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高一英语译林牛津版模块一Unit2 grammar and usage


Grammar 2 The attributive clause

This is the boy. with I played tennis _____the boy yesterday.

× / × This is the boy whom /that/×/who I played tennis with. with
We ‘ll go to hear the famous singer. We have often talked about _____the famous singer. We ‘ll go to hear the famous singer whom × × / /who /that /×we have often talked about. about

This school is very famous. in He once studied____this school.

This school which /that/×he once studied in in × / is very famous.
Tommorrow I’ll bring here the magazine. for You asked ____the magazine. Tommorrow I’ll bring here the magazinewhich × / / that /×you asked for. for

? preposition+which(指物)

preposition+whom (指人)

How to choose the right prepositions

1. Do you like the book spent $10? 2. Do you like the book paid $10? 3. Do you like the book learned a lot? 4. Do you like the book often talks?

on which for which
from which about which

she she

she
she

Conclusion
1)根据定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭 配来决定。

Test yourself

More Practice
1. Do you know the talking to/with /about the girl to/with whom girl_____________________ our head teacher is talking ? pay… for the dictionary for which 2. I can’t find my dictionary ___________I paid over $100 . spend money on the car 3. This is the good car____which on ______I spent all my money. waiting for the teacher for ________you have been 4. The teacher_____ whom waiting is coming in a minute.

I ‘ll never forget the day. I ‘ll never forget the day on which he made He speech. the made the speech on that day.
at ?The moment _____which I made the decision is exciting. at ______ the moment(在此刻) in ?The month _____which I left for vocation is July. in ______ the month

2)根据先行词的搭配习惯来决定。

Test youselves

with which 1. This is the knife ______________ I usually cut my pencil.

in
2. . Is this the house which your father was ∧ born?

1.The house ______ there is a big tree was built more than 1000 years ago. A. which B. in front of which C. that D. in the front of which

2.The house I grew up ____has been taken down and replaced by an office building. (2009江西,26) A.in it B.in C.in that D.in which

The house in which____ I grew up has been taken down and replaced by an office building.

③根据定语从句所表达的意义来确定

Air, ________ which man can’t live, is really without important.

with The pen _____which he is writing now was bought yesterday.

with/for whom 1) The German boss_____________ the actress works is a kind person. with whom 2) The host ______________ the guest speaker works likes singing. to whom 3) The pen friend _______________ the poet writes is good at literature.

下面两句中的介词能提前吗?
Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better .

在固定短语中介词不能提前

固定搭配的动词短语中的介词一般不能提前. 常见的这类动词短语有: look for/after/forward to, care for(照顾,喜欢) hear of/about/from, take care of等. This is the right place I’m looking for. The girl whom he is looking after is his sister.

1.名词+介词+关系代词 This is the teacher whose daughter is a famous doctor. the daughter of whom =This is the teacher_________________ is a famous doctor.

and/;/.

Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase(花瓶), _______ was very reasonable(合理的). A. which price B. the price of which C. its price (What about C?) D. the price of whose

2.数词+介词+关系代词(含基数词,序数词,分数和
百分数)

We have three foreign teachers, two of whom ___________are from Canada. (其中的两个)

and/;/.

The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% _______ are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of (How about C?) C. of them D. of that

3. 代词+介词+关系代词(代词有all, both,
none, neither, either, some, any等)

The old woman has two sons, neither of whom are teachers.(两个都是) both __________ (两个都不是)

and/;/.

Last week, two persons came to see the house, ___________wanted to buy it. A. both of they B. neither of whom C. both of them (Think about C.) D. all of whom

4. 形容词最高级+介词+关系代词

China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan _______________ Island.(其中最大的)

There are two buildings, ________ stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them (Think about B.) C. the larger one that D. the larger of which

5.介词+关系代词+名词

He spent four years in college, during which time _____________ he studied medicine. (在那段时间内)

In the office, I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., _______ time many people have gone home. A. whose B. that C. on which D. by which

Practice makes perfect!

May you succeed in your studies!

Correct the sentences 1.After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town with which he in grew up as a child. 2.The old man has two sons, both of whom are them soldiers. 3.New York is famous for its sky-scrapers(摩天 大楼),the highest of which has more than higher them 100 storeys. 4.luckily, we’d brought a road map. Without which we would have lost our it way.

—What is this?
—It is a wonderful picture ______________________________

?

He is the person___________________.

Exercises:

1.The newly-built cafe , the walls of ___are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, especially after hard work.(2010江苏,32) A. that B. it C. what D. which
Tip: the walls of the newly-built cafe

Exercises:

2.The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of ___ left their village homes for a better life in the city. (2010浙江,3) A. whom B. which C. them D. those
Tip: many of people

Exercises:

3.She brought with her three friends, none of ___ I had ever met before. (2009宁夏,28) A. them B. who C. whom D. these
Tip:none of her three friends

Exercises: 4. The man pulled out a gold watch, ______ were made of small diamonds. (2008陕西,13) A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which Tip: the hands of the gold watch

定语从句中关系副词的使用
1.定语从句中关系副词有: when, where, why 关系副词在定语从句中都作状语。 when 作时间状语;where 作地点状

2.关系副词在定语从句中所作的成份:

语;why 作原因状语。

observation
1. He’ll never forget the day. On that day his lovely daughter came to this world. He will never forget the day on which his lovely daughter came to this world . He’ll never forget the day when his lovely daughter came to this world. 2.This is the room. I was born in this room 30 years ago. This is the room in which I was born 30 years ago. This is the room where I was born 30 years

observation
3. Could you tell me the reason? You are late for the reason. Could you tell me the reason for which you are late? Could you tell me the reason why you are late? 4. The film reminded me of the hard times. During the hard times we had nothing to eat. The film reminded me of the hard times during which we had nothing to eat. The film reminded me of the hard times when we had nothing to eat.

observation
5. Last Monday they had a meeting. They discussed many problems at the meeting. Last Monday they had a meeting at which they discussed many problems. Last Monday they had a meeting where they discussed many problems .

? ?

when 相当于“at/in/during…+which”
where 相当于“in/at/on…+which”

?

why 相当于“for + which”

Fill in “relative adverbs”or “prep+relative pron.” when on which 1) October 1, 1949 was the day______ where from (__ ______) China was founded. which 2) Here is the picture ______ (____ ______) we can learn more about Canada. why for which 3) Is this the reason ____ (___ _____) he didn’t want to see me? 4) Is this the roomwhere in which we ______(__ ______) were living last winter? 5) The days ______(____________) when during which we used “foreign oil” are gone. where 6) Yesterday, he went to a party ______ at ______) (__ which he drank too much .

Practice
1. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _____he grew up as a child. A. which B. where C. that D. when 2. Changzhou No.2 Middle School is the school ______I am studying A. where B. which C. when D. that 3. I will never forget the first day _____ I came to Changzhou. A. it B.in which C.when D.which

Practice
4. The film brought the hours back to me _____I was taken good care of in that far-away village. A. until B. that C. when D. where

4. 并非先行词是表示时间、地点
和原因的词时都用when,

where, why,若先行词在定语 从句中不作状语,而是作主语
或宾语,就必须用which或 that。

Comparison:
1. We often think of the days which _________ we spent together in the countryside.

which在定语从句中作宾语
2. We often think of the days we worked together in the countryside.
When/ _________ during which

when在定语从句中作时间状语, 相当于 during the days。

Comparison:
1.We believe the reason ________ that/which he told us. that/ which 在定语从句中作宾语 2. The reason __________________ why/for which he was absent yesterday is still unknown. why在定语从句中作原因状语, 相当于 for the reason。

which/that 1. October 1,1949 was the day____________saw the founding of the People’s Republic of China. October 1,1949 was the day____________the when People’s Republic of China was founded. (that/which) 2. The reason ____________he gave us was that his car broke down on the way. The reason ____he was late was that his car why broke down on the way. 3. I returned to the village (which/that) visited we last week. I return to the village where I was brought up.

Ⅰ. Pay attention to these points and you must finish your exercise according to them. Ⅱ. Preview the usage of when where and why. Ⅲ.Remember :Practice makes perfect.

Project
Write a report on growing pains

What kinds of growing pains have you experienced?

For example:
? Often quarrel with your parents because they forbid listening to music… ? Have too much homework and no time to relax. ? Sometimes feel lonely and feel no one else can understand you ? Have to depend on your parents and can’t make your own choice.

What are growing pains about?

? kinds of growing pains:
1: physical changes 2: psychological changes 3: how to fit in society

Read the text and understand the structure of this article
Part Part one Paragraph Main idea

Many teenagers feel lonely and are Paragraphs going through many changes. 1-2

Paragraphs Part two 3-5

Physical changes and psychological changes happen inside teenagers. They become confused and want to know how to fit in society. Growing pains do not last long.

Part three

Paragraph 6

?

?
?

?

True or false As teenagers grow, they grow taller but their voices don’t change. F Besides, these physical changes, there come many psychological changes. T Because of many psychological changes, many boys become risk-takers while girls often don’t want someone--anyone--to F talk to. The adolescence may want and need their parents’ love very much, but feel distant. T

1.as if /though 2. go through the changes 3. day by day 4. in other ways 5. (go) out of control 6. a common part of adolescence 7. along with 8. feel misunderstood 9. be thought of as 10. grow to adults

11.be confused with 12. physical changes 13. in this regard 14. have difficulty in doing 15. be traded for 16. fit in society

Ⅰ.Complete the words according to the first letter and the meaning of the sentences:
1.From what you said to me, you must have m___________________ me deeply. misunderstood 2.You’ll surely think she is a normal n__________ child in every way for the 1st sight, however, she is abnormal a__________ in her mind. Confused 3.C__________ with what he was taught in class, Jack turned to top students for help in time after class. 4.The teachers in Siyang High school are lucky eough to be given a complete p__________ physical examination each year. 5.As she reached out from the ladder, she lost her b__________ and fell. balance

Ⅱ.Tanslate the following into English or Chinese:
1.感到孤独和被误解
feel lonely and misunderstood

2.他们正在经历的变化

the changes they are going through

3. in other ways 在其他方面;用别的方式 4.失去控制 go out of control 5.很难相信 be very difficult to believe

Ⅱ.Tanslate the following into English or Chinese:
6.把…当做… think of… as… 7.对…感到困惑 be confused with
(mistake A for B; confuse A with B)

8.伴随着这些生理变化

along with these phsical changes

9.往往会… tend to do sth. 10.想找个人说说话

want someone to talk to\with

Ⅱ.Tanslate the following into English or Chinese:
11.不费吹灰之力做某事
have no difficulty (in) doing sth.

12.努力让人听见(我)说话
struggle to be heard

13.depend on sb. to do sth.

依靠某人做某事
14.营养均衡的饮食a well-balanced diet 15.be traded for… 转换成…\换取…

1.How much do you know about the time period you are going through?
【析】:①划线部分是__________从句。 定语 ②go through: go through sth. 经历(不愉快的事) go I couldn’t __________ __________ another through experience like that. 被接受;被通过 The government proposed a change to the went tax law, but it never __________ through __________. 仔细阅读(检查、解释) went through I __________ __________ the whole house looking for my purse.

2. You may be surprised by what you know, and what you don’t know.

【析】:①be surprised by\at ②what you know and what you don’t know为宾语从句(注意语序: 陈述语序) 你知道我刚刚跟他说话的那个老人住在 哪里啊? where Do you know __________ the old man __________ __________ I talked whom with just now __________? lives

3.Before you write your report on growing pains, read the following article.
before 【析】:①本句是一个含有由__________引导的 状语从句 __________的主从复合。 ②好好学习,天天向上。 简单句:__________ __________, you will make Working hard progress every day. 并列句:__________ __________, __________ you Work and hard will make progress every day. you 主从复合句:__________ __________ __________ work If hard __________, you will make progress every day.

4.It will help you understand what growing pains are all about.
【析】: help sb.(to)do sth. what 引导的宾语从句。(其语序是陈述 语序)与understand构成动宾关系。

5.Many teenagers feel lonely, as if no one understands them and the changes they are going through.

【析】:①lonely(adj.寂寞的;偏僻的,荒凉); alone(alone [?'l?un]adj. 单独的;孤独的;独自 的adv. 独自地;单独地) 1.While the old man lives on the__________ island__________, he doesn’t feel__________. A. alone, alone, lonely B. lonely, alone, lonely C.lonely, lonely, alone D.alone, lonely, alone ②as if=as though(好像,好似)

6.It is common for teenagers to feel lonely and misunderstood.
形式主语 【析】:it为:__________.真正的主语是: to feel lonely and misunderstood ______________________________________。 misunderstood adj.遭误解的、不为人理 解的。a much misunderstood illness 一种遭受与多人误解的疾病 mis-前缀。如:mislead误导;mistake错 误;misinform误传;mistreat虐待。

7.These feelings can be thought of as growing pains---the difficulties that teenagers face as they grow to adults.

【析】:①be thought of 被当作… as__________;(=be looked upon\on as; be seen as; be regarded as)②that引导的是 定语从句 __________从句;③as是 __________(词性) conj.连词

8.As teenagers grow, it is normal for them to become confused with the changing world both inside and outside of them.

不可以 【析】:①as可以改为with吗?__________. 要是改呢?With________________ teenagers growing __________,… 形式主语 ②it是__________③for可以换成of吗?它们 区别是什么? Of描述之后的人;而for描述的是to…所说的事 ________________________________________ ④to become confused with是 真正的主语 对…混淆\迷惑 _______________(成分)_______________(划线 部分的意思)

9.Along with these phsical changes, there come many pschological changes.
【析】: ①along with与…一道;随同…一道. A along with B 的谓语动词的数由A的数决 定。(这样的词还有with,together with, but ,except, besides, as well as)就前 原则 ②there come …这是个倒装句(状语提前)。 In front of my house lies a river reaching to the East sea.

10.Boys and girls tend to be different in this regard.
【析】:①tend to往往会 She ___________to be nervous before the lectures, __________has been puzzling herself for many years. A. wants, that B. tends, which C.would like, which D.sometimes,which 就这一点而言 ②in this regard_________________(意思)

11.In the social world, as teenagers get older, they struggle to depend on themselves.
【析】: ①social__________(n.) society ②struggle to do sth.______________________(意思) 奋力\努力\挣扎做… It’s so noisy at the table that I had to struggle __________. A. to hear B. to be heard C.hear D.to hearing

12.Since teeangers have difficulty balancing these needds, they often question who they are and how they fit in society.
【析】:①have difficulty (in) doing sth.做某事 有困难。 With a local guide leading, we had no difficulty __________the place where Shakespeare was born. A. to find B. found C.finding D.to finding ②question vt. qusetion sb. on sth. My father often _____________ me on __________ questions what I learn at school. ③who和how引导的是宾语从句。

13.The good news is that these kinds of growing pains do not last.
表语从句 【析】:that引导的是_________从句。 试试你的眼力如何? The good news that our school will give us a 2-day holiday each week excites us all. 同位语从句 The good news that our headmater gave us excites us all. 定语从句

14.In the end everything turns out OK---the teenager becomes a healthy adult and this period of change and challenge is traded for the changes and challenges of grown-up life.

【析】:turn out(to be)结果是;证 明是(无被动,无进行) 刚刚在街上我和他吵架的那个男子后来 证明是我的新老板。 The man ____________ ____________ with whom I quarrelled in the street just turned now_________ _________ _________ out to _________ my new boss. be

15.Though it may sometimes be difficult to believe, you are not alone--every adult has gone through adolescence.
【析】:①though引导一个让步状语从句。 =while(只能放在句首)=although ②to believe是方式状语。 The man is__________you often mention and he is hard __________. A.whom, to pleased B.the one, to be pleased C.who,pleasing D. the one,to please

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
1. After his first novel was published, he was _____ one of the most outstanding new authors of his generation. Which is wrong? A. looked upon as B. seen as C. thought as D. taken as

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
2.The pupils will get_________if they are made_________too much. A.confused, to learn B.confusing, learn C.confused, learn D.confusing, learing

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
3. ______ the girl,which surprised us all. A. Rushed out B. Out rushed C. Were rushing out D. Out were rushing

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
4. I ____ back the money. A. rely on him to pay B. rely on his paying C. depend on him to pay D. all the above

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
5.The teacher together with some students __________ visiting the factory at the present time. A. is B. are C. was D.were

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
6. We don’t know ______. A. this is whose dictionary B. whose dictionary is this C. whose dictionary this is D. whose is this dictionary

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
7.__________this heading was a long article about that event. A.With B.For C.In D.Under

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
8. The girl had hardly rung the bell__________ the door was opened suddenly, and her friend rushed out to greet her. A. before B. until C. as D. since

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
9.When I am tired, I __________. A.tend making mistakes B.tend to making mistakes C.will tend making mistake D.tend to make mistakes

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
10.Gone was the difficulty we used to have__________foreigners. A.got along with B.to get along with C. getting along with D.been got along with

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
11.__________the time going on, the children and parents come to understand each other. A. As B.When C.Because D.With

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
12. —Do you know where my blue coat is ? —Don’t bother to look for it. I’m sure it will__________some day. A. turn out B. turn on C. turn up D. turn over

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
13. The theory of Relativity ______ correct. A. is turned out to be B.turn out to be C. turns out being D.turned out to be

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
14. From his __________ look,we could see that he was__________as to(=about) what his boss wanted him to do. A.confused, confusing B. confusing, confused C.confusing, confusing D. confused,confused

Ⅱ.Mutiple choices:
15. He has just arrived, but he talks as if he ___ all about that. A. know B. knows C. known D. knew

Language points
1:And though it may sometimes be difficult to believe , you are not alone……every adult has gone through adolescence. 让步状语 尽管 though 引导_________从句,意为_______, 相当于 ____________,但是_________常位于句首,不可与 although although __________连用,但可以和__________连用。 but yet或 still 练习: 1:Mr Hall understands that _________math has C always been easy for him, it is not easy for students. A unless B since C although D when 2:My parents were quarreling about me ________ I B could not quite tell why. A since B though C if D until

? go through
? Can the table go through the door? 通过 The poor girl has gone through a lot since her parents died. 经历;遭受 She went through the room but couldn’t find the ring.
搜查,仔细检查,浏览

put through

完成;接通(电话)

get through 通过;穿过;(工作)完成;接通电话

look through 透过…看;浏览,仔细查看;看透,看穿

练习: B He __________the company’s accounts, looking for evidence of fraud. A put through B went through C pull through D look through

? 2:As teenagers grow, it is normal for them to become confused with the changing world…. 【L 12】

It is normal for sb to do sth.
? “ it +is /was +adj +for/ of sb+不定式句型 ________是形式主语,真正的主语是 it 不定式 _________for/of sb可以用于表示 ____________ 不定式动词的逻辑主语 ? 练习: ? It’s very kind _________them to pick me C up at the railway station and drive me home. ? A for B to C of D with

? Since teenagers have difficulty balancing these needs, they often question who they are and how they fit in society. 原因状语从句 既然,由于 ? Since引导____________, 意为______. ? 1.why not buy a cheaper one,___ you don’t A have enough money? A. since B. because C. for D. though

?

have difficulty in doing sth.
做某事有困难

? D

I had great difficulty _____ the proper food on the menu in that restaurant. A. find B. found C. to find D. finding D You can’t image what difficulty we had ___ home in the snow storm. A. walked B. walk C. to walk D. walking

相关短语
? ? ? ? have trouble in doing sth. have a problem/ problems in doing sth. have trouble with sth. have difficulty with sth.


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