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省略句


Brevity is the soul of wit .
--Shakespeare

言简为贵

Grammar – Ellipsis (省略)

为了使讲话和行文简洁,句中某 些成分有时可以省略。省略可分 为以下几种情况:

Examples Serves you right. Anything the matter?

省略部分

主语It 谓语 is

Are you ready? Yes, I am. 表语 ready We have to analyze and solve problems. 宾语problems He spent part of the money, and the rest he 定语 of the money saved. The wisest man cannot 状语 even know everything.

Exercise 1.Like more beer? Would you ___________like more beer? 2.Haven’t seen you for ages. ___________haven’t seen you for ages. I 3.Sounds like a good idea. It _____________sounds like a good idea.

4.If he says he'll come, he will . come If he says he'll come, he will_______. 5.Going to the supermarket? Are you going to the supermarket? ________ 6.Pity you couldn’t come. ________pity you couldn’t come. It’s

1、 在由and 或but连接的句子中,为避免重复,常省略一些重 复的词或词组。 1) 省略共同的主语或宾语。 Mr. Smith picked up a coin on the road and (Mr. Smith) handed it to a policeman. 2) 若主语不同而谓语助动词、情态动词相同,则省略后面的 情态动词或助动词。 Jack must have been playing football and Mary (must have been) doing her homework.

? 3)若主语与谓语动词相同,则省略后面的主谓成分。 ? His advice made me happy, but (his advice made) Jim angry. ? 4)若主语不同,但主要动词及后续部分相同,则省略主要 动词及后续部分。 ? I was born in winter in 1998 and Bob (was born in winter) in 1989. ? 5)省略重复的介词、连词及后续部分。 ? He was late because he had overslept and (because he had) missed the train.

2、 状语从句中的省略 1) 在when, while, whenever, till, as soon as, if, unless, as if / though, as, whether等引导的状语从句中,若谓语部分含有be,而主 语又跟主句主语相同或是it 时,则从句中主语和be常被省略。 Wood gives much smoke while (wood is) burning. 2) 在as, than, however, whatever, no matter what等引导的从 句中常省略某些成分。 After two hours she became quieter (than she had been). 3) 虚拟条件句常省略if, 并将were, had, should提前构成部分倒装。 Should there be a flood (= If there should be a flood), what should we do? 4) 有些状语从句置于句末,可作句尾省略,有时可省略整个从句。 I would have come yesterday (if I had wanted to).

3、 定语从句与名词性从句中的省略
1) 在限制性定语从句中,作宾语用的关系代词whom, which, that 可省略;在以the same…as和such…as引导的某些定语从句中,也可 省略与主句相同的部分。 The girl (who / whom / that) the teacher spoke to is Li Yan. 2) 定语从句中的“主语+be动词”可以省略。 The goods (which were) ordered last month haven’t arrived yet. 3) 在know, think, consider, suppose, find, believe, say, decide等动词后所接的宾语从句中,连词that可以省略;若带有多个 宾语从句,只有第一个that可省略,其余的则不能省略。 He said (that) the text was very important and that we should learn it by heart.

? 4)由which, when, where, how 和why引导的宾语 从句,可全部或部分省略。 ? She will come back, but he doesn’t know when (she will come back). ? 5)在与suggest, request, order, advise等词相关的 名词性从句中,应用虚拟语气,即“should +动词原 形”,should可以省略。 ? It is suggested that we (should) go to see the film.

? 4、 动词不定式省略,只保留to的场合 ? 在同一个句子或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语或补足语 的不定式再次出现时,不定式to后面的内容常常被省略。这种情况常 用于动词refuse, would like, would love, wish, want, hope, expect, intend以及形容词afraid, happy, glad, willing, ready等。 ? ——Will you go with me? ? ——Well, I’d like to (go with you). ? 注意:当省略的不定式内容有作助动词的have或be的任何形式时, to后腰保留原形have或be。 ? He didn’t come, but he ought to have. ? ——Are you a farmer? ? ——No, but I used to be (a farmer).

? 5、介词的省略 ? 1)一些与动词、名词或形容词一起搭配的介词常常省略,而 保留其后的动名词。常见的结构有: ? have difficulty / trouble (in) doing sth. be busy (in) doing sth. ? stop / present sb. (from) doing sth. ? 2)表示时间的介词at, on 和in用在next, last, this, these, yesterday, tomorrow, one, any, every, each, some等 词之前,一般可以省略。 ? We go to school every day except Sundays.

6、 使用so, not等时的省略 在英语中,可以用so, not或其他方式来省略上文或问句 中的一部分或整个句子。 ——Can you finish your work today? ——I think so. ——I don’t think so. / I think not. 注意:hope, guess, I’m afraid的否定形式只能用not 的形式,不能用not…so的形式。 ——The boys are not doing a good job at all, are they? ——I guess not. #



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