降，在衰退中 他对电脑游戏的兴趣开始减退。 His interest in computer games is now in decline. 7.Hip hop took advantage of that and provided a kind of disco music for people who hated disco. (P45) take advantage of sth. 表示―利用‖，―很好的使用某物‖，take advantage of sb.表示―欺骗‖，―占便宜‖，与 advantage 的相关短语还有：have the advantage of 比……强, 胜过，make one‘s advantage of 利用，占便 宜。 1. You should this opportunity, for it may not occur again. 8.这种风格很快就传到了美国的其他地方。 The style soon ________ ________ other parts of the United States. spread to a place： （指消息等）传到某个地方 The news soon spread to other cities. spread 解释为―传播‖时还可与其他介词连用。 In the 1980s, hip hop spread across the world, to Japan, India and many parts of Europe. The fire spread from the factory to the houses nearby. 9.The illness spread through the village.歌曲是说唱的而不是敲打出来的。 Songs that are spoken ________ ________ songs are called rap. rather than：与其说…倒不如说…,宁愿…不愿… 该短语为从属连词，引导比较从句，而且这个从句经常是省略的。其用法有： 她在工作中的表示是好，而不是坏。 Her performance in work is good rather than bad.我决定写信给她，而不愿打电话。 I decided to write to her rather than telephone her.与其说他是位诗人，不如说他是位作家。 He is a writer rather than a poem. (P52). The teacher told us that she would try out the theory and play us some classical music, (…) try out 的意 思是―试验‖，―尝试‖，另外还可以表示―参加选拔‖，如： Apparently, he has an intention to ___________ if the machine works. He has tried out for the football team, but failed. (P53) 1. Cantopop expresses only harmony and virtue, and Hong Kong is blessed with the most conventional music scene in the world.在这个句子中，be blessed with 表示―幸运的享有‖，―有幸得到‖，―具有……‖，后加 名词。类似的用法还有: e.g. He is blessed with good health. 他享有好的健康。 此外，bless 一词还常用于一些常用语中，如：God be blessed! 感谢主！ God bless me! 上帝保佑我！ The city _______________ the favorable situation for the future development. 2.in vain 徒然，枉然 All our work was in vain. The police tried in vain to break up the protest crowds.警察企图驱散抗议的人群，但没有成功。 3. When new albums come out, the stars are marketed as consumer products, (…) (P53) come out 意为―出来‖，―出现‖，―发行‖，―出版‖，―发表‖，―揭露‖等，这里表示―专辑发行‖。 e.g. The author‘s new book just came out and it was soon becoming a best-seller. 作者的新书刚刚出版, 很 快就变得很畅销。 The whole story came out during the process of trial. 整个事情在审讯过程中揭露出来。 As soon as the book Chicken Soup _______________, it became popular among the young people pretty soon 4. It is far from being a part-time job. (P53)
far from 在这个句子中表示―远远不‖，―完全不‖。它的本义是―远离……‖，如：It is far from here. He was being satisfied with the current position in the company so at last he quit. 5. The fans are devoted to their stars. (P53) 句中，be devoted to 后加名词或动名词，表示―致力于‖，―专心于‖ e.g. He has been devoted to the research of artificial intelligence. People are devoted to finding the main contradiction. devote 还可以用于短语 devote oneself to…表示―献身于‖，―致力于‖。 The scientist has been _______________ the research for nearly 30 years. 6. They yell their names at concerts and beg for autographs. (P53) beg for sth. 表示―请求得到某物‖，也可用于 beg sb. to do sth. 表示―请求某人做某事‖，如： The children begged for the best rewards for their excellent performance in the exams. The stray children begged that old man to give them some food to eat. The workers are on strike recently because they ___________ the increase of the salary. (P55) 1. be short for 是-----的缩写 2.even so 即使如此，即使这样 3.I wanted black music to make an impression on white audience and we got some great blues, jazz and gospel artists. make an impression on sb.表示―给某人留下印象‖， ―给……以影响‖， 另外还可以用 make no impression on sb.，意为―对某人无影响‖。 The girl talked eloquently (富有表现力地) in order that she could ____________________the interviewers. 4.Woody Guthrie was a folk singer who was born in Oklahoma in 1912, in the year when Woody Guthrie was elected President. President.在此做主补，前无冠词。 此外，表示头衔，官职，身份，地位的词在句中做补足语，表语，同位语的时候，前无冠词。 4.name-----after------以------来命名----Everyday English. Be not sb‘s cup of tea 非某人所好，不合某人的心意 He is nice enough but not really my cup of tea.他这人挺不错，但不是我特喜欢的那种人。 Grammar 省略句（ELLIPSES） 为了避免重复,省略句中的一个或几个成分,这种语法现象称为省略. 简单句中的省略 1.在对话中 --How is your mother today? --(She is ) much better. 2.在祈使句中 （You) open the door,please. 3.在感叹句中 What a (good) boy (he is)! How (hard) they are working! 4.表示讲话人的意见和看法 (It) sounds fine to me. (It‘s a) pity you couldn‘t come. 5.提问 (Is there) anything wrong? (Have you) found the bike? 6.名词所有格修饰的名词若表示店铺,住宅,教堂或上下文已暗示或明确指出过的事物
At her mother‘s (house) she passed many happy days. 7.前面出现过的动词在下文再次出现时可以单纯使用不定式符号 to I. --Will you go with me? --Well, I‘d like to (go with you). II. –Have you ever been to the seaside? --No,we can‘t afford to (go to the seaside). 并列句中的省略 1.后面分句中与前面相同的部分常被省略 She was poor but (she was) honest. 2.有时并列句中的省略部分出现在前面的分句中，看完最后一个分句才能掌握全句的完整意义。 Mary can （speak English）and Mary ought to speak English. 惯用的省略结构 1.无动词祈使句,无主句祝愿句,这类句子往往用感叹号. If only I could remember his name! 2.固定句型 How/What about + n/pron/-ing. What about some more milk? 3.Why not +省去 to 的动词不定式。 Why not go at once? 复合句中的省略 1.主句中的省略 1）主句的省略多见于句首，多用于口语中。 (It‘s a) pity you couldn‘t come. 2)在对话中答句省去整个主句只用从句。 --Shall I go to play? --If you like (you can go to play). 2.宾语从句中的省略 1）由 which,when,where,how 和 why 引导的宾语从句，可全部或部分省去,只保留引导词。 Please pass me one of these books, I don‘t care which (you pass me). 2)在 I‘m afraid,I think, I believe, I hope, I guess 等开头的作答句中，后面跟 so 与 not 分别用于肯定或否 定宾语是，宾语从句可省去。 --Do you think it will rain? --I hope not (that it will not rain). 3.状语从句中的省略 1）状语从句出现在句末时，一般都可以作句尾省略。 Coming swimming?You don‘t have to (coming swimming) if you don‘t want to (coming swimming) . 2)有时条件从句可以完全省去，只剩下主句。 I would have come yesterday (if I had wanted to). 3)以 as,than 引导的比较状语从句可以全部或部分省去。 After half a hour, she become quieter (than she had been.) 1.The research is so designed that once _______nothing can be done to change it. (2002 年全国高考) A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 状语从句中，如果主句的主语和从句的主语一致，且状语从句的谓语动词中有 be 动词，从句的主语连 同 be 可一起省略，该类状语从句多为时间、地点、条件、方式或让步等，连词为 when, while, though, if, unless, although, as if 等，后面通常接分词、不定式、形容词、名词等。 2.What surprised me was not what he said but ___ he said it. (2004 湖北高考) A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 关系代词在限制性定语从句中充当宾语且不位于介词之后可以省略； 关系副词 that 在先行词 reason/ way 后的省略。
3.A computer does only what thinking people _________. (1999 上海高考) A. have it do B. have it done C. have done it D. having it done 不定式在感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice, look at , listen to, overhear, observe 和使役动词 have, make, let 后作宾语补足语时, 不定式省略 to 。 4.--- I‘ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my car ? --- Not at all. ________. (1995NMET) A. I‘ve no time B. I‘d rather not C. I‘d like it D. I‘d be happy to 动词 love, mean, want, hate, like, wish, expect, hope，try, intend, plan, refuse, prefer, seem 及 be glad (pleased, delighted, happy) to 等后面接不定式时，为避免重复，常省略与上文相同的动词，只保留 to 不 定式符号。 5.--- You haven‘t lost the ticket, have you ? --- ______. I know it‘s not easy to get another one at the moment. (2004 江苏高考) A.I hope not B. Yes, I have C. I hope so D. Yes, I‘m afraid so 替代词 so / not 用于避免重复前面所说过的内容， 代替肯定的名词性从句。 可与动词 believe , do, expect, fear, guess, hope, say, speak, suppose, think 等及 I‘m afraid 连用。肯定时上列动词都可与 so 搭配，否定 时 hope 与 guess 只用 I hope not 和 I guess not 形式， 而 think ,believe , suppose 等词可有两种否定形式 ， 即：I think not 或 I don‘t think so. 6._____ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. ( 1994 上海高考 ) A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 在书面语中, 当条件从句有 were, had, should 时省略 if , 把它们提至句首, 形成倒装句式。 在含有建议、 要求、命令等相关的名词性从句用 should + V ，should 可以省略。 7.--- Let‘s go and have a good drink tonight. --- _____ Have you got the first prize in the competition? (2004 重庆高考) A. What for ? B. Thanks a lot . C. Yes, I‘d like to D. Why not ? 省略在会话中广泛应用， 解题时应按照问话或答语的具体内容补充完整, 做好该类题型一是要注意上下 文语境，二是要注意常见句式的省略。 英语中常见句式的省略有： 1.It is … (that…) 强调句式中 that 部分省略。 2.(It is) No wonder … ( 难怪……) 3.(Is there) Anything else ? 4.(You‘d) Better do 5.have some difficulty( in) doing, prevent sb (from) doing sth 等词组中 8.--- Where did you see him last night? --- It was in the hotel ____ he stayed. A. where B. that C. which D. / 补全强调句式 that 部分： It was in the hotel （where he stayed） that I saw him last night. hotel 后为定语从句。 状语从句 Adverbial clauses 状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词，形容词或副词，按意义可分为时间、地点、原因、目的、 结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。从句的位置放在句首，也可放在句末。放在句首时，从 句后面常用一个逗号，放在句末时，从句前一般不用逗号。 1、时间状语从句： 引导时间状语从句的从属连词有：when, while, as, whenever, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as, once,the moment, immediately, no sooner…than, hardly…when, by the time, every time, last time…等引导。
（1）when, as, while （从属连词） when 即可引导持续性动作，又可引导短暂性动作。它可以表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生，或 从句的动作发生在主句动作之前。如： When I was a boy, I used to go to the seashore on Sundays.（同时） When the lesson was over, we began our writing. （从句动作在前） as 引导持续性动作，侧重主句和从句的动作同时发生。 He hurried home, looking behind as he went. I saw your sister as she was getting on the bus yesterday. He sang as he walked. While：指的是―在某一时间里‖，―在… 期间‖，从句里的动作必须是持续性的，它也强调主句和从句 动作的同时发生，往往侧重主句和从句动作的对比。 如：While he was in London, he studied music. While we were watching TV, he was writing a composition. 当 when, as, while 表示―在…一段时间里‖，主从句的动作同时发生时，可以换用。如： While (When 或 As) we were discussing, Mr. Smith came in. *when 可表示―如果‖。如： Don‘t be afraid of asking for help_____ it is needed. (‘03 全国） A. Unless B. since C. although D. when *while 可表示―虽然，尽管‖。如： 1)____ modeling business is by no means easy to get into, the good model will always be in demand.(‘04 浙 江） A. While B. Since C. As D. If 2)_____ I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the person.(‘04 江苏） A. While B. Since C. Before D. Unless When 和 while（并列连词） ，while 表示对照的意思。When 表示―这时，突然…‖ 1) I do every single bit of housework____ my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then.(‘04 广 西） A. since B. while C. when D. as 2) He was about to tell me the secret____ some one patted him on the shoulder. (‘02 上海） A. as B. until C. while D. when 3) We were swimming in the lake ____ suddenly the storm started.(‘04 北京春招） A.When B. while C. until D. before 4) Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park____she was bitten on the leg by a lion.(‘04 上 海）A. When B. while C. since D. before (2)till 和 until ①如果主句谓语动词是持续动词，通常用肯定式的主句，表示―直到…为止‖。如： I worked till (until) he came back. 1) A good storyteller must be able to hold his listeners‘ curiosity _____ he reaches the end of the story.(‘03 上 海）A. when B. unless C. after D. until 2) We were told that we should follow the main road ___we reached the central railway station.(‘04 辽宁） A. whenever B. until C. while D. wherever ② 如果主句谓语动词是瞬间动词，则用否定式的主句表示―直到…才‖。 如：I didn‘t go to bed until (till) he came back. 3) ---Was his father very strict with him when he was at school?
---Yes. He had never praised him _____ he became one of the top students in his grade.(‘03 春招）A. after B. unless C. until D. when ③放在句首表示强调时一般用 until。如：Until he returns, nothing can be done. 4) Not until all the fish died in the river ___ how serious the pollution was.(NMET95) A.did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers did realize D. didn‘t the villagers realize (3)before ―在…之前‖ Before I came downstairs I had prepared myself very carefully for what I must say. *如果 before 引导的从句位于主句之后，有时不能译成―在…之前‖，而要译成―就‖、―才‖ 等。如： The struggle lasted four years before the North won in the end. He almost knocked me down before he saw me. 1) Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up ____ I could answer the phone.(‘00 全 国） A. as B. since C. until D. before 2) He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation ___ it got worse.(‘03 北京） A. until B. when C. before D. as 3) Scientists say it may be five or six years____ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.(‘04 福 建） A. since B. after C. before D. when 4)It was evening _____ we reached the little town of Winchester.(‘04 天津） A. that B. until C. since D. before (4) by the time, each time, every time, immediately, the moment, the instant, the minute, soon after, shortly after 都可以作为连词，引导时间状语。如： By the time he was fourteen, he had taught himself advanced mathematics. Each time he came, he would call on me. You must show him in immediately he comes. I recognized him the moment I saw him. --- Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? --- Yes, I gave it to her ______ I saw her.(‘01 全国春招） A. while B. the moment C. suddenly D. once 注意： 时间状语从句中谓语动词不能用任何一种将来时，只能用现在时和过去时表示将来时。 2、地点状语从句：通常由连词 where 和 wherever 引导。如： Go back where you came from. Wherever you go, you must write to your parents. Where there is a will, there is a way. Where there is too much, the poison and waste may do great harm to the things around us. 1) The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai.(‘02 上海春招）A. when B. whenever C. where D. wherever 2) She found her calculator _____ she lost it.(‘00 上海） A. where B. when C. in which D. that 3、原因状语从句：通常由连词：because, as, since, now that 引导。 注意：① 在强调句中强调原因状语从句，只能用 because 引导，不可用 as 或 since，如： It was because he was ill that he didn‘t go with us.
② because 可以引导表语从句,而 as, since 不可以，这时状语一 般都是 it, this, that It‘s because he is too lazy. ③ for 也表示―因为‖，但是并列 连词，它连接的不是状语从句，语气比较强。 It must be morning,for the birds are singing. 1) Parents should take seriously their children‘s requests for sunglasses ____ eye protection is necessary in sunny weather.(‘04 上海） A. because B. though C. unless D. if 2) The changes in the city will cost quite a lot, ____ they will save us money in the long run.(‘00 全国春招） A. or B. since C. for D. but 4、目的状语从句：通常由 that, so that, in order that, so…that, lest, in case（以防、免得）等引导： He got up early in order that he could catch the early bus. She married him so that she might tend and comfort him. I explained again and again in case he should misunderstand me. 注意:目的状语从句中谓语动词常含有 may (might), can (could) should, will 等情态动词。 *lest (以免，免得), for fear that I hid the book lest (=for fear that) he should see it. 1) John shut everybody out of the kitchen _____ he could prepare his grand surprise for the party.(‘02 全国） A. which B. when C. so that D. as if 2) Roses need special care_____ they can live through winter.(‘04 全国） A. because B. so that C. even f D. as 3) Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report ___ her boss could read it first next morning.(‘03 北京 春招） A. so that B. because C. before D. or else 5、结果状语从句：由 that, so that, so…that, such…that 引导： It was very cold, so that the river froze. The book is so written that it gives a quite wrong idea of the facts. There were so many people (=such a lot of people) in the room that we could not get in. He made such an excellent speech that every one admired him. 6、条件状语从句: 由 if, unless, so/as long as (只要), so/as far as, in case (that) (如果，万一)等引导： If plastics and rubber are burned, they give off poisonous gases. Unless you work hard, you will fail, You can go out, as long as (so long as ) you promise to be back before eleven. In case I forget, please remind me about that. As far as I can tell , the whole thing should cost about $500. 注意：条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时态不可用将来时，只能用现在时态或过去时态表示将来时。 1) John may phone tonight. I don‘t want to go out ____ he phones.(‘00 全国） A. as long as B. in order that C. in case D. so that 2) The WTO cannot live up to its name ______ it does not include a country that is home to one fifth of mankind. (‘00 全国） A. as long as B. while C. if D. even though 3) The men will have to wait all day ____ the doctor works faster.(‘01 全国春招） A. if B. unless C. whether D. that 4) ____you can call me to say you‘re not coming, I‘ll see you at the theatre.(‘04 吉林） A. Though B. Whether C. until D. Unless
5) You will succeed in the end______ you give up halfway.(‘01 上海春招） A. even if B. as though C. as long as D. unless 6) ____ I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it.(‘03 北京） A. Even though B. Unless C. As long as D. While 7) --- How far apart do they live? --- ____ I know, they live in the same neighborhood. (‘03 上海） A. As long as B. As far as C. As well as D. As often as 8) ____ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger.(‘04 北京春招） A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if 7、方式状语从句： 由连词：as, as if, as though 引导： The teacher told the students to do as he did. Leave it as it is. He heard a noise, as if someone was breathing. I saw the man looking about him as if he wished to impress upon his mind everything. as if 和 as though 意义和用法大致一样，引导的从句多用虚拟语气，但也可用陈述语气。 He treats me as if I were his own son. He walked as if he were drunk. 8、比较状语从句：由连词 as…as, not so(as) …as, than 等引导： I hope it was as good as the one you lent me. Actually the ocean floor are almost as irregular as the exposed land area. He can‘t run so fast as she. No one can be more fit for his office than he is. 注意：―the+比较级(接从句)，the+比较级(接主句)，这一句型也归在比较状语从句内。如： The more you study, the more you know. The harder we work, the happier we feel. As far as I am concerned, education is about learning and the more you learn, _____ . (‘02 上海） A. the more for life are you equipped B. the more equipped for life you are C. the more life you are equipped for D. you are equipped the more for life 9、 让步状语从句： 由 though, although, as (虽然尽管), even if, even though, wh-ever, no matter-wh, whether 引导. 1) Though he is old, yet he is active. 2) Although most of the people agreed, some were not willing to accepted. 3) Proud as the nobles are, he is afraid to see me. We wouldn‘t lose heart even if we should fail ten times. 4) Whenever (=no matter when) you call on me, you are always welcome. 5) Wherever (no matter where) you work, you can always find time to study. 6) Take the one you like best, whichever (no matter which) it is. 7) No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks I‘m wrong. 8) Whether he comes or not, we‘ll discuss the problem this afternoon. 注意： （1）让步状语从句在句中的位置可放前也可放后，有时还可以插在主句中间，前置时，强调主 句内容，后置时强调从句内容。 （2）though 与 although 同义，用法基本一样，前者通俗，口语化；后者较正式，多放于句首，不能与 but 连用， 但可以与 yet, still 等连用， 用来加强语气。 Though ( Although ) he was tired, yet (still) he went on
working. （3）as, however 引导让步状语从句时从句部分语序要部分倒装。如： Young as he is, he can read and write in several foreign language. （表语提前） You should report any incident, however serous or minor it is. （表语提前） Child as he was, he had to support the family.（表语名词提前并常省去冠词） Try as she might, Sue couldn‘t get the door open.（动词提前） We ?ll have to finish the job, however long it takes. I really want the car, however much it costs.(副词提前） 1) ____, I have never seen anyone who‘s as capable as John.(‘01 上海） A. As long as I have traveled B. Now that I have traveled to much C. Much as I have traveled D. As I gave traveled to much 2) Mr. Hall understands that ____ math has always been easy for him, it is not easy for the students.(‘03 北京） A. unless B. since C. although D. when 3) --- Dad, I‘ve finished my assignment. --- Good, and _____ you play or watch TV, you mustn‘t disturb me.(‘03 上海） A. whenever B. whether C. whatever D. no matter 4) You can eat food free in my restaurant____ you like. (‘04 重庆） A. whenever B. wherever C. whatever D. however 5) _____, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week.(‘04 上海） A.However the story is amusing B. No matter amusing the story is C. However amusing the story is D. No matter how the story is amusing 6) You should try to get a good night‘s sleep____ much work you have to do.(‘04 湖北） A. however B. no matter C. although D. whatever
Ⅰ.单项填空 1．It took a great deal of courage to admit that all his efforts had been____ ____. A．in danger B．in turn C．in return D．in vain 2．—I haven’t seen film star Sally for a long time. —She ________ the stage because she gave birth to a baby last year. A．resigned B．retired C．quitted D．abandoned 3．With the development of science and ________，computers will play a more and more important part
in our life. A．technology B．skill C．technique D．power 4．The laboratory ________ construction will be completed by the end of this month. A．at B．under C．for D．in 5．The schools in the flooded areas were________with free books by the government. A．given B．offered C．sent D．provided 6．Please remember to put the books ________ before leaving the room. A．in the place B．in the order C．in order D．in need 7．Bob has been working hard in an attempt to have his pay________ as soon as possible. A．raised B．risen C．arisen D．lifted 8 ．________ everyone else wouldn’t go to the mountain area，he went without a second thought. A．As long as B．While C．Where D．In spite of 9．Most of the students in his class like to read China Daily，which ________every day. A．comes out B．comes up C．comes across D．comes about 10．If ________ the same treatment again，he is sure to get well. A．giving B．give C．given D．being given 11．—The plane is due to take off at 7∶50 from the airport. —________ we fail to arrive there in time? —Try to take another flight then. A．What if B．As if C．Even if D．Only if 12．He is only too ready to help others，seldom，________ refusing them when they turn to him. A．if never B．if ever C．if not D．if no 13．John seems an honest person；________，I don’t trust him. A．even though B．even so C．therefore D．though 14． It is not rare in ________ that people in ________ fifties are going to university for further education. A．90s；the B．the 90s；/ C．90s；their D．the 90s；their 15．________ his scientific work，he has no time to care for his family affairs，which his wife always complains about. A．Devoting to B．Devoted to C．Being devoted with D．Devoted with Ⅱ.句子翻译 16．我们这座城市发展很快，现在与以前大不一样了。(used to) _______________________ _________________________________________________ 17．他总是充分利用对手所犯的错误。(take advantage of) ________________________________________________________________________ 18．我一拿起听筒就知道有人打错了。(the moment) ________________________________________________________________________ 19．我下班早退给老板留下了不好的印象。(make an impression on) ________________________________________________________________________
20．Review important points mentioned in class as well as those you remain confused about. ________________________________________________________________________ Ⅲ.阅读理解 Eleven － year － old Evan Green doesn’t want to save just one tree—he wants to save a whole rainforest! Red In the Redwood City，Calif，a boy started a group called the Dragon Conservation Team four years ago to do just that.So far， the team’ s members have raised $4,500.That’s enough to purchase and protect more than 16 acres of rainforest in Costa Rica through the Center for rainforest Ecosystem Survival.Every year，thousands of square miles of likely to are destroyed worldwide.Logging (伐木) and farming are mostly blame，scientists say.The loss is terrible news for animals and people.Even though rainforests cover less than 2 percent of the earth， also they are home to half the world’s plants and animals.Rainforests provide water and help control the earth’s climate. Barron Evan’s work to save the rainforests recently earned him a prize for Young Heroes.The prizes are given to children or teenagers who have made a positive difference in the world.Evan’s goal is “to save alone.His enough rainforests to last forever”．He won’t have to do it actions have already inspired other kids to chip_in.One girl asked for donations instead of presents on her birthday.She raised $850.Other kids are starting their own conservation teams. Evan says every one can help the planet—even by taking small steps such as recycling.He and his family try to make a difference every day.“We recycle，we try to limit our garbage...we’ve been walking a little more，and we buy local food，” Evan said. 21．Evan started the group________. A．to help the poor B．to save the rainforest C．to win the Barron prize D．to make himself well－known 22．How much does it cost to buy and protect an acre of rainforest in Costa Rica? A．About $4,500. B．About $850. C．About $280. D．About $1,000. 23．The underlined phrase “chip in” in Paragraph 4 probably means “________”． A．look at B．contribute money C．ask for birthday presents D．unite with other kids 24．What Evan said in the last paragraph suggests that________. A．we can all do something to protect the earth B．actions speak louder than words C．we should learn to recycle from now on D．a good beginning makes a good ending 25．What would be the best title for the passage?
A．Evan Green—a famous teenager B．The Red Dragon Conservation Team C．Rainforests are being destroyed D．Boy gathers support for rainforests Ⅳ.信息匹配 A．One Kind of Building Material B．Factors That Influenced Modern Architecture C．More Kinds of Buildings as a Result of Modern Life D．The Achievements in Architecture as an Art E．Restoration (复兴) of Ancient Civilization F．Stone and Marble Are Good Building Materials 26. Architecture is to building as literature to the printed word.The best buildings are often so well constructed that they outlast their original use.They then survive not only as beautiful objects，but as documents of the history of cultures.These achieve ments are never wholly the work of individuals.Architecture is a social art. 27. The Renaissance brought about an entirely new age，not only in philosophy and literature but in the visual arts as well.In architecture，the principles and styles of ancient Greece and Rome were brought back to life and reinterpreted (重新诠释)．They remain dominant until the 20th century. 28. Many kinds of stone are used as building materials.Stone and marble were chosen for important monuments because they are not burnable and can be expected to endure.Stone architecture was often blended with stone sculpture.The use of stone has declined，however，because a number of other materials are more adaptable to industrial use. 29.
The complexity of modern life calls for a variety of building.More people live in mass housing and go to work in large office buildings；they spend their income in large shopping centers，send their children to many different kinds of schools，and when they are sick they go to specialized hospitals and clinics.All these different types of building accumulated experiences needed by their designers. 30.
By the middle of the 20th century，modern architecture，which was influenced by new technology and mass production，was dealing with i ncreasingly complex social needs.Important characteristics of modern architectural works are expanses of glass and the use of reinforced concrete (钢筋混凝土)．Advances in
elevator technology，air conditioning，and electric lighting have all had important effects.
Ⅰ.单项填空 1．D in danger 处于危险中；in turn 反过来；in return 作为报答；in vain 白费力气，徒劳无益。根 据句意，应该是承认自己的一切努力全是“徒劳的”，这对他而言需要有很大的勇气。 2． C 由答语部分可知 Sally 因生孩子离开舞台， quit 离开(工作职位、 学校等)， 离任， 退出。 resign 辞职，用做此意时，同 quit，但不能说辞去舞台；retire 退休；abandon 舍弃，遗弃，均与题意不符。 3．A technology 是技术的总称，science and technology 意为“科技”。 4．B 本题考查介词的用法。句意为“正在修建的实验室将在这个月底竣工”。正确搭配 是 under construction，表示“正在修建”。 5．D give 和 offer 不与介词 with 连用；be provided with 被提供给。 6．C put...in order 意为“把??整理好”。若选 A，则应去掉 the，in place 意为“在适当的位 置”。 7．A have sth.done 强调某事被做，后面用及物动词的过去分词；排除 B 与 C，它们都是不及物 动词。raise 有“提高，增加”的意思，符合句子要求。lift 抬起；提升，不符合题意。 8．B 句意为“尽管别的人都不愿去山区，他毫不犹豫就去了”。while 引导让步状语从句表示 与主句所述内容的对比、对照。 9．A 此处 come out 意为“出版”符合句意。come up 走近，引起注意；come across(偶然)遇到； come about 发生，三者均不合句意。 10 ． C 考查状语从句的省略， if 加分词相当于 if 加从句，可改写为 if(he is)given the same treatment again，...。 11．A 此题考查省略。what if 要是??该怎么办？as if 好像；even if 即使；only if 只有在?? 条件下。第二句可还原为“What shall we do if we fail to arrive there in time？”。 12．B if ever 为省略用语，意为“如果曾经有过的话”。而 seldom，if ever 可形成副词短语， 意为“即使有也很少，难得，不常”。 13．B even so 即使如此；even though 尽管；therefore 因此；though 可是，不过。 14．D in the 90s 在九十年代；in one’s fifties 在某人五十多岁时。 15．B be devoted to...奉献于??，专注于??。 Ⅱ.句子翻译 16．Our city is developing very fast；now it’s quite different from what it used to be. 17．He always takes full advantage of the mistakes made by his rivals. 18．The moment I picked up the receiver，I realized that someone had dialed the wrong number. 19．I made a bad impression on the boss by leaving too early. 20．复习那些你依然感到困惑以及课堂上提到的重要知识点。 Ⅲ.阅读理解 【语篇解读】 11 岁的小男孩 Evan 以自己的实际行动， 带动了更多的青少年投身到保护热带雨林、 保护地球家园的行动中来。 21．B 细节理解题。由第一、二段可知 Evan 创建该组织目的是为了保护热带雨林。
22．C 细节理解题。由第二段可知购买和保护 16 英亩的热带雨林需要 4 500 美元，也就是说， 每英亩约 280 美元。 23．B 猜测词义题。由第四段可知 Evan 的行动激发了其他的孩子不同方式的捐款 ，因此该短语 此处表示“捐款”。 24．A 推理判断题。最后一段的主题句是 everyone can help the planet—even by taking small steps， 而 Evan 的话正反映了这一主题。 25．D 归纳标题题。本文主要讲述了 11 岁男孩 Evan Green 为了保护热带雨林建立了一个保护小 组，并号召其他的青少年也参与到这一行动中，因此 D 项作标题最佳。 Ⅳ.信息匹配 26．D 27.E 28.A 29.C 30.B