关系副词在从句中只能作状语。when 指时间，where 指地点，why 指原因，how 不能作关系词。如： 考点1. 相关概念 A. 主句、从句、关系词 例句：This is the boy who won the first prize in the English Speech Compet
ition. 主句：在含有定语从句的复合句中，除去定语从句后的部 分， 是句子的主句。 (例句中， This is the boy.是主句。 ) 定语从句：相当于形容词，修饰主句中的一个名词或代词 （有时修饰整个主句， 相当于主句的一个定语。 ） (例 句中，who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition 是定语从句，修饰 the boy。) 先行词：先行词就是被定语从句修饰的名词等，它总是出 现在定语从句的前面。 (例句中， the boy 是先行词。 ) 关系词：关系词指用来引导定语从句的词，分为关系代词 和关系副词。(例句中，who 是关系代词。) 关系词的三个作用 i. 作定语从句的一个句子成分。 ① We will put off the picnic until next week when the weather may be better. ② He has reached the point where a change is needed. ③ That is no reason why you should leave. ④ This is the way how I did it. (how 不能作关系词) 基础过关 1. 用合适的关系词完成句子。 ① The man ______ /______ was here yesterday is a painter. ② The man ______ /______ /______ /______ I saw is called Smith. ③ A child ______ parents are dead is called an orphan. ④ I’d like a room ______ window looks out over the sea. ⑤ A letter ______ /_____ is written in pencil is hard to read. ⑥ The letter ______ / ______ /______ I received from him yesterday is very important. ⑦ That is the boy ______ / ______ / ______ / ______ you are looking for. ⑧ Do you know the reason ______ he was late for the meeting？ ⑨ This is the school ______ I used to study. ⑩ I still remember the day ______ we met for the first time. 2. 用符号标出下列句子的主句、 定语从句、 先行词和关系词。 主句：___ 定语从句:（ ） 关系词：
ii. 起着连接主句和从句的作用 （参看 P. 错误！ 未定义书 签。错误！未找到引用源。）。 iii. 代指被修饰的先行词。（例句中，who 作定语从句的 主语，同时起着连接作用，在意思上，指代的是前面 的先行词 the boy。） B. 关系代词 i. 指人时可以用 who, 也可用 that。 Do you know the boy who/that is my desk mate? The man who/that was killed in the accident is Tom’s uncle.
例：This is the book (that I have been looking for). ① The movie that we saw last night is very exciting. ② Have you bought the book which we talked about？ ③ I still remember the day which we spent together last week. ④ He still lives in the house whose windows face south. ⑤ The boy whose father is a policeman speaks English most fluently in our class. ⑥ The girl who you met was John’s sister. ⑦ There is no reason why we shouldn’t be friends. ⑧ They arrived in the early morning when the sky was still dark. ⑨ The days were gone when we had to travel on horses. ⑩ Is this the hospital where you were born?
ii. 指物时可以用 which, 也可用 that。 I like visiting places which/that are not far away. How do you like the film which/that was shown last Sunday. iii. whose 可以指人也可以指物。 He was a painter whose pictures were not well- known in his life time. The tree whose leaves are red was planted last year. iv. 关系代词作宾语时可以省略。 I like the meal that/which / ( ) we had last night. Do you know the boy who/whom/that/( ) we talked about just now? C. 关系副词 注：（）表示关系代词省略
第十二章 定语从句 The school is the most famous in the city. My father teaches English at the school. 粗斜体部分为根据先行词的意思把关系词还原后的部分。 替换：根据 “对画线部分提问”的规则，1.和 3.用 where, 2. 本该用 what, 在定语从句中该用 what 的要换为 which/that。 因此，答案为：1.where；2. that/which；3. where C. 关系词一般要位于定语从句的句首 【2009 江西】The house I grew up ______ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. A. in it B. in C. in that D. in which 答案与分析：A 没有关系词，不能连接两句话；C 介词后 不能用 that；D 关系词一般不位于句末；而 B 可以看作是 关系代词作宾语、放在句首并且省略了。因此选 B。 利用一“找”二“还”三“替换”的方法选择关系词 1. Is this the reason ______ he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why 2. Is this the reason ______ he was so careless in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why 3. The reason ______ he didn’t come was ______ he was ill. A. why; that B. that; why C. for that; that D. for which; what 4. He lives in a village ______ is not far from the city. A. which B. where C. what D. whose 5. He lives in the village ______ he was born. A. which B. where C. what D. whose 6. In an hour, we travel to places ______ could have taken our ancestors days to reach. A. where B. when C. which D. what 7. In an hour, we travel to places ______ we can relax and get refreshed. A. where B. when C. which D. what 8. I’ll never forget the days ______ we spent together. A. that B. / C. when D. A and B 9. 【2014 湖南】I am looking forward to the day ______ my daughter can read this book and know my feelings for her. A. as B. why C. when D. where 10. If we want to have a bright future, we must learn to act in ways ______ do not do harm to other living things. A. in which B. / C. how D. that 11. Is this the factory ______ color TV sets are produced? A. when B. the one where C. that D. in which 12. Is this factory ______ color TV sets are produced? A. which B. the one where C. that D. in which 13. This is the factory ______ produces color TV sets. A. where B. the one where C. that D. in which 14. 【2010 天津】—Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut? —You should try the barber’s ______ I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that 15. 【2011 陕西】I walked up to the top of the hill with my
A. 选用哪个关系词， 关键是看关系词在定语从句 中作什么 ．．．． 成分 含有定语从句的复合句可以分为两部分：主句和从 句。关系词是定语从句的一个成分。 选用关系词，要看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分，而不 是看先行词是什么词性。 ① He worked in the factory which produces TV sets. ② He worked in the factory where his father had worked. ③ I like the school which is near to my home. ④ I like the school where my sister studies. 在句①和句②中，先行词前都有 in, 但关系词有用 which 也有用 where 的； 在句③和句④中，先行词都是 the school, 但关系词有用 which 也有用 where 的。 因此，我们可以看出，对关系词起决定性作用的并不是先 行词。 在句①和句③中，关系词在定语从句中都是作主语，因此 用的都是关系代词 which； 在句②和句④中，关系词在定语从句中都是作状语，因此 都是用关系副词 where。 我们可以看出，用 哪个 关系词，主 要 看 关系词 在定语从句 ． ．． ．．．．． ． ． ．．． ．．．．． 中 作 什么成分 。 ． ． ．．．． B. 选用关系词的方法：一“找”二“还”三“替换” 一. 找：就是先把句子分为主句和从句两部分，再找出先 行词和关系词。 （参看本章第 1 讲） 二. 还：根据先行词提示的意思，大胆地把定语从句还原 为完整的一句话。 （可以添词） 三. 替换：用关系词替换定语从句中还原后添加的部分， 作主语和宾语用关系代词，作状语用关系副词。 （时间 状语用 when， 地点状语用 where, 原因状语用 why） （同 初中时做的“对画线部分提问”相似，该用 what 的时候 用 which/that 即可） 例如： ① This is the school ______ I once studied. ② This is the school ______ is the most famous in the city. ③ I am studying at a school ______ my father teaches English. 找： （略） 还原：根据先行词的提示，这三句话的定语从句还原成完 整的一句话后分别为： I once studied at the school.
第十二章 定语从句 friend, ______ we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A. which B. where C. who D. that 16. 【2011 福建】She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students ______ allows them to communicate freely with each other. A. which B. where C. what D. who 17. 【2012 江西】By 16:30, ______ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that 18. 【2013 山东】 Finally he reached a lonely island ______ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom 7. 【2014 新课标Ⅰ】Maybe you have a habit______ is driving your family crazy. 8. 【2014 广东】The next day, my brother and I went to the beach ______we watched some people play volleyball. 9. 【2014 湖南】People should not do things ______ will disturb their neighbors unnecessarily. 10. 【2014 安徽】The exact year ______ Angela and her family spent together in China was 2008. 11. 【2015 课标Ⅰ】 I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River ______ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings. 12. 【2015 广东】When harvest came around, he was already selling herbs, vegetables and cotton in the market ______ people from the town met regularly. III. 写作技能提升 13. 【2012 上海】在展览会上，公司销售经理展示了孩子们 翘首以盼的新型电子玩具。(demonstrate) 14. 这本书对我帮助很大，特别是在好印象是必须的工作中。 （help greatly, expression, a must）
1. 【2010 重庆】 Firstly, a friend is someone you can share your secrets. 2. 【2010 重庆】After hearing your sad stories, he will say some words that is nice and warm. 3. 【2006 江西】I read your e-mail to my parents and showed them the photo you sent it to me. 4. I often think of the days when we spent on the island together. 5. This is the museum where you visited the other day. 6. Have you ever been to Shanghai, where I left ten years ago? II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词）
15. 我认为学生应当参加社区活动，在活动中他们可以为成 长获得经验。 （involve oneself in, community activities, gain experience） 16. 我永远不会忘记我们一起度过的日子。
只能用 that 不能用 which 的情况
A. that B. which C. as D. what D. it
考点1. 先行词是 anything, something, nothing, everything 等不定代词时 1. He never reads anything ______ is not worth reading. A. which B. as C. who D. that 2. 【2010 全国 2】I refuse to accept the blame for something ______ was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what 考点2. 先行词是 all, much， little, none 或先行词被 all, much, little, no, any 修饰时 3. There is not much ______ can be done. A. that B. which C. what D. how
6. You can take any seat ______ is free. A. that B. / C. which
考点3. 先行词被最高级、序数词以及 the first, the last, the very, the only, the same 修饰时 7. The most important thing ______ we should pay attention to is the first thing ______ I have said. A. which; that B. that; which C. which; which D. that; that 8. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing. A. that B. it C. which who 9. This is the very film ______ I’ve long wished to see. A. which B. that C. who D. whom 10. This is the last time ______ I shall come here to help you. A. that B. which C. when D. what 11. It’s the third time ______ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 考点4. 先行词有两个，一个指人，一个指物，关系代词用
4. There is no difficulty ______ can’t be overcome in the world. A. that B. which C. who D. what 5. 【2014 陕西】Please send us all the information______ you have about the candidate for the position.
第十二章 定语从句 that 12. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist ______ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that 13. He talked a lot about things and persons ______ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 考点5. 关系代词在从句中作表语或 there be 结构中的实意 主语时, that 可指人或物，且通常省略 (概括为：在从句中位于 be 后。此条仅作了解) He still talks like the man （that） he was ten years ago. 他谈起话来仍像十年前一样。 The train is the fastest train （that） there has ever been. 这列火车是有史以来最快的火车。 14. She is no longer the sweet girl ______ she used to be. A. what B. who C. when D. that 考点6. 当先行词前面有 which，who 等疑问代词时，为避免 重复，用关系代词 that 同理，当先行词是 that, those 时，常用关系代词 which 或 who。如： What’s that which is under the desk？ 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么？ Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 15. Who is the person ______ is standing at the gate of Beijing Tourism Tower? A. who B. that C. which D. whom 16. Who ______ has common sense will do such a thing? A. which B. who C. whom D. that 17. Those ______ not only from books but also through practice will succeed. A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn 考点7. 注意：关系副词不受这些规则的影响 I. 单句改错 只是在选用关系代词时才使用这些规则。如： 18. 【2010 福建】Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ______ life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 19. This is the same house ______ her grandfather was born. A. that B. where C. which D. whose
1. Is there anything which belongs to you? 2. Both the girl and her dog which were crossing the street were hit by a coming car. 3. All the apples which fell down were eaten by the pigs. II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 4. These people once had fame and fortune; now all______ is left to them is utter poverty. 5. I like the second football match ______ was held last week. that III. 写作技能提升 6. 【2010 湖北】母亲对我所做的一切如此自豪，她奖赏我 去北京旅游一趟。 （so proud of, all, reward, trip） 7. 这个就是我一直在寻找的那本书。( the very book ) 8. 【2004 上海】 我发现很难与那些一贯固执己见的人合作。 (…it…, cooperate, stick to) 9. 在那边扫地的那个女的是谁？(Who, sweep the floor) 10. 她已不再是过去的她。 11. 如果有你一个人不能克服的困难，你可以向你的父母或 朋友求助。 （ any difficulty, overcome, turn to
3. This is the museum ______ we saw an exhibition the other day. A. that B. which C. where D. in that
考点1. 只用 which, who, whom 不用 that 的情况 A. 关系代词直接放在介词后面时， 要用 which， 不用 that； 要用 whom，不用 who。 1. 【 2011 湖南】 Julie was good at German, French and Russian , all of ______ she spoke fluently. A. who B. whom C. which D. that 2. 【2008 湖南】The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, ______ are beyond our control. A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that
4. 【2012 上海】 Have you sent thank-you notes to the relatives from ______ you received gifts? A. which B. them C. that D. whom B. 引导非限制性定语从句时，要用 which, who, whom, 不 用 that，也不能省略。 （参看 P8 第 6 讲） 5. 【2010 全国 1】As a child, Jack studied in a village school, ______ is named after his grandfather. A. which B. where C. what D. that
第十二章 定语从句 11. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable 6. 【2012 全国Ⅱ】That evening, ______ I will tell you more moment, ______ I will always treasure. about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. one C. it D. what A. that B. which C. what D. when 12. Her sister has become a lawyer, ______ he wanted to be. A. who B. that C. what D. which 考点2. whose 可指人也可指物 若指物，它还可以同 of which 互换; 若指人，一般不与 of whom 互换 1. He lives in a house. Its window faces south. →He lives in a house whose window faces south. He lives in a house. The window of it faces south. →He lives in a house, the window of which faces south. →He lives in a house, of which the window faces south. 2. He is the farmer. His son is studying in Qinghua University. 由于我们一般说 his son，不说 the son of him, 因此我们 只能说: He is the farmer whose son is studying in Qinghua University. 而不能说：He is the farmer, the son of whom is studying in Qinghua University. 7. I saw some trees ______ the leaves were black with disease. A. where B. of which C. in which D. whose 8. 【2010 陕西】The old temple, ______ roof was damaged in storm, is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. whose 9. 【2014 山东】 A company______ profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad. A. which B. whose C. who D. why 10. 【2013 福建】The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ______ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which 考点3. 当先行词为 one, ones, anyone, everyone, none, all(指 人)时，关系代词常用 who Anyone who is against us is our enemy. 任何反对我们的人就是我们的敌人。 All who heard the story were amazed. 所有听到这个故事的人都很惊讶。 考点4. what 不能作关系代词；one 作同位语 13. For Tim this was the beginning of a new life, ______ he thought he would never see. A. what B. that C. one D. it 14. 【2010 山东】Helping others is a habit, ______ you can learn even at an early age. A. it B. that C. what D. one
1. 【2013 海南/新课标Ⅱ】Having tea in the late afternoon provides a bridge between lunch and dinner, that might not be served until 8 o’clock at night. 2. She showed me the dictionary, on that she spent most of her money. II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 3. Miss Smith is a strict but good teacher, ______who often cares about our life and study at school. 4. 【2009 安徽】Many children, ______ parents are away working in big cities，are taken good care of in the village. 5. The old man has two sons, both of ______ are lawyers. 6. 【2015 四川】The books on the desk, ______ covers are shiny, are prizes for us. III. 写作技能提升 7. 【2013 湖北】上学时我遇到过很多老师，其中两位对我 影响很大。(through the course of, meet, two of, influence) 8. 参观你所在的城市是一次难忘的经历，一次我将永生珍 视的经历。 （visiting your city, experience, one, treasure for the rest of my life） 9. 那些树，树枝几乎秃了，都有数百年了。 （branches, bare, hundreds of ）
as, but, than 用作关系代词
考点1. as 引导限制性定语从句 例题：I had never heard such an interesting story ______ you told me yesterday. A. that B. which C. as D. that/which 有些同学可能选择 D，这说明有关定语从句的基本
要记住： 如果先行词被 such, the same, so+形容词+a/an， as+形 容词+a/an 修饰时，这时关系词我们要用 as。 此时，as 同 that, who, which, whom 一样，是关系代 词，代指 the same, so, such 和 as 引导的短语，常译作“正
第十二章 定语从句 It was so difficult a problem ______ no one worked it out. 如，像” ，在定语从句中通常作主语、宾语和表语。 （成分完整，结果状语从句, 填 that）译为： A. 先行词被 such 修饰时，构成“such…as…。 ” 这道题如此难以至于没有人算得出来。 It’s such a heavy stone as nobody can move. It was so difficult a problem ______ no one worked out. 那是一块重得没人能移得动的石头。 （as 作宾语） （成分不完整，定语从句, 填 as）译为： Don’t trust such men as praise you to your face. 这是一道没有人能算出来的难题。 不要相信那种当面吹捧你的人。(as 作主语) B. 先行词被 the same 修饰时，构成“the same…as…。 ” We have arrived at the same conclusion as they have. 我们已得出和他们同样的结论。(as 作主语) This is the same watch as was worn by John. 这与约翰戴的那块表一样。(as 作主语) C. 在 “as…as…” 句型中，第一个 as 后面跟名词时。 它可以看作是 “as+形容词+as” 的一种变化形式。 He is as good as his brother. 他和他弟弟一样好。 这句话还可以表达为： He is as good a boy as his brother. It’s as pleasant a film as I have ever seen. (as 作宾语) 这是一部和我以往看的同样好的电影。 （参看 P.错误！未定义书签。错误！未找到引用源。 ） D. 在“so+形+冠+n. + as”句型中 (He is so good a student as every teacher likes.) 它可以看作是先行词被 such 修饰时关系代词用 as（第一 种情况）的一种变化形式。 He is such a good student as every teacher likes. 他是一个每个老师都喜欢的这样一个好学生。 用 so 可以表达为： He is so good a student as every teacher likes. （参看 P.错误！未定义书签。错误！未找到引用源。 ） 考点2. the same…as 与 the same…that the same…as 指同一类，the same…that 指同一个。 I bought the same car as yours. 我买的那辆汽车和你的一模一样。 This is the same bag (the very bag) that I lost yesterday. 这就是我昨天丢失的那个包。 考点3. such…as 和 such….that 的区别 （该用定语从句还是 用结果状语从句） such…as “像……样的” ，as 引导的是定语从句，as 作句子 成分；such…that“如此……以至于” ，that 引导的是结果状 语从句, that 不作句子成分。 判断办法： 如果后面成分完整，用 that 来引导结果状语从句； 如果后面句子成分不完整，则用 as 来引导定语从句。 练习 1. He is such a lazy man ______ nobody wants to work with ______. A. as; him B. that; / C. as; / D. whom; him 2. It wasn’t such a good present ______ he had promised me. A. that B. as C. which D. what 3. We should read such books ______ will make us better and wiser. A. when B. as C. whose D. what 4. This is such a heavy box ______ I can’t move it. A. as B. that C. which D. whose 5. Last term our English teacher set so difficult an examination problem ______ none of us worked out. A. as B. that C. which D. whose 6. Pop music is such an important part of society ______ it has even influenced our language. A. as B. that C. which D. where 7. The man showed us so heavy a stone ______ no one can lift. A. that B. as C. which D and 8. I received ______ nice a gift ______ my mother promised. A. the same; as B. as; as C. such; as D. the same; that 9. I want to use the same tools ______ used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 10. Tom did not take away the camera because it was just the same camera ______ he lost last week. A. which B. that C. whom D. as 考点4. but 用作关系代词（选学内容） but 既可指人，也可指物，常在定语从句中充当主语。 but 本身含“否定”的意思，其作用相当于“that ／which ／ who． ． ．not” 。它前面的主句通常有“否定”的词（如：no， not， little，few，hardly 等） 。(为了快速培养语感，也可 把 but 意译为“除了”)。 ① There is no mother but loves her own children. （＝There is no mother that／who does not love her own children. ）没有不爱自己孩子的母亲。 ② There are very few but admire his talents.（but = who don’t）很少有人不赞赏他的才干。 ③ There is no rule but has exception. 凡规则都有例外。 考点5. than 用作关系代词 （选学内容） than 在定语从句中作关系代词，在从句中可以充当主 语、宾语、表语，但仍以充当主语为多。在定语从句中，
第十二章 定语从句 它与关系代词 that 所起的语法作用是差不多的，只是在翻 译或解释时，要比 that 多一层比较的意味。另外，由 than 含有比较意味可知，该类定语从句的先行词前通常要有形 容词的比较级形式。如： ① You make more money than is intended to make. 你挣得的钱比预计的要多。 ② There were more casualties than was reported. 伤亡人数比报道的要多。 ③ Newspapers and other media do more than simply record what happens. 报纸和其他媒体做的不仅仅是记录发生的事情。 II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 4. These houses are sold at such a low price ______ people expected. 5. I have bought the same dress ______ she is wearing. III. 写作技能提升 6. 起初，我认为李老师有点怪，因为他总是问一些没人能 回答的问题。 （kind of odd, such questions as） 7. 他不是一个把今天能做的事拖到明天做这样的一个人。 （such a man, put off…until tomorrow） 8. 在我生日那天，我收到了像母亲承诺的那样好的一件礼 物。 （receive as good a gift） 9. 我在他的书包里发现了我前几天丢的那支钢笔，这支笔 I. 单句改错 是我朋友送给我的生日礼物。 我怒不可遏了。 （the same, a gift from, contain my anger） 10. 英语是如此有用的一门语言， 世界上许多人都在学它。 （so useful, learn it）
1. He isn’t such a man that he used to be. 2. He is not such a man who would leave his work half done. 3. It was so difficult a problem that no one worked out.
代词 that/which。 在句②中， the way 在定语从句中作宾语， 因此也要用关系代词：that/which/省略。
关系副词有 when, where, why 三个，在定语从句中一般 作状语；how 不能作关系副词。 考点1. 关系副词在定语从句中常作状语 1. 【2015 陕西】As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time ______ he should be able to be independent. A. which B. where C. whom D. when 2. 【2009 重庆】Life is like a long race ______ we compete with others to go beyond ourselves. A. why B. what C. that D. where 3. 【2012 浙江】We live in an age ______ more information is available with great ease than ever before. A. why B. when C. to whom D. on which 4. 【2013 四川】Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment ______ they live. A. what B. which C. when D. where 考点2. the way 作先行词 首先要确定 the way 在定语从句中作什么成分。如果 the way 在定语从句中作主语或宾语，要选用关系代词。 ① I don’t like the way ______ will cost too much money. ② The way ______ he thought of to solve the problem was not practical. 在句①中，the way 在定语从句中作主语，因此要填关系
如果 the way 在定语从句中作状语(定语从句还原后是 in the way)，关系词用下面三种情况的任一种： in which；that；省略。 The way ______ he answered the question was surprising. A. how B. that C. in which D. / E. B/C/D 定语从句恢复为完整的一句话后为： He answered the question in the way. in the way 在定语从句中作状语，因此选 E。 5. That is not the way ______ I do it. A. / B. which C. for which D. with which 6. This is the only way ______ you can find. A. that B. / C. in which D. A, B and C E. A and B 7. I don’t like the way ______ he spoke to his mother. A. that B. / C. in which D. A, B and C 考点3. situation, case, point, business 等作先行词，关系副 词常用 where 8. 【2009 浙江】I have reached a point in my life______ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. A. which B. where C. how D. why 9. 【2003 上海】I can think of many cases ______ students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. A. why B. which C. as D. where
第十二章 定语从句 down together and talk. 10. 【2008 江西】Later in this chapter cases will be introduced 3. There are some reasons for they do this. to readers ______ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law. 4. I hope I can be admitted to a good college, which I will have A. where B. when C. who D. which a chance to improve my English further. 11. 【2004 湖南】I work in a business ______ almost everyone is waiting for a great chance. A. how B. which C. where D. that 12. 【 2009 福 建 】 It’s helpful to put children in a situation______ they can see themselves differently. A. that B. when C. which D. where 考点4. occasion(时机)作先行词时关系副词用 when It was a rare -indeed unique occasion when I was able to put Ritchie right. 考点5. when 引导非限制性定语从句 13. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ______ for the first time in years their team won the world cup. A. that B. while C. which D. when 14. The rainbow can’t be seen at noon, ______ the sun is high in the sky. A. while B. when C. so D. that 15. We played in the garden till sunset, ______ it began to rain. A. when B. after C. while D. then II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 5. 【2014 上海】After graduation from university, I had been unable to secure a permanent job in my small town. So I decided to leave home for New York, ______I might have a better chance to find a good job. 6. 【2013 福建】As students, there are many ways in _____ you can serve the community. 7. 【2008 湖北】 The city damp in summer. I grew up is very hot and
8. 【2015 天津】 The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere ______ his employees enjoy their work. III. 写作技能提升 9. 现在我们已经到了一个对我们未来非常重要的时刻，我 们应当全身心地学习。 （ point, be critical to, suppose, devote…to） 10. 有许多案例，学生课堂不听讲，最后以辍学告终。 （case, drop out of ） 11. 一方面，我钦佩他的才能，但另一方面，我不喜欢他对
待别人那种方式。 （gift, the way, treat） 12. 我英语差的原因是我对英语不感兴趣。 （ the reason, be interested in ） 13. 正常情况下， 我们 10 点到家， 这时大多数人已经睡着了。 （normally, go to sleep ）
1. 【2006 安徽】 Most public libraries also have a reading-room, that you can sit at the desk and read the daily newspapers, magazines and other books, but you are not permitted to take them out. 2. We’re just trying to reach a point which both sides will sit
限制性定语从句 形式上 意义上 译法上 关系词的使用上 不用逗号和主句隔开 是先行词不可缺少的定语，起“指定是哪一 个”的作用，去掉后句意不完整 翻译成先行词的定语，“……的……” A. 作宾语时可省略； B.可用 that; 用 who 代替 whom；D.可用 why C. 可
非限制性定语从句 用逗号和主句隔开 是对先行词的补充说明，删除后句子意思仍完 整 通常翻译成主句的并列句 A. 不可省; whom; B. 不用 that; C. 不用 who 代替
D. why 要换为 for which
考点1. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别 A. 限制性定语从句紧跟先行词，与先行词之间一般不加逗 号，仅修饰先行词，可以由关系代词、关系副词或 that
来引导。非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明，用逗号与 主句隔开，既可修饰先行词，又可修饰整个主句，不可 用 that 引导。如： ① This is the house which we bought last month.
第十二章 定语从句 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。 （限制性） ② The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮，是我们上个月买的。 （非限制性） ③ I lost my money that day, for which I had to walk home. (非限制性， for which 不能换为 why， which 代指前面 “I lost my money that day.”这句话) ④ He met with a pretty girl in the park, whom he fell in love at first sight. (非限制性，whom 不能换为 who) face. ( as 指代前面整个主句) He claimed he could speak three foreign languages, which is not true. (which 指代“ he could speak three foreign languages” ，指代前面一句话的一部分) D. as is often the case 是常用说法，意为“像往常那样；正如 经常发生的那样”，只能用 as，不能用 which。 1. 【2010 四川】After graduating from college，I took some time off to go travelling, ______ turned out to be a wise decision. A. that B. which C. when D. where 2. Eric received training in computer for one year, ______ he found a job in a big company. A. after that B. after which C. after it D. after this 3. You were very impolite to him, for ______ you should make an apology to him, I think. A. this B. which C. what D. that 4. His movie won several awards at the film festival, ______ was beyond his wildest dream. A. which B. that C. where D. it 5. 【2009 全国 II】 My friend showed me round the town, ______ was very kind of him. A. which B. that C. where D. it 6. 【2012 北京】When deeply absorbed in work, ______ he often was，he would forget all about eating or sleeping. A. that B. which C. where D. when 7. 【2012 福建】 The air quality in the city, ______ is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. A. that B. it C. as D. what 8. ______ might be expected, the response to the question was very mixed. A. As B. That C. It D. What 9. 【2013 陕西】______ is often the case with children, Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived. A. It B. That C. What D. As 10. The Beatles, ______ many of you are told enough to remember, came from Liverpool. A. what B. that C. how D. as
B. 当先行词是专有名词或由物主代词和指示代词所修饰 时，其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。如： ① Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理· 史密斯去年退休了，他曾经是我的老师。 ② My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我的房子，去年买的，带着个漂亮的花园。 ③ This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人，我已经读了三遍。 练习 翻译下列句子，注意体会限制性定语从句和非限制性定语 从句在表达意思上的区别。 1. 2. 3. 4. He has a brother who is a physicist. He has a brother, who is a physicist. He returned all the books which are written in English. He returned all the books, which are written in English. The man who lives next door is a doctor. My sister, who lives next door, is a doctor. A student who studies hard will make good progress. The student, who lives far from school, is the captain of their football team.
考点2. as, which 引导的非限制性定语从句 A. as 引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活，可以位于主句 前面、中间或后面，一般用逗号与主句隔开；但 which 所引导的非限制性定语从句不能放在句首。 As is known to all, he is the best student in our class. (as 指代整个句子，作主语，置于句首) He opposed the idea, as could be expected. (as 指代整个句子，作主语，置于句末) Taiwan , as you know, is a part of China. (as 指代整个句子，作宾语，置于句中) He has to work on Sunday, which he doesn’t like. (which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句后面) B. as 引导非限制性定语从句，常带有“正如”。当从句为否定 时不能用 as。 She failed the exam again, as was unexpected. × She failed the exam again, which was unexpected. √ C. as, which 可指代整个主句，也可指代主句的一部分。 He was very happy, as could be seen from the look on his
1. 【2005 安徽】Henry Royce did not like his car, that ran badly and often broke down. 2. 【2004 重庆】I had to look up the same word many times, for which was quite troublesome. 3. Which is natural, he married Mary. 4. There is no simple answer, which is often the case in science. II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 5. 【2009 福建】 If possible （可能） , we may leave them alone for some time before reading again, ______ will help a great deal.
第十二章 定语从句 6. 【2010 湖北】______ we have stressed many times, “serve the people” is our first policy. 7. 【2015 江苏】The number of smokers, ______ is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year. 8. 【2015 福建】China Today attracts a worldwide readership, ______ shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China. III. 写作技能提升 9. 我发现一个老人躺在马路上，我乘出租车立即把他送到 了医院，这就是那天上午我迟到的原因。 （find somebody doing, take…to, which） 10. 正如一句谚语所说， “All work but no play makes Jack a dull boy.”如果没有一个强壮的身体，一个人会一事无成。 （saying, a sound body, achieve） 11. 正如图表所显示的那样，这个城市的空气质量在过去两 年越来越糟。 （as is shown in the chart, the air quality） 12. 在汉语演讲比赛中我获得了一等奖，这我做梦也没有想 到。 （win the first prize, Chinese speech competition, beyond my wildest dreams） 13. 在我国，许多学生上不起大学，李华就是这种情况，但 这些人却花这么多钱买奢侈品。 （can’t afford to attend a college, as is the case with, waste money on, luxury） 非限制性定语从句在写作中非常好用， 可以把琐碎的要 点连成一个高级的句子来。尝试用非限制性定语从句翻译 下面句子。 14. 我们的学校， 位于内乡西北角， 有 34 年历史。 （be located in, have a history of） 15. 我们学校里的老师，大多数都是三十多岁，把他们一切 都奉献给了我们。 （in one’s thirties, devote oneself to） 16. 我们学校的领导，都年轻有为，他们也都是教学方面的 专家， 还经常到外地学习先进的教学和管理经验。 (young and successful in their careers, expert, advanced theories in teaching and management) 17. 我们学校有四千多学生 ，大多数都能用心学习。 (the majority of, put one’s heart into) 18. 我为我们的学校而感到自豪。我相信，在这里，如果我 们好好学习的话，一定会考上名牌大学。 (be proud of, there is a good chance that, be admitted to)
考点4. 部分与整体用 of
考点1. 关系代词直接跟在介词后时，只可用 whom 或 which, 不可用 who, that (参看 P. 4) 考点2. from where, since when 为“介词＋关系副词”结构， 可以引导定语从句 如： We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town. 1. China is the birthplace of kites, ______ kite flying spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. A. from that B. from where C. from there D. from here 2. 【2007 山东】The book was written in 1946, _________ the education system has witnessed great charges. A. when B. during which C. since then D. since when 考点3. 像 look after, look for 等固定短语动词 在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。如： This is the boy whom she has taken care of. 3. This is the baby ______ tomorrow. A. after whom I shall look B. whom I shall look after C. whose I shall look after D. after whom I shall look after
some of us, many of them 4. 【2008 四川】 For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread out further, ______ New York is an example. A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which 5. 【2012 四川】In our class there are 46 students, ______ half wear glasses. A. in whom B. in them C. of whom D. of them 考点5. 介词的选择：看前看后看意思 A. 看与先行词的搭配 6. The bicycle ______ he often rides needs repairing. A. on which B. in which C. by which D. with which 7. The world ______ is made up of matter. A. in that we live B. on which we live C. where we live in D. we live in 8. 【 2008 上 海 】 We went through a period ______ communications were very difficult in the rural areas. A. which B. whose C. in which D. with which B. 看谓语的搭配 9. The two things ______ they felt very proud are Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. A. about which B. of which C. in which D. for which
第十二章 定语从句 10. He is a man of great experience, ______ much can be I. 单句改错 learned. A. who B. that 1. 【2008 重庆】 It is also a window which we can learn about C. from which D. from whom American society. 11. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ______ she 2. The pen in which he is writing is mine. could turn for help. A. whom B. who C. to whom D. from whom II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 12. 【2009 陕西】Gun control is a subject ______ Americans have argued for a long time. A. of which B. with which C. about which D. into which C. 根据句子意思 13. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, ______ he could see ______ was going on inside the house. A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that 14. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., ______ many people have gone home. A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which time 15. 【 2008 上海春】 Villagers here depend on the fishing industry, ______ there won’t be much work. A. where B. that C. by which D. without which 3. 【2010 上海】Wind power is an ancient source of energy ______which we may return in the near future. 4. She showed me the dictionary ______ which she paid a lot of money. III. 写作技能提升 5. 【2009 湖北】学习策略，老师们都很重视，还没有引起 学生足够注意。 （ Learning strategies, attach great importance, draw attention） 6. 当我初到这里的时候，我几乎没有朋友；当我遇到麻烦 的时候没有人可以求助。 （hardly, no one, turn to…for help, meet with） 7. 我们登到了山顶， 从那里我们可以一览全城风光。 （from where） 8. 【2015 上海】在你生命中，如果有一个人你需要对他说 对不起，那么就去向他道歉吧。(say sorry to, apology)
例题： He told me the news this morning ______ his father had come back. A. which B. that C. which or that 答案是 B。那么 A 为什么不可以呢？ 要弄明白这个问题，就要搞清楚定语从句和同位语从句 的区别。同位语从句和定语从句很相似，但还是有区别 的，区别主要在以下三方面： A. 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是 idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise, order 等有一定内涵的名词； 而定语从 句的先行词可以是名词、代词，主句的一部分或是整个 主句。如: ① We are now looking into the question whether he is worth trusting. 我们正在调查的问题不是他是否值得信赖的问题。 （同 位语从句） ② Word came that he had been abroad.
③ Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 我们队赢了,这让我们很高兴。 （定语从句） B. 从性质上区别 定语从句对其先行词起修饰或限制作用，功能上相 当于形容词；而同位语从句是对前面抽象名词的进一步 的说明和解释，是名词的具体内容，属于名词性从句的 范畴。如： ① The news that our team has won the game was true. 我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 （同位语从句，说明 news 到底是一个什么消息） ② The news that he told me yesterday was true. 昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 （定语从句, 指他告诉我的消息） ③ I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. 我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。 （同位语从句,补充说明 promise 的内容） ④ The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺。
第十二章 定语从句 city. （定语从句, promise 在从句中作 pleased 的主语） ⑤ The decision when we should get started hasn’t been C. 引导词上的区别 made. i. 引导词 that 引导定语从句时，作从句的一个成分，有 时可用 which 替换，作宾语时常常省略；而 that 在同 位语从句中仅起连接作用，不充当任何成分，并且不 能省略，也不能用 which 来代替。 例：判断下列句子是同位语从句还是定语从句。 ① The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的小组的命令昨天收到了。 ② The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的 几个小组。 解析： ①是同位语从句，是对 order 的具体解释，that 虽不作 成分，不能换为 which, 也不能省略。 ②是定语从句，是名词 order 的修饰语，that 在从句中 作 received 的宾语，可以换为 which，也可以省略。 ii. how, whether, what 虽不能引导定语从句，却可引导同 位语从句；who, whose, whom, which, when, where, why 除引导定语从句外， 也可引导同位语从句。 （参看 P. 错 误！未定义书签。错误！未找到引用源。 ） iii. 定语从句的引导词反映的是先行词的意思，而同位语 从句的引导词在意思上和前面的词没有联系。 ① The reason that he gave for his coming late was not true. ② The reason that his alarm clock was broken was not true. 在①中，that 的意思是 reason, 在定语从句中作 give 的宾 语。在②句中，that 只起连接作用，不含有 the reason 的 意思。 iv. 在定语从句中，关系副词可以换为“介词+关系代词” ， 而引导同位语从句的连接副词却不能换为“介词+连接 代词”的形式。 ① The suggestion where he stressed the importance of exercising was very practical. ② The suggestion where we should exercise regularly is very practical. 在上面的句①中，where 可以换为 in which；在句② 中，where 不能换为 in which。 例：判断下列句子是同位语从句还是定语从句。 ① That question whether we need it has not been considered. ② I have no idea what has happened to him. ③ I haven’t answered the question how I will deal with it. ④ The school where Bob studies is in the middle of the I. 单句改错 解析：①、②、③是同位语从句，它们是在说明前面词 的内容, whether, what 和 how 不能引导定语从句。 ④是定语从句，where 反映的是先行词的意思，可以换为 in which。 ⑤是同位语从句。从句是在说明 decision 的内容。when 并没有反映 the decision 的意思。 when 也不能改为 at which time。 练习 1. The news ______ he has been elected president of the United States is true. A. that B which C. what D. where 2. The news ______ you told me yesterday is true. A. that B when C. what D. where 3. 【2006 重庆】Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class ______ he had to meet his uncle at the air port. A. why B. that C. where D. because 4. Is this the reason ______ he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why 5. Galileo collected the facts ______ proved the earth and all the other planets move around the sun. A. that B. which C. / D. A and B 6. Galileo discovered the fact ______ the earth and all the other planets move around the sun. A. that B. which C. / D. A and B 7. 【 2006 安徽】 A warm thought suddenly came to me ______ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 8. 【2004 上海】A story goes ______ ElizabethⅠof England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. A. when B. where C. what D. that 9. There is much chance ______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 10. 【2009 浙江】—Is there any possibility ______ you could pick me up at the airport ? —No problem. A. when B. that C. whether D. what 11. Three days later, word came ______ our country had sent up another man-made satellite. A. which B. when C. that D. where 12. 【2009 重庆】We should consider the students’ request ______ the school library provide more books on popular science. A. that B. when C. which D. where
第十二章 定语从句 1. 【2007 天津】However, I was lucky enough to have a teacher who didn’t take my bad grades as a judgment of my abilities, but simply as an indication how I should study harder. 2. 【2007 全国Ⅱ】My school is organizing a basketball team and there' s just a chance which I can join it. II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 3. He made a decision ______ he had to work hard from then on. 4. He made a decision ______ annoyed his parents. 5. 【2009 四川】News came from the school office ______ Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. III. 写作技能提升 6. 我已经自己许下承诺， 毕业前我再也不玩电脑了。 （make a promise to, graduation） 7. 当你不久就将回国的消息传来，我们真的很难过。(sad, word came ) 8. 有谚语说“熟能生巧”，因此如果你想学好英语，你必须 在它上面多花费时间。（a saying goes that） 9. 我相信如果你尽力而为，有很大的可能性你最后会成功 的。（a great chance）
3. 【2006 四川】—Mom, what did your doctor say? —He advised me to live ______ the air is fresher. A. in where B. in which C. the place where D. where 4. 【2006 天津】If you are traveling ______ the customs are really foreign to your own, please do as the Romans do. A. in which B. what C. when D. where
考点1. 定语从句与同位语从句(参看 P11 第 8 讲) 考点2. 定语从句与独立主格结构（参看 P. 错误！未定义书 签。错误！未找到引用源。 ） 考点3. 定语从句与强调句型（参看 P.错误！未定义书签。 错误！未找到引用源。 ） 考点4. 定语从句与地点状语从句 例题： ① Rice doesn’t grow well ______ there is not enough water. A. where B. in which 有的同学认为两个答案都对，解释说 where 可以换为 in which。而正确答案只能是 A，因为在这里 where 引导 的是地点状语从句而不是定语从句。 在定语从句中关系副词 where 可以换为“介词＋关系 代词” ，而在状语从句中则不能这样换。 辨别方法：定语从句有先行词而状语从句没有先行 词。试比较： ② I still remember the farm ______ my parents worked ten years ago. A. where B. on which 本题 A，B 两个答案都行，因为本句 where 引导的是 定语从句，先行词是 the farm。 1. Go and get your coat. It’s ______ you left it. A. there B. where C. there where D. where there When you read the book, you’d better make a mark ______ you have any questions. A. at which B. at where C. the place D. where 6. 7. 8. 5.
考点5. 定语从句与并列句 例：A. them B. they C. whom
① He has three daughters, none of ______ is an engineer. ② He has three daughters, but none of _____ is a dancer. ③ He has three daughters; ______ are doctors. 并列句有像 and，but，so 等并列连词或分号连接，这 时就不必再用关系词了；而定语从句中，关系词起着连接 作用，不必要再用 and, but，so 等连词。 （参看“两个主谓结构时”P.错误！未定义书签。错误！未 找到引用源。 ） 答案：① C ② A ③ B
【2013 浙江】The children, ______ had played the whole day long, were worn out. A. all of what B. all of which C. all of them D. all of whom I have five friends, but none of ______ are business- men. A. that B. whom C. they D. them I have five friends, ______ are businessmen. A. that B. who C. they D. them 【 2012 山东】 Maria has written two novels, both of ______ have been made into television series. A. them B. that C. which D. what
第十二章 定语从句 The young mother saw her baby fall to the ground, ______ 2. He has many friends, most of them don’t work hard. brought her heart to her mouth. II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） A. it B. and that C. and which D. that 3. 4. The house stood ______ there had been a rock. I have visited a lot of places, but none of ______ can match your city.
10. They believed that the spirits are with the body of the dead person for three days; ______ there is always someone to stay with the dead person. A. during this time B. during which time C. during which D. during when
III. 写作技能提升 5. 6. 她买了许多衣服，大多数都很贵。（most of） 去年夏天，我们去了海南岛，我们一直都想去那里。 （where）
单句改错 An accident happened there where we had met yesterday.
个定语，of the students 和后面的定语从句。 考点1. 分隔定语从句 定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后，但定语从句与先 行词之间有时也会插入别的成分，构成先行词与定语从 句的隔离。如： He was the only person in this country who was invited. 定语从句与先行词 the only person 被 in this country 分隔。 1. 【2011 上海】You’ll find taxis waiting at the bus station ______ you can hire to reach your host family. A. which B. where C. when D. as 2. 【2011 天津】The days are gone ______ physical strength was all you needed to make a living. A. when B. that C. where D. which 3. 【2012 江苏】After the flooding, people were suffering in that area, ______ urgently needed clean water, medicine and shelter to survive. A. which B. who C. where D. what 考点2. one of, the one of, the only one of 例题：选用 is、are 填空 ① Tom is one of the students who ______ good at playing football. ② Tom is the only/very one of the students who ______ good at playing football. ③ Tom is the one of the students who ______ good at playing football. 在①中， 定语从句的先行词是 the students, 这些学生 都擅长踢足球，而 Tom 是他们中的一个, 因此 who 代指 的是 the students, 因此填 are。 在②中，Tom 就是那些学生中唯一擅长踢足球的那 一个。擅长踢足球的只有一人，因此，who 代指一个人， 后面填 is。此时，先行词是 the one。此时，the one 有两 第③句同第②句差不多。擅长踢足球的还是只有一 人，因此，先行词是 the one，要填 is。 因此，我们可以发现这样的规律： one of 后跟名词复数时, 后面定语从句的先行词是 of 后面的名词复数，从句谓语用复数； the one of/ the only one of 后跟名词复数时， 定语从句 的先行词是 the one/the only one，从句谓语用单数。 4. 【1994 上海】 She is one of the few girls who ______ in the kindergarten. A. is well paid B. are well paid C. is paying well D. are paying well 5. It is one of the best books ______. A. that have ever been written B. that has ever been written C. which have been written D. which has been written 6. Jack was the one of my classmates who ______ invited to attend the contest. A. had B. have C. was D. were 7. This is the very one of the most interesting films ______ shown last week. A. which was B. that was C. which were D. that were 8. 【2010 全国Ⅱ】 Barbara is easy to recognize as she’s the only one of the women who ______ evening dress. A. wear B. wears C. has worn D. have worn 考点3. is this school the one 与 is this the school 看下面两题： ① Is this school ______ we visited three years ago? A. the one B. which C. that D. where ② Is this the school ______ we visited three years ago? A. the one B. where C. in which D. / 要简化难题，可把疑问句恢复成陈述句。在第一句 中，恢复陈述句，is 要放到 school 的后面。如果放到 this
第十二章 定语从句 的后面的话，就构成了 this is school, 而 school 作为可数 名词单数是不能单独使用的， 前面要用冠词或物主代词或 指示代词。 （参看 P. 错误！未定义书签。错误！未找到引 用源。 ） 答案：A D 9. Is this factory ______ some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 10. Is this the factory ______ he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. how 考点4. 关系词的省略（仅供了解） A. 关系代词作宾语时的省略 当关系代词在非限制性定语从句中用作动词宾语或 介词宾语，且关系代词不直接位于介词后面时，可以省 略。如： Is there anything (that) you want? 想要什么东西吗? Who is the man (that, who, whom) you were talking to? 刚 才和你讲话的人是谁? 但是，如果是直接用于介词后作宾语或位于非限制性定 语从句中，则不可省略。如： This is the room in which I live. 这是我住的那间房间。 He met Mary at the party, whom he married a week later. B. 关系代词在从句中作表语或 there be 结构中作实意主语 用关系代词 that, that 可指人或物，且常省略。如： The old man is not the man (that) he was. 这个老人已不是以前那个样子了。 The wisdom she gave me has helped shape the person I am today. 她给我的智慧把我塑造成现在的样子。 This is the fastest computer （that） there has ever been.这是 有史以来运算最快的计算机。 C.关系副词 when 的省略 用作时间状语的关系副词 when 通常不能省略， 但若用于 day, year, time, the moment 等少数几个词后时可以省略 (也可换成 that)。如： That was the year (that) I first went abroad. 就是那一年我第一次出国了。 I’ll never forget the day (that) we met. 我永远也忘不了我们见面的那一天。 Do you still remember the day (when) we first met? 你还记得我们第一次见面的那一天吗？ I. 单句改错 D.关系副词 where 的省略 用作地点状语的关系副词 where 通常不能省略，但若用 于 place, somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere 等几个词后时可以省略(也可换成 that)。如： This is the place (where) we met for the first time. 这是我们第一次见面的地方。 Do you have anywhere (that) I can lie down for an hour? 你有没有一个什么地方可以让我躺一个小时？ E. 关系副词 why 的省略 关系副词 why 通常只用于 the reason 后引导定语从 句，且通常可换成 that 或 for which，均可省略。如： That’s the reason (why, for which, that) he came. 这就是他来的原因。 Give me one reason (why) we should help you. 给我举出一 个我们应当帮助你的理由。
1. He was the only one of the candidates who were able to carry out his promises. 2. Is this school which he once studied? II. 语法填空（每空至多填三词） 3. 【2014 湖北】He’s the only student in the class that______ been selected to take part in the Model United Nations conference. 4. 【2013 江苏】The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China ______, he remembers starting as early as his childhood. III. 写作技能提升 5. 他是那些学生中唯一一个连续三次获得一等奖的学生。 （the only one, win the first prize, in a row） 6. 我的家乡已不再是十年前的那个小村庄了，那时到处都 是破旧房子，人们食不果腹。 （my hometown, the little village, when, old houses, hardly feed themselves） 7. 她有一种能为学生们创造一种气氛的天赋，这种气氛可 以使他们彼此自由交流。 （ have a gift for, atmosphere, allow sb. to, communicate）
第1讲 关系词的选择技巧 8. where； 关系词在定语从句中作地点状语， 用关系副词。 9. which/that；在定语从句中作主语，用关系代词。 1.① who/that ③ whose ⑤ that /which ⑦ who /whom /that /不填 ⑨ where ② who /whom /that /不填 ④ whose ⑥ that /which /不填 ⑧ why ⑩ when 10. that/which/不填；作 spent 的宾语，用关系代词。 11. that/which；先行词是 mountain tops and dark waters。 12. where；先行词是 the marked。 13. At the exhibition, the company’s sales manager demonstrated the new (type of) electronic toys (which / that) children were looking forward to. 14. The book has helped me greatly, especially at work where a good impression is a must. 15. I think Students should involve themselves in community activities where they can gain experience for growth. 16. I will never forget the days (that/ which) we spent together. 第2讲 只能用 that 不能用 which 的情况
2. ① The movie (that we saw last night) is very exciting. ② Have you bought the book (which we talked about)? ③ I still remember the day (which we spent together last week). ④ He still lives in the house (whose windows face south). ⑤ The boy (whose father is a policeman ) speaks English most fluently in our class. ⑥ The girl (who you met) was John’s sister. ⑦ There is no reason (why we shouldn’t be friends). ⑧ They arrived in the early morning (when the sky was still dark). ⑨ The days were gone (when we had to travel on horses ). ⑩ Is this the hospital (where you were born)? 1. 6. 11. 16. A C D A 2. 7. 12. 17. D A B A 3. 8. 13. 18. A D C C 4. 9. 14. A C C 5. 10. 15. B D B
1. 6. 11. 16.
D A C D
2. 7. 12. 17.
B D D D
3. 8. 13. 18.
A A B B
4. 9. 14. 19.
A B D B
5. 10. 15.
A A B
12. that 改为 which；先行词是不定代词 anything。 13. which 改为 that；先行词有人有物。 14. which 改为 that；先行词有 all 修饰。 15. that；先行词是 all。 16. that；先行词有序数词修饰。
1. secrets 后加 with；with 的宾语是关系代词，省略了。 2. is 改为 are；that 代指的是 words，所以要用复数。 3. 去掉 it；it 变为关系代词省略了，不能再要 it。 4. 把 when 去掉或者改为 that/ which；关系词作 spent 的 宾语，所以要用关系代词或省略。 5. 把 where 去掉或者改为 that/ which；关系词作 visited 的宾语，所以要用关系代词或省略。 6. where 改为 which；关系词作 left 的宾语，所以要用关 系代词。 7. that/which；在定语从句中作主语，用关系代词。
17. My mother was so proud of all that I had done that she rewarded me with a trip to Beijing. 18. This is the very book that I have been looking for. 19. I find it (is) hard to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions. 20. Who is the woman that is sweeping the floor over there? 21. She is no longer the woman (that) she used to be. 22. If there is any difficulty (that) you can’t overcome alone, you can turn to your parents or friends for help.
1. 6. 11.
C B B
2. 7. 12.
B B D
3. 8. 13.
C D C
4. 9. 14.
D B D
第十二章 定语从句 A 11. C 12. A
16. that 改为 where；非限制性定语从句，在从句中作状语。 10. that 改成 which； which 代指 dinner， 非限制性定语从句。 11. that 改为 which；介词后面只能用 which 不能用 that。 12. one；作 teacher 的同位语。 13. whose；作定语用 whose。 14. whom；介词 of 后用宾格。 15. whose；whose 作关系代词时可以指人也可指物。 16. Through the course of my schooling, I met many teachers, two of whom influenced me greatly. (influence) 17. Visiting your city is an unforgettable experience, one I will treasure for the rest of my life. 18. Those trees, whose branches are almost bare, are all hundreds of years old. 17. which 改为 where；在从句中作状语。 18. for 后加 which 或把 for 改为 why；后面是定语从句。 19. which 改为 where；在从句中作状语。 20. where；在从句中作状语。 21. which；先行词是 the way。 22. in which /where；在从句中作状语。 23. where/in which；先行词是 atmosphere。 24. Now we have come to a point which is very critical to our future, where we are supposed to devote ourselves to studying. 25. There are many cases where students who don’t listen carefully in class end up dropping out of school. 26. On the one hand, I admire his gifts, but on the other I don’t like the way he treats others. 第4讲 as, but, than 用作关系代词 27. The reason why I am weak in English is that I’m not interested in it. 4. 9. B C 5. 10. A D 28. Normally, we get home at 10 p.m., when most people have gone to sleep. 第6讲 1. that 改为 as；先行词有 such 修饰，用关系代词 as。 2. who 改为 as；先行词有 such 修饰，用关系代词 as。 3. that 改为 as， 或者在 out 前加 it。 前者是改为定语从句， 后者是改为结果状语从句。 4. as；成分不完整，是定语从句。 5. as；前面有 the same 修饰，表示相似。 6. At first, I thought Mr. Li was kind of odd, because he was always asking such questions as no one could answer. 7. He isn’t such a man as put off what he can do today till tomorrow. 8. On my birthday, I received as good a gift as my mother had promised. 9. I found in his schoolbag the same pen that I lost the other day, which is a special gift from my friend, and I couldn’t contain my anger. 10. English is so useful a language that many people in the world are learning it. 1. that 改为 which；非限制性定语从句只能用 which。 第5讲 关系副词 2. 去掉 which 前的 for；which 本身都起着连接作用。 3. Which 改为 As；which 引导非限制性从句时不能放在 1. 6. D E 2. 7. D D 3. 8. B B 4. 9. D D 5. 10. A A 句首。 4. which 改为 as；as is often the case 固定用法。 1. 6. 2. 1. 他有一个当医生的兄弟。 （不止一个兄弟，其中一个 是医生。 ） 他有一个弟弟，是个医生。 （只有一个弟弟。 ） 他把所有的英文书都归还了。 （还有别的书没归还） 他把所有的书都归还了；这些书都是英文书。 3. 住在我隔壁的那个人是个医生。 我姐姐是个医生，住在我的隔壁。 4. 努力学习的学生会取得进步。 这个学生是他们校足球队的队长，他住得离学校很 远。 B B 2. 7. B C 3. 8. B A 4. 9. A D 5. 10. A D 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句
第十二章 定语从句 5. which；代指前面一句话。 6. As；代指后面一句话，作 stress 的宾语。 7. as；as 有“正如”之意。 8. which；which 代指前面描述的事情。 9. I found an old man lying on the ground and I took him to hospital in a taxi immediately, which was why I was late that morning. 10. As a saying goes, “All work but no play makes Jack a dull boy.” Without a sound body, one cannot achieve anything. 11. As is shown in the chart, the air quality of the city has become worse and worse in the past two years. 12. I won the first prize in the Chinese speech competition, which was beyond my wildest dreams. 13. In our country, many students can’t afford to attend a college, as is the case with Li Hua, but these people waste so much money on so many luxuries. 14. Our school, which is located in the northwest of Neixiang, has a history of thirty-four years. 15. The teachers of our school, most of whom are in their thirties, have devoted all their lives to us. 16. The leaders of our school, who are young and successful in their careers, often go to other schools to learn advanced theories in teaching and management, although they are experts themselves. 17. There are more than 4, 000 students in our school, the majority of whom put their hearts into their studies. 18. I am proud of our school, where I am sure if we do our best, there is a good chance that we can be admitted to one of the most famous universities of our country. 1. 6. 第7讲 介词+关系代词 11. there 去掉；there 不是名词，不能跟定语从句。 12. them 改为 whom，或者在 most 前加 and/but；没连接。 13. where；where 引导地点状语从句。 14. them；前面有连词 but，因此是并列句。 16. which 前加 through 或 from；根据句意。 17. in 改为 with；write with a pen。 18. to；return to 再回到。 19. for；pay money for sth. 20. Learning strategies, to which teachers attach great importance, have not yet drawn enough attention of students. 21. When I first got here, I had hardly any friends, and there was no one to whom I could turn for help when I met with trouble.（或 there was no one I could turn to for help） 22. We climbed up to the top of the hill, from where we could have a good view of the whole town. 23. If there is someone in your life to whom you need to say sorry, go ahead and make an apology. 11. were 改为 was；先行词有 the only 修饰，定语从句谓语 用单数。 12. which 改为 where；where 引导表语从句，……的地方。 15. She buys a lot of clothes, and most of them are very expensive. (…, most of which are very expensive) 16. Last summer, we went to Hainan Island, long wanted to go. 第10讲 定语从句的其他常见考点 where we had B D 2. 7. D B 3. 8. D C 4. 9. D B 5. 10. D A 1. 6. 11. A A C 2. 7. 12. A C A 3. 8. B D 4. 9. A A 5. 10. D B 第8讲 同位语从句和定语从句
13. how 改为 that； indication 指示， 表明， 后跟同位语从句。 14. which 改为 that；后面是机会的内容，同位语从句。 15. that；decision 的内容，是同位语从句。 16. that/ which；定语从句，that/which 指代先行词。 17. that ；是 news 的同位语从句，说明 news 的内容。 18. I have made a promise to myself that I will never play computer games before graduation. 19. We were really sad when word came that you would go back to your country soon. 20. A saying goes that practice makes perfect, so if you want to learn English well, you must spent more time on it. 21. I believe if you do your best, there is a great chance that you’ll succeed in the end. 第9讲 定语从句与易混句型
1. 6. 11.
B A C
2. 7. 12.
D D C
3. 8. 13.
B C B
4. 9. 14.
C B D
5. 10. 15.
C D D
第十二章 定语从句 16. My hometown isn’t the little village it was (isn’t what it 13. has；先行词有 the only 修饰。 was) ten years ago, when there were old houses everywhere and people could hardly feed themselves. 14. which； 先行词是 passion， 关系词作 starting 的逻辑主语。 17. She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students 15. He is the only one of the students who has won the first which allows them to communicate freely with each other. prize three times in a row.