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高中英语语法大全-精讲教程


第一主题

高中英语语法系统全解(一) 2-4 楼 5-7 楼 9-11 楼 12-16 楼 17-20 楼 21-24 楼 25-27 楼 28-30 楼 31-33 楼 35-40 楼

第 1 章 动词时态 第 2 章 被动语态 第 3 章 虚拟语气 第 4 章 情态动词 第 5 章 动词不定式 第 6 章 动词的 ing 形式 第

7 章 过去分词 第 8 章 独立主格结构 第 9 章 名词性从句 第 10 章 定语从句

第 11 章 状语从句(一) 40-45 楼 第 11 章 状语从句(二) 第 12 章 直接引语和间接引语 第 13 章 倒装 第 14 章 强 调 第 15 章 省略 第 16 章 主谓一致

动词时态-- 一般时

第一章
动词的时态。

动词时态(一)

在英语中,不同时间发生的动作或存在的状态,要用不同的动词形式来表示,这就叫做

一、一般时
一般时包括一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时和一般过去将来时。

A.一般现在时 1. 一般现在时的构成 一般现在时主要用动词原形来表示。主语是第三人称单数时,动词后面要加-s 或-es。 They want good jobs. 他们想要好的工作。 The coat matches the dress. 外衣和裙子很相配。 This work does not satisfy me. 这项工作我不满意。 Do you understand? 你懂了吗?

2.一般现在时的用法 ①一般现在时的基本用法 a. 表示现在习惯性的动作或存在状态 He always takes a walk after supper. 晚饭后他总是散散步。 Everyone is in high spirits now. 现在大家都情绪高涨。 b. 表示客观事实或普遍真理 The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 太阳从东方升起在西方落下。 Sound travels faster through water than it does through air. 声音在水中的传播速度要比在空气中快。 Time and tide wait for no man. 时间不等人。 c. 表示主语的特征、能力和状态 This cloth feels soft. 这布摸上去很软。 I love classical music.

我喜欢古典音乐。 The President still seems able to find time to go fishing. 看来总统仍能有时间去钓鱼。 d. 表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作 The meeting begins at 7:00. 会议七点钟开始。 We leave here at 8:00 sharp. 我们八点整离开这里。 e. 在时间、条件、让步状语从句中表示将来动作 When you come next time, bring me some magazines. 你下次来时,给我带几本杂志。 If time allows, we shall go there tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去那里。 Whether he agrees or not, I will stay at home. 不管他同意与否,我都会待在家里。 ②一般现在时的特殊用法 a. 用于新闻标题或图片说明中 China Declares Manned Spaceflight Successful 中国宣布载人航天飞行圆满成功 Laura Bush Arrives in Moscow 劳拉· 布什抵达莫斯科 b. 用于体育运动、表演等实况报道中 Francis slips past, passes the ball to Yao Ming, who jumps, catches and shoots it into the basket. 弗朗西斯穿过去,把球传给姚明,姚明跳起来,接住球投进篮里。 Now, look, I press the button and turn on the machine. 现在,看,我按下按扭,打开了这台机器。 c. 表示告诫或劝说 You mind your own business. 你不要管闲事!

If he does that again, he goes to prison. 如果他再那样的话,他就会进监狱的。 d. 表示现在瞬间的动作 Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。 There goes the bell. 铃响了。

B.一般过去时 1. 一般过去时的构成 一般过去时是用动词的过去式来表示。 His words fetched a laugh from all present. 他的话使在场的人都笑了。 I did not sleep well last night. 我昨晚没睡好。 Did you direct the tourist to the hotel? 你告诉这位游客去旅馆的路了吗? 2.一般过去时的用法 ①一般过去时的基本用法 a. 表示过去某个特定时间发生的动作或存在的状态 He suddenly fell ill yesterday. 昨天他突然生病了。 The engine stopped because the fuel was used up. 发动机因燃料用光而停机了。 注意: 在一般过去时的句子中,通常都要有表示过去的时间状语。 【误】I visited the Palace Museum.(在没有上下文的情况下,应避免这样说) 【正】I visited the Palace Museum last year. 去年我参观过故宫博物院。 【正】I have visited the Palace Museum.

我参观过故宫博物院。 b. 表示过去经常发生的动作或存在的状态 I wrote home once a week at college. 我上大学时每周给家里写一封信。 He was already in the habit of reading widely in his boyhood. 他童年时就养成了广泛阅读的习惯。 提示: 表示过去的习惯性动作,除了用过去式外,还可以用 used to 或 would 来表示。 She used to study late into the night when she was in Senior Three. 她上高三时经常学习到深夜。 He would sit for hours doing nothing. 过去他常常一坐几个钟头什么事也不做。 c. 表示过去连续发生的一系列动作 She entered the room, picked up a magazine and looked through it carefully. 她走进房间,拿起一本杂志,认真地翻阅了起来。 The students got up early in the morning, did morning exercises and then read English aloud in the open air. 学生们很早起床,做早操,然后在室外朗读英语。 d. 在时间、条件状语从句中表示过去将要发生的动作 We would not leave until the teacher came back. 老师回来我们才会离开。 She told me she would not go if it rained the next day. 她告诉我如果第二天下雨的话,她就不去了。

②一般过去时的特殊用法 a. 在虚拟语气中表示现在或将来时间的动作或状态 It's time we went. 是我们该走的时候了。 I wish I were twenty years younger. 但愿我年轻20岁。

I would rather you didn't do anything for the time being. 我宁愿你暂时先不要采取什么措施。 b. 在口语中,一般过去时往往显示委婉客气。 I wondered if you could give me a hand. 我想请你帮个忙。 Might I come and see you tonight? 我想今晚来看你,好吗?

3.一般现在时和一般过去时的比较 一般现在时要和现在时间相联系,而一般过去时和说话的“现在”不相联系。 His father is a film director. 他父亲是电影导演。 (他现在还是) His father was a film director. 他父亲曾是电影导演。 (他现在不是) How do you like the novel? 你觉得这部小说怎么样?(还在看小说) How did you like the novel? 你觉得这部小说怎么样?(已看完小说)

C.一般将来时 1. 一般将来时的构成 一般将来时是由“will / shall + 动词原形”构成的。shall 只限于第一人称,主要见于英国英 语,现在的趋势是第一、二、三人称的单复数形式均用 will 表示。在口语中,shall 和 will 常缩写成“'ll”,紧接在主语之后。其否定式 shall not 和 will not 常简略为 shan't 和 won't。 I'll go and shut the door. 我去关门。 When will you know your exam results? 你什么时候能知道考试结果? I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long. 我看得出你很忙,所以我不会呆太久的。

提示:在 you and I 或 both of us 等短语后,只用 will,不用 shall。 You and I will arrive there next Monday. 我和你下周一都要到达那里。 Both of us will graduate from middle school next year. 我们俩明年中学毕业。

2.一般将来时的用法 ①表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态 I shall be free this afternoon. 我今天下午有空。 There'll be no chemistry classes tomorrow. 明天没有化学课。 They will probably go to Shanghai for their holiday. 他们可能去上海度假。 注意: 在口语中,常用 will / shall + be doing 结构来代替 will / shall + 动词原形,以表示生动。 I'll be seeing a friend off at the airport. 我要去机场给一个朋友送行。 He'll be going with us tomorrow. 他明天和我们一起去。 ②表示将要反复发生的动作 My uncle will come to see me every Saturday. 我叔叔每个星期六都会来看我。 The students will have five English classes per week this term. 本学期学生们每周要上五节英语课。 ③表示同意或答应做某事 That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it. 这个包看起来很重,我来帮你提。 I won't tell anyone what happened, I promise. 我保证不告诉别人所发生的事。

④表示一种倾向或推测 Flowers will die without water. 没有水花会枯死的。 Water will change into ice at 0℃. 水在零摄氏度就会结冰。 This will be your sister, I guess. 我猜想这是你姐姐。

3.一般将来时的常用结构 ①用于“I expect, I'm sure, I think, I wonder + 宾语从句”中 Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass. 不要担心这次考试,我确信你会通过的。 I wonder what will happen. 我不知道将会发生什么事。 I don't think the test will be very difficult. 我想这次测验不会太难。 ②用于“祈使句 + and + 陈述句”中 Work hard and you will succeed. 如果你努力,就会成功的。 Go at once and you will see her. 马上去,你就会见到她了。 ③与表示时间或条件的状语从句连用 I'll let you know as soon as he arrives. 他一到我就通知你。 If you ask him, he will help you. 如果你请他,他会帮助你的。 We shall go unless it rains. 除非下雨,否则我们是要去的。 4.将来时间的其他表达法 ①be going to + 动词原形

“be going to+ 动词原形”这一结构常用于口语中。 a. 表示决定或打算要做某事 I'm going to buy a new coat this winter. 今年冬天我打算买一件新大衣。 Are you going to play basketball after class? 下课后你去打篮球吗? He is going to be a doctor when he grows up. 他长大后要当医生。 What are you going to do today? 今天你打算做什么? b. 表示有迹象即将要发生什么事 Look at those black clouds. It is going to rain. 瞧那乌云,天要下雨了。 The car is going to turn over. 汽车要翻了! There is going to be a snowstorm. 将有一场暴风雪。 比较: “be going to + 动词原形”与“will / shall + 动词原形”的区别 1.be going to 通常表示很快就要发生的事,而 will/shall 既可表示不久的将来,也可表示 长远的将来或不确定的将来。 She is going to get better. 她的病要好了。 (有恢复健康的迹象) She will get better. 她的病会好的。 (认为最终会恢复健康的) 2.will 表示将来,通常是指事先无计划的意图,是临时决定的; be going to 则表示事先 有计划的意图,是经过考虑的。 — George phoned while you were out. 你外出的时候乔治打电话来的。 — Ok. I'll phone him back.

好的,我给他回电话。 (临时决定) — Matthew phoned while you were out. 你外出的时候马修打电话来了。 — Yes, I know. I'm going to phone him back. 是的,我知道了。我准备给他回电话。 (早有安排) 但在正式文体中,要用 will 来表示事先安排的动作。 The meeting will begin at 10:00 a.m.. 会议将在10点开始。 Coffee will be served from 9:30 from today onwards. 从今天起9:30开始供应咖啡。

3.表示有迹象显示将要发生某一动作时,要用 be going to,不用 will 或 shall。 I feel terrible. I think I'm going to be sick. 我觉得不舒服,我想我要生病了。 4.be going to 可用于条件句,表示将来时间,will 则不能。 If you are going to attend the meeting, you'd better leave now. 如果你要出席会议,你最好现在就动身。 ②be + 动词的-ing 形式 “be + 动词的-ing 形式”表示根据现在的计划或安排,预期将会发生某事,这种安排不容 随意改变。在这一结构中,动词-ing 形式通常是表示位置转移的动词,如 arrive, come, go, leave, move, start, stay, get 以及 eat, meet, see off, die 等, 并与表示将来的时间状语连用。 如果没有时间状语,则所表示的动作有即将发生之意。 He is leaving for Xinjiang in a few days. 他几天后要动身去新疆。 I am dining out tonight. 今晚我将出去吃饭。 The plane is taking off soon. 飞机马上就要起飞了。 The old man is dying. 那位老人快要死了。

比较: “be + 动词的-ing 形式”和“be going to + 动词原形”的异同 1.表示按计划发生的动作时,两者可互换。 We are moving to a new flat tomorrow. 我们明天就要搬到新房子里去了。 We are going to move to a new flat tomorrow. 我们明天就要搬到新房子里去了。 2.表示由于客观因素而产生的将来动作或状态时,用 be going to 结构,不用 be + 动词 的-ing 形式。 You are going to fall if you climb that tree. 如果你爬树的话,你会摔下来的。 (不可说 You are falling if ...) Be careful. You are going to break that chair. 当心!你会把那张椅子弄坏的。 (不可说 You are breaking that chair) ③ be + 动词不定式 这一结构中的 be,只有现在式 (am, is, are) 和过去式 (was, were) 两种形式。 a. 表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作 The highway is to be open to traffic in May. 这条公路将在五月份通车。 Am I to take over his work? 我是不是要接管他的工作? b. 用于条件句中强调按计划或安排将要发生的动作 If we are to take the 5:00 train, we must leave now. 如果我们乘坐5点的火车的话,那我们现在就得出发。 c. 表示命令或吩咐等。否定形式常表示“禁止”或“不许”。 You are to be back before 10 p.m.. 你必须在10点前回来。 You are not to go out alone at night. 晚上你不能单独出去。 比较: “be + 动词不定式”与“be going to+ 动词原形”的区别

1.“be going to+ 动词原形”侧重说话人个人的意图和打算,“be + 动词不定式”侧重受别 人的指示或安排要做的事。 I'm going to try my best to write this article well. 我将尽力把这篇文章写好。 Am I to wait here till their arrival? 我要在这儿一直等到他们抵达吗? 2.表示由于客观因素或不受人控制的将要发生的动作时,只用“be going to+ 动词原形”, 不用“be + 动词不定式”。 It's going to rain. 天要下雨了。 (不说 It's to rain.) Rachel is going to faint. 雷切尔要晕倒了。 ④ 一般现在时 一般现在时可以用来表示将来时间,主要用法有: a. 表示由于日历或时刻表的规定而固定不变的或比较不易变更的将来时间发生的动作。 Tomorrow is Friday. 明天是星期五。 What time does the next train leave for Paris? 下一班开往巴黎的火车几点出发? b. 在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来时间的动作或状态。 I'll give the book to you after I finish it. 我看完这本书就给你。 If he arrives, we must go and meet him at the railway station. 如果他到了,我们就得到火车站去接他。 c. 在 hope, suppose 等后面的宾语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来动作或状态。 I hope all is well with him. 我希望他一切都好。 Suppse we go hiking tomorrow. 我们明天还是去远足吧。

D.一般过去将来时 1.一般过去将来时的构成 一般过去将来时是由“should/would + 动词原形”构成的。 He asked me yesterday when I should leave for Paris. 昨天他问我什么时候动身去巴黎。 They wanted to know how they would finish the homework earlier. 他们想知道怎样才能早一点儿完成家庭作业。 2.一般过去将来时的用法 一般过去将来时间的出发点是过去,即从过去某一时刻看以后要发生的动作和状态。 a. 一般过去将来时常用于间接引语中 He said they would arrange a party. 他说他们将安排一个晚会。 I asked if he would come and fix my TV set. 我问他是否来帮我修电视机。 b. 一般过去将来时可用来表示非真实的动作或状态 If I had a chance to study abroad, I would study at Cambridge University. 如果我有机会出国学习的话,我就会去剑桥大学。 I wish he would go with me to the cinema tonight. 今晚他能和我一起去看电影就好了。

3.过去将来时间其他表达法 a. was/were going to +动词原形 He said that he was going to live in the country when he retired. 他说他退休后要住在农村。 They thought it was going to rain. 他们认为天要下雨了。 b. was/were +动词的-ing 形式 Nobody knew whether the guests were coming. 没人知道客人们是否要来。 I was told that the train was leaving in a few minutes.

我被告知火车几分钟后就要开了。 c. was/were +动词不定式 She said she was to clean the classroom after school. 她说她放学后要打扫教室。 It was reported that another bridge was to be built across the Yangtse River. 据报道长江上将要再建一座大桥。 提示: “was/were going to +动词原形”或“was/were + 动词不定式完成式”可表示未能实现的过 去将来时间的动作。 Last Sunday we were going to visit the Great Wall, but it rained. 上星期天我们本想去游览长城的,但却下雨了。 (没有去成) I was to have helped with the performance, but I got flu the day before. 我是打算帮忙演出的,但前天我感冒了。 (没有帮上忙) d. was/were about to do “was/were about to do”表示说话的瞬间就会发生的动作。 I felt something terrible was about to happen. 我觉得有可怕的事要发生了。 e. was/were on the point of doing I'm glad you have come. I was on the point of calling you, but you've saved me the trouble now. 提示: “be about to do”和“be on the point of doing”结构一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用,但 后面可以接 when 引导的分句。 I was about to start when it suddenly began to rain. 我正要动身天突然下雨了。 很高兴你来了。我正准备给你打电话,现在你省去我这个麻烦了。

进行时 二、进行时

进行时表示动作正在进行,这个动作是暂时的,也是未完成的。进行时包括现 在进行时、过去进行时和将来进行时。 A.现在进行时 1.现在进行时的构成 现在进行时是由“am, is, are +现在分词”构成的。 I'm reading the evening newspaper. 我正在看晚报。 Now it isn't snowing outside. 现在外面不在下雪。 Are they playing soccer in the playground? 他们正在操场上踢足球吗?

2.现在进行时的用法 ①现在进行时的基本用法 a.表示说话的此刻正在进行的动作 通常由表示“此刻”的时间状语(now, at this moment) ,或通过 Look/Listen! 这两个提示语来表明此时此刻动作正在进行。 She is making a fire now. 她正在生火。 Listen! Mary is singing an English song in the classroom. 听!玛丽正在教室里唱英文歌。 b.表示现在时间段中正在进行的动作 They are planting trees on the hill these days. 这几天他们正在山上种树。 I don't really work here; I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives. 我并不在这儿工作,我只是在新秘书来之前帮帮忙罢了。 c.表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作 能这样用的动词并不多,通常是 arrive, begin, come, do, drive, fly, go, leave, stay 等表示位置转移的动词。这种用法比较生动,给人以一种期待感。 Jane and Betty are going on holiday in a few days.

几天后简和贝蒂将出去度假。 Where are you staying in Guangzhou? 你到广州后准备住在哪里? ②现在进行时的特殊用法 a.表示一种重复的动作,带有“厌恶”、“赞叹”等感情色彩 现在进行时往往与 constantly, always, forever 等状语连用,给现在的动作披上 一层感情色彩。 She's constantly complaining. 她不停地抱怨。 My brother is always leaving things about. 我弟弟总是乱丢东西。 He is forever thinking of doing more for the students. 他总是想着为学生多做些事情。 b.表示某一具体动作或心理状态的发展过程 The house is falling down. 房子正在倒下。 The weather is changing for the better. 天气慢慢转好了。 注意: 有时表示一个动作刚刚开始。 I'm forgetting my English. 我的英语开始忘了。 Food is costing more. 食品贵了起来。 c.强调动作的重复 The train is arriving late almost every day this summer. 这个夏季火车几乎天天晚点。 Someone is knocking at the door. 有人不断地在敲门。 The boy is jumping with joy.

那男孩高兴地跳个不停。 d.表示两个动作是同一动作 He who helps others is helping himself. 帮人就是帮自己。 If you insist on doing it, you are doing a foolish thing. 如果你坚持做这件事,你就是在干傻事。 e.be 动词的进行时态 be 动词一般不用于进行时态。但有时可用“am, is, are + being +形容词”结构 表示暂时或故意如此。 The boy is being naughty.这孩子有点儿淘气。 I don't think you are being fair. 我认为你不公平。 He is being modest. 他现在很谦虚。 比较: You are not polite. 你不讲礼貌。 (一贯如此) You are not being polite. 你可有点儿不礼貌了。 (暂时的现象)

3.不用进行时态的动词 ①表示状态的动词 这类动词有 seem, look, appear, have, belong to, own, hold 等。 This backpack belongs to me. 这背包是我的。 He seems rather angry with you. 看起来他很生你的气。 ②表示知道、信念、理解、推测、怀疑、希望等含义的动词 这类动词有 know, remember, understand, see, think, believe, suppose, hope, doubt

等。 I don't think he will come tomorrow. 我想他明天不会来。 I still remember the days when we studied together. 我还记得我们一起学习的那些日子。 提示: 有时这些动词的进行时态可表示心理状态的缓慢发展过程。 She's understanding you better now. 她越来越了解你了。 ③表示要求、心愿等意义的动词 这类动词有 want, wish, need, desire 等。 Your clothes need washing. 你的衣服需要洗了。 How I wish I were a bird! 我多希望我是一只鸟啊! ④表示继续或持续含义的动词 这类动词有 continue, keep, last, go on 等。 She still continues in poor health. 她仍然身体很差。 Every day after finishing his homework, he goes on to do some reading. 他每天做完作业后,都会继续看会儿书。 ⑤表示感觉的动词 这类动词有 see, hear, smell, taste, feel 等。 The apples taste good. 这些苹果尝起来不错。 This flower smells nice. 这花闻上去很香。 Your suggestion sounds reasonable. 你的建议听上去有道理。

注意: 如果这些动词表示一种有意识的行为,则可用进行时态。 She is tasting the apple. 她正在尝苹果。 The dog is smelling the footprints. 狗正在嗅脚印。 The bell is sounding for dinner. 晚饭铃响了。

4.现在进行时和一般现在时的比较 ①暂时性动作和经常性动作 The computer is working perfectly. 计算机运转得很好。 (暂时) The computer works perfectly. 计算机运转很好。 (一直如此) ②持续性动作和短暂性动作 The bus is stopping. 车停了下来。 (渐渐地) The bus stops.车停了。 (迅速) ③暂时性动作和永久性动作 She is living in the country. 她现在住在农村。 (暂时) She lives in the country. 她住在农村。 (永久) ④有感情色彩和没有感情色彩 He is doing well at school. 他在学校表现很好。 (赞扬) He does well at school. 他在学校表现很好。 (一般事实)

B.过去进行时 1.过去进行时的构成 过去进行时是由“was / were +现在分词”构成的。 I was doing my homework at this time yesterday. 昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。 Were you expecting him yesterday? 你昨天一直在等他吗? They were not talking when I came in. 我进来的时候他们没在说话。

2.过去进行时的用法 ①过去进行时的基本用法 a.表示在过去某一时刻正在发生的动作或该动作与过去的另一动作同时发生 I was having supper at 7:00 yesterday evening. 昨天晚上7点我正在吃晚饭。 She was playing the piano while I was reading the newspaper. 她弹钢琴时我在看报。 提示: 当句子意思很清楚时,我们也可以把两个动词都换成一般过去时。 We listened closely while the teacher read the text. 老师读课文时,我们都仔细地听着。 b.表示过去一段时间内正在进行的动作 We were talking about you the whole morning. 我们整个上午都在说你。 He was watching TV at home from 3:00 to 5:00 yesterday afternoon. 昨天下午从3点到5点他一直在看电视。 c.表示按计划、安排过去将要发生的事 He told me that he was going soon.

他告诉我他很快就要走了。 She said she was leaving for New York the next month. 她说她下个月动身去纽约。 ②过去进行时的特殊用法 a.表示故事发生的背景 It was snowing as the medical team made its way to the front. 那支医疗小组往前线行进时天正下着雪。 Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking. 汤姆乘没人注意时溜进了房间。 b.表示一个新的动作刚刚开始 过去进行时可用来引出一个新的动作,这种用法颇有点儿像镜头转换。 Five minutes later, he was standing at the door, smoking. 5分钟后,他已站在门口抽着烟。 The baby was crying hard, and suddenly the crying stopped. 这婴儿在大声啼哭,突然,哭声停止了。 c.用来陈述原因或用作借口 She went to the doctor yesterday. She was having a lot of trouble with her heart. 她昨天去看病了。她患了很严重的心脏病。 I haven't finished my homework because I was helping my mother at home all day yesterday. 我作业没做完是因为我昨天一直帮妈妈在家干活。 d.与 always, constantly 等词连用,表示感情色彩 The girl was always changing her mind. 这女孩老是改变主意。 In the past he was constantly asking me for money. 过去他总是向我要钱。 3.过去进行时与一般过去时的区别 ①一般过去时往往表示某一动作已经完成, 而过去进行时却表示动作在持续或 未完成。 She wrote a letter to her friend last night.

她昨晚给朋友写了封信。 (信写完了) She was writing a letter to her friend last night. 她昨晚一直在给朋友写信。 (信不一定写完) ②一般过去时表示只做一次动作,而过去进行时却表示动作反复地进行。 She waved to me. 她朝我挥了挥手。 She was waving to me. 她不断地朝我挥手。 The boy jumped up and down. 这男孩跳了一下。 The boy was jumping up and down. 这男孩不停地跳着。 C.将来进行时 1.将来进行时的构成 将来进行时是由“shall/will + be +现在分词”构成的。 Don't phone me between 8:00 and 10:00. We'll be having classes then. 8点到10点之间不要给我打电话,我们那时正在上课。 Will you be using your bicycle this evening? 今晚你用自行车吗? She won't be having a meeting in her office at 8:00 tomorrow. 明天8点她不在开会。 2.将来进行时的用法 ①将来进行时的基本用法 a.表示在将来某一时间正在进行的动作 I'll be taking my holiday soon. 我不久就去度假了。 They will be meeting us at the station. 他们会在车站接我们的。 b.在口语中代替 will/shall do I hope you will be coming on time.

我希望你按时来。 I'll be seeing Mr. Smith tomorrow. 我明天将见到史密斯先生。 The minister will be giving a speech on international affairs. 部长将就国际事务发表演讲。 ②将来进行时的特殊用法 a.表示原因、结果或猜测 Please come tomorrow afternoon. Tomorrow morning I'll be having a meeting. 请你明天下午来吧。我明天上午有个会。 (表原因) Stop the child or he will be falling over. 抓住那个孩子,要不他会掉下去的。 (表结果) You will be making a mistake. 你会出错的。 (表推测) b.用在问句中,表示委婉礼貌 Will you be reading anything else? 你还要看点儿什么吗? When shall we be meeting again? 我们什么时候再见面? c.表示稍后一点儿的安排 The students aer studying Unit 3 this week, and next week we'll be studying Unit 4. 这星期我们学第三单元,下周我们将学第四单元。 My duties will end in July and I will be returning to Shanghai. 我的任务在7月结束,之后我会回上海。 完成时 三、完成时 完成时是用来表示动作的完成与未完成的情况。完成时包括现在完成时、过去 完成时和将来完成时。

A.现在完成时

1.现在完成时的构成 现在完成时的构成形式是“have / has +过去分词”。现在完成时常被称为“与 现在有联系的过去”,因此它不能与明确的过去时间状语连用。 Someone has broken the window. 有人把窗户打破了。 I haven't seen much of her lately. 我最近不常见到她。 How long have they been married? 他们结婚多长时间了?

2.现在完成时的用法 ①表示结果的现在完成时 现在完成时着眼于过去的动作对现在产生的结果或影响。这是现在完成时的 “已完成”用法,表示动作或过程发生在说话之前就已完成,并与现在有联系。 这种联系实际上就是“过去的动作”对现在的影响或产生的结果。 I have bought a pen. 我买了一支笔。 (结果:I have a pen now.) The temperature has increased by 10℃. 温度上升了10摄氏度。 (结果:It is quite hot now.) Air pollution has taken the lives of many people. 空气污染已经夺去了很多人的生命。 (结果:Air pollution is very serious now.) 注意: 现在完成时的上下文所指的时态必须呼应。 【误】I have bought a pen but I have lost it now.(have bought 表示你现在已经有 笔了,这和后面的 have lost 有矛盾) 【正】I bought a pen but I have lost it now. 我(过去)买了一支笔,但我已经把它丢了。 【误】I have lost my pen but I have found it now.(have lost 强调你现在已经没有 笔了,与后面 have found 的意思有冲突)

【正】I lost my pen but I have found it now. 我丢了一支笔,但现在已经找到了。 ②表示经历的现在完成时 强调过去某一时刻到说话时这段时间中的经历。 Have you ever been to the Great Wall? 你去过长城吗? I have visited Beijing at least ten times. 北京我至少访问过十次了。 She has never spent a holiday at the seaside. 她从未到海滨度过假。 ③表示延续的现在完成时 这是现在完成时的“未完成”用法,表示一个动作或状态从过去某时开始,持 续到现在,可能要继续下去。 He's loved fishing for a long time. 他爱好钓鱼为时已久。 (他现在仍爱好钓鱼) I have lived here for more than thirty years. 我已在这儿住了三十多年了。 (也许还会继续住下去) 注意: 现在完成时的“未完成”用法既可用于动态动词(主要是持续动词) ,也可用 于状态动词, 但它一般不适用于表示短暂动作或位置转移的动词, 如: open, break, go, come, arrive, leave 等。如用这类动词表示“未完成”,通常只限于否定结构。 I haven't seen a film for weeks. 我已经好几个星期没看电影了。 She hasn't written to me since September. 自从9月份以来她还没给我写过信呢。

3.现在完成时的时间状语 ①与现在完成时“已完成”用法连用的时间状语 现在完成时表示的动作或状态发生在现在时间以前的某个未明确指出的过去

时间内, 和它连用的时间状语要与现在时间有关,不能是明确地表示过去的时间 状语。 a.不确定的过去时间状语:already, yet, before, recently, lately 等 I've seen the film before. 我以前看过这部电影。 Have you been there lately? 近来你去过那里吗? b.频度时间状语:often, sometimes, ever, never, once, rarely 等 We have never heard of that. 我们从未听说过这事。 He has sometimes played tennis. 他有时打网球。 Big Ben has rarely gone wrong. 大本钟很少出差错。 c.包含现在时间在内的时间状语:now, just, today, this morning, this week, this year 等 I have just finished the letter now. 我现在刚写完信。 You have just missed the bus. 你刚好错过公共汽车。 Has he done much work today? 他今天做了很多工作吗? 比较:already 和 yet 用法上的区别 already 常用于肯定句,置于句中。yet 常用于否定句和疑问句,置于句末。但 already 有时也可用在疑问句中暗示惊讶的心情。 She has already gone. 她早就走了。 Have you eaten your dinner already? 你已经吃过饭了? He has not come yet.

他还没有来。 ②与现在完成时“未完成”用法连用的时间状语 与“已完成”用法一样, 表示具体的过去的时间状语不能与“未完成”用法连 用。与其连用的往往是指一段时间的状语以具体表示某一动作或状态持续了多 久。 a. since +具体时间,表示动作或状态从何时开始 Since then, he has developed another bad habit. 自那以后他养成了另一个坏习惯。 He hasn't been home since he graduated. 他毕业后就没回过家。 b. for +一段时间,表示动作或状态持续了多久 We have worked here for ages. 我们在这里工作很久了。 There has been no rain here for nearly two months. 这里已经近两个月没有下雨了。 c. until now, up till now, so far, up to the moment 到目前为止 I have not seen him so far. 到目前为止我没见过他。 Up to the present, everything has been OK. 到目前为止一切正常。 d. in/during the past/last five years 在刚刚过去的5年里 He has been away from school during the last few weeks. 过去的几个星期里他没在学校。 In the past few years they have dealt with quite a few international corporations successfully. 在过去的几年中他们已经和好几家跨国公司做成了生意。

e. all the while, all day 一直,一整天 She has been busy all day.

她忙了一整天。

4.现在完成时和一般过去时的区别 ①两者都可表示过去发生过的动作,但前者表示的是过去的动作对现在的影 响,而后者则只是表示过去有这一动作的事实。 He locked the door. 他锁过门。 (但现在门是开是锁不清楚。 ) He has locked the door. 他把门锁上了。 (现在门是锁着的。 ) Who turned on the light? 谁开的灯?(着眼开灯的动作,不管现在灯是开是关。 ) Who has turned on the light? 谁把灯打开了?(着眼开灯的结果,即现在灯还亮着。 ) ②两者都可表示过去开始并延续了一段时间的动作, 现在完成时表示该动作仍 在继续,而一般过去时则说明该动作现已终止。 He has lived in Beijing for four years. 他在北京住了四年了。 (现在仍住那儿) He lived in Beijing for four years. 他曾在北京住了四年。 (现在不住那儿了)

B.过去完成时 过去完成时的动作须在过去某一时间之前发生,即发生在“过去的过去”。

1.过去完成时的构成 过去完成时是由“had+过去分词”构成的。 Soon I realized I had made a serious mistake. 我很快就意识到我犯了一个严重的错误。 The man sitting beside me on the plane was very nervous. He had not flown before. 飞机上坐在我旁边的人很紧张,他以前从没乘过飞机。

Had he gone home when you arrived?你到的时候他已经回家了吗?

2.过去完成时的用法 ①“已完成”用法 表示某一动作或状态在过去某一时间之前或过去某一动作之前已经完成。 句中 常用 by 引导的时间状语或以 before, until, when, than 等词引导的内含一般过去时 的时间状语从句。 By 5:00 yesterday morning we had done that work. 到昨天早上5点钟时,我们已经做完了那件工作。 He had just finished sweeping the classroom when the teacher returned from the office. 老师从办公室回来时,他刚把教室打扫完。 They came earlier than we had expected. 他们到得比我们预料的要早。 I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university. 我在进大学之前就已学了5000个单词。 It rained yesterday after it had been dry for many months. 旱了好几个月之后,昨天下雨了。 注意: 在包含 before 和 after 的复合句中,因为从句动作和主句动作发生的先后顺序 已经非常明确,可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 The train (had) started before I reached the station. 在我到达车站之前,列车已经开了。 After he (had) arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English. 马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。 ②“未完成”用法 表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时刻之前就已开始,一直持续到这一过去时 间,还可能再持续下去。 Up to that time all had gone well.

直到那时一切都很顺利。 John and Jane had known each other for a long time before their marriage. 约翰和简在结婚前就认识很长时间了。 She said she had made much progress since she came here. 她说自从她到这儿后已取得了很大的进步。 ③“想象性”用法 过去完成时有时表示一种未实现的愿望或想法,主要用在 if 引导的和过去事 实相反的条件句以及 wish, as if 引导的从句中。 If she had worked hard, she would have succeeded. 要是她努力的话,她就会成功了。 (事实上她没努力,也没成功。 ) I wish I had gone with you to the concert. 我要是和你一起去音乐会就好了。 The two strangers talked as if they had been good friends for many years. 那两个陌生人交谈起来就像是多年的老朋友。 ④表示“刚刚??就??” 过去完成时常用在 hardly/scarcely/barely ... when..., no sooner ... than ...等结构 中,表示“刚刚??就??”。 Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。 No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到就又走了。 提示: intend, mean, hope, want, plan, suppose, expect, think 等动词的过去完成时可以 用来表示一个本来打算做而未做的事。 I had meant to come, but something happened. 我原本打算来的,但有事发生了。 I had intended to call on you, but was prevented from doing so. 我本打算去看你的,但没能去成。 They had wanted to help but couldn't get here in time.

他们原想帮忙的,但没能及时赶到这里。

3.过去完成时与一般过去时的比较 一般过去时表示过去时间的动作或状态。 过去完成时表示的动作或状态发生在 一般过去时表示的动作或状态之前,因此它表示的是“比过去更过去”。 I returned the book that I had borrowed. 我已归还了我借的书。 He didn't know a thing about the verb, for he had not studied his lessons. 他对动词一无所知,因为他没有好好学习功课。 I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. 我在车站等了20分钟车才来。 C.将来完成时 1.将来完成时的构成 将来完成时的构成是由“shall/ will + have +过去分词”构成的。 Before long he will have forgotten all about the matter. 不久他就会全然忘记这件事的。 He is somebody now. He will not have remembered his old classmates. 他现在是一个有身份的人了,他可能不会记得老同学了。 Will you have known Kevin for 10 years next month? 到下个月你认识凯文该有10 年了吧?

2.将来完成时的用法 ①表示在将来某一时间之前已完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。 We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term. 到这个学期末,我们将学完12个单元。 By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 你到家之前我将把房子彻底打扫一遍。 Will you soon have finished laying the table? 你会很快摆放好餐桌吗?

注意: 在时间状语从句中,不用将来完成时,要用现在完成时来代替。 When I have finished that, I shall have done all I am supposed to do. 等我做完这件事时,我就做完我该做的所有的事了。 Please don't get off the bus until it has stopped. 请待车停稳了再下车。 ②表示推测 You will have heard of this, I guess. 我想你已经听说过这件事了。 I am sure he will have got the information. 我相信他一定得到了这个信息。

四、完成进行时 完成进行时是完成时和进行时的结合,包括现在完成进行时和过去完成进行 时。

A.

现在完成进行时

1.现在完成进行时的构成 现在完成进行时是由“have/has been +现在分词”构成的。 He is ill. He's been lying in bed for three weeks. 他病了,已经卧床3个星期了。 Your eyes are red. Have you been crying? 你眼睛红了。你刚刚哭过了吗? What have you been doing all this time? 这半天你干什么来着?

2.现在完成进行时的用法 ①表示动作从过去某时开始,一直延续到现在

现在完成进行时常和 all this time, this week, this month, all night, all the morning, recently 等状语以及 since 和 for 引导的状语连用。 I have been reading Hemingway's Farewell to Arms recently. 我最近一直在读海明威的《永别了,武器》 。 She has been reciting the words all the morning. 她整个上午都在背单词。 This is what I have been expecting since my childhood. 这是我从小以来就一直期待着的事情。 ②表示动作刚刚结束 My clothes are all wet. I've been working in the rain. 我的衣服全湿了,我刚才一直在雨中干活。 He is dead drunk. He's been drinking with his friends. 他烂醉如泥,他刚才一直在和朋友们喝酒。 ③表示一个近期内时断时续、重复发生的动作 You've been saying that for five years. 这话你已经说了五年了。 He has been writing articles to the newspapers and magazines since he became a teacher. 自从任教以来,他一直在为报刊杂志撰稿。 ④表达较重的感情色彩 What have you been doing to my dictionary? 看你把我的字典弄成什么样子了! Time has been flying so quickly! 时间过得可真快啊! Too much has been happening today. 今天可真是个多事的日子。

3.

现在完成进行时和现在完成时的比较

①现在完成进行时可以表示动作的重复,而现在完成时一般不表示重复性。 Have you been meeting him recently?

你最近常和他见面吗? Have you met him recently? 你最近见到过他吗? ②现在完成进行时有时含有感情色彩,而现在完成时一般是平铺直叙。 I have been waiting for you for two hours. 我一直等了你两个小时。 (可能表示不满) I have waited for you for two hours. 我等了你两个小时。 (说明一个事实) ③现在完成进行时强调动作,而现在完成时强调结果。 Who has been eating the oranges? 谁一直在吃这些桔子呀?(还剩余一些) Who has eaten the oranges? 谁把桔子吃光了?(强调吃得一个不剩)

B.

过去完成进行时

1.过去完成进行时的构成 过去完成进行时是由“had been +现在分词”构成。 She had been suffering from a bad cold when she took the exam. 她在考试之前一直患重感冒。 Had they been expecting the news for some time? 他们期待这个消息有一段时间了吧? Rafael was scolded even though he hadn't been doing anything wrong. 尽管拉斐尔没做什么错事,但他还是挨骂了。

2.过去完成进行时的用法 ①表示过去某一时间之前一直进行的动作 过去完成进行时表示动作在过去某一时间之前开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。 和过去完成时一样,过去完成进行时也必须以一过去时间为前提。 I had been looking for it for days before I found it.

这东西我找了好多天才找着的。 They had only been waiting for the bus a few moments when it came. 他们只等了一会儿车就来了。 ②表示反复的动作 He had been mentioning your name to me. 他过去多次向我提到过你的名字。 You had been giving me everything. 你对我真是有求必应。 ③过去完成进行时还常用于间接引语中(详见第12章) The doctor asked what he had been eating. 医生问他吃了什么。 I asked where they had been staying all those days. 我问他们那些天是待在哪儿的。 ④过去完成进行时之后也可接具有“突然”之意的 when 分句 I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in. 我刚看了几分钟他就进来了。 She'd only been reviewing her lessons for a short while when her little sister interrupted her. 她温习功课才一会儿,她妹妹就打断她了。

3.过去完成进行时和过去完成时的比较 She had cleaned the office, so it was very tidy. 她已经打扫过办公室了,所以很整洁。 (强调结果) She had been cleaning the office, so we had to wait outside. 她一直在打扫办公室,所以我们不得不在外面等着。 (强调动作一直在进行) 第二章 被动语态(一)

第二章 被动语态(一)
语态也是动词的一种形式, 表示主语与谓语之间的关系。 英语有两种语态: 主动语态(active voice) 和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,而被动语态则 表示主语是谓语动作的承受者。

一、被动语态的构成 被动语态是由助动词 be 加及物动词的过去分词构成,如果有必要强调动作的执行者,动 作执行者可以由介词 by 引出的短语表示。助动词 be 随主语的人称、数、时态和语气的不 同而变化。 A. 十种常见时态的被动语态 1. 一般现在时 主动语态:do 被动语态:amisare done We clean the classroom every day. 我们每天打扫教室。 The classroom is cleaned by us every day. 教室每天都由我们打扫。 Such songs are usually sung by girls. 这些歌通常是女孩子们唱的。 Russian is not taught in our school. 我们学校不教俄语。 Are many goods shipped abroad every day 每天都有许多货物运往国外吗 2. 一般过去时 主动语态:did 被动语态:waswere done We cleaned the classroom yesterday. 昨天我们打扫了教室。 The classroom was cleaned by us yesterday. 昨天教室被我们打扫了。 The window was broken by my son. 窗子是我儿子打破的。 Were many trees planted on the hill yesterday 昨天山上种了许多树吗? How much money was stolen in all 一共被偷了多少钱? 3. 一般将来时 主动语态:willshall do 被动语态:willshall be done We will clean the classroom soon. 我们很快要打扫教室。 The classroom will be cleaned soon. 教室很快要被打扫了。 The work will be done immediately. 这工作将马上做。 Will the school sports meeting be held next week? 校运动会将在下星期举行吗? When shall we be given a lecture on the Internet 什么时候给我们作有关因特网的讲

座? 4. 一般过去将来时 主动语态:would do 被动语态:would be done We told him that we would clean the classroom soon. 我们告诉他我们马上就打扫教室。 We told him that the classroom would be cleaned soon. 我们告诉他教室很快就会被打 扫的。 He said that a new trade center would be built in the centre of the city. 他说一个新的贸 易中心将在市中心建起来。 She asked whether their plan would be considered with great care. 她问他们的计划会 不会得到仔细的考虑。 I wasn't told that I should be invited to the party. 没人告诉我要被邀请出席晚会。 5. 现在进行时 主动语态:amisare doing 被动语态:amisare being done We are cleaning the classroom now. 我们现在正在打扫教室。 The classroom is being cleaned now. 教室现在正在被打扫。 A hospital is being built in the centre of the town. 镇中心正在兴建一家医院。 Are the babies being taken care of by this nurse 这些婴儿正由这个护士照看吗? How is the new teaching method being tried there 那里是怎样试行这种新教学方法 的? 6. 过去进行时 主动语态:waswere doing 被动语态:waswere being done We were cleaning the classroom this time yesterday. 昨天这个时候我们在打扫教室。 The classroom was being cleaned this time yesterday. 昨天这个时候教室正在被打扫 The teaching plan was being discussed at that time. 那时正在讨论教学计划。 Was the TV set being fixed this time yesterday 昨天这个时候电视机正在被修理吗? The house was being painted when we arrived at his home. 我们到他家时,他家房子 正在粉刷。

7. 现在完成时 主动语态:hashave done 被动语态:hashave been done The classroom looks tidy. We have cleaned it. 教室看起来很整洁。我们已经打扫了。 The classroom looks tidy. It has been cleaned. 教室看起来很整洁。它已经被打扫了 Many foreign films have been shown on TV since last month. 上个月以来,电视中播放 了许多外国影片。 The radio has not been turned on yet. 收音机还没开。 Has a new training centre been set up in our town 我们镇上新的培训中心建好了吗? 8. 过去完成时 主动语态:had done 被动语态:had been done The classroom looked tidy. We had cleaned it. 教室看起来很整洁。我们已经打扫过了。 The classroom looked tidy. It had been cleaned. 教室看起来很整洁。 它已经被打扫过了。 His newly written novel had been translated into English by the end of last month.上个 月末,他刚写的小说已被翻译成了英语。 She told me that she had been dismissed by her boss. 她告诉我,她的老板已把她解 雇了。 Her homework had not been finished when I got home. 我到家的时候,她的作业还没 有完成。 9. 将来完成时 主动语态:will shall have done 被动语态:will shall have been done We will have cleaned the classroom by five o'clock. 我们将在五点之前打扫完教室。 The classroom will have been cleaned by five o'clock. 教室将在五点以前打扫完。 The new books will have been entered in the register before another parcel arrives. 这 些新书在下一批书到来前将登记完毕。 How many expressways will have been completed by the end of next year 底将建成多少条高速公路? Before you return my work will have been done. 你回来前我的工作将会做完。 到明年年

10. 过去将来完成时 主动语态:would have done 被动语态:would have been done I said we would have cleaned the classroom by 500. 我说我们将在五点之前打扫完教 室。 I said the classroom would have been cleaned by 500. 我说教室将在五点以前打扫完。 The headmaster said the article would have been translated by the end of next month. 校长说文章将在下月底翻译好。 The day was drawing near when the dam would have been completed. 大坝完工的日 子不远了。 He told me that preparations would have been finished by 600. 他告诉我准备工作将在 六点前完成。

B. “get+过去分词”结构 被动语态除常用“be +过去分词”构成外,还可用“get+过去分词”结构。这种结构多用在口 语中,强调动作的结果。 The boy got hurt when he was riding to school. 那孩子骑车上学时受伤了。 Did your letter get answered 你收到回信了吗? 注意: 用“get+过去分词”结构时,其后的动作执行者(即 by 短语)一般不表示出来。 Finally his bike got repaired. 最后他的自行车得到了修理。 As I passed by, my skirt got caught on a nail. 我经过的时候,我的裙子被钉子挂住了。

C.“seemappear +过去分词”结构 有时“seemappear +过去分词”也可以构成被动语态。 She seemed annoyed by his words. 她似乎被他的话搞得很恼火。 The house appears deserted. 这房子好像没人居住。 提示: 并不是所有的“be+过去分词”结构中的 be 都能被 get 或 seem, appear 等词代替。 【误】She got born in a small village.

【正】She was born in a small village. 她出生在一个小村庄。 【误】The old man got offered a large sum of money. 【正】The old man was offered a large sum of money. 这位老人获得了一大笔钱。 【误】Colin got caught cheating in the exam. 【正】Colin were caught cheating in the exam. 科林考试作弊被抓住了。

D.被动语态中常用的介词 1.by 表示动作的执行者或施加者 By whom is the book written 这本书是谁写的? The children were driven indoors by the rain. 孩子们被雨赶进了室内。 2.with 表示用某种工具 The wolf was killed with a gun. 狼被枪打死了。 The field was spread with wild flowers. 田野里野花遍地。 3.from 表示源于某种物质(看不出原材料) Good wine is made from grain. 好酒是粮食制成的。 4.of 表示用某种材料制成(看得出原材料) The table is made of wood. 这张桌子是用木头做的。 5.其他介词 You are wanted on the phone. 有电话找你。 He is known to everybody. 大家都认识他。 She was caught in the rain. 她遭雨淋了。 注意: 动作执行者可以由介词 by 引出的短语表示,但被动语态句子中的 by 短语并不总是表示 动作执行者。 A policeman is known by the clothes he wears. 警察可以通过他的服装辨认出来。 (by 表示方式) He was much flattered by her asking him to dinner. 她邀请他吃晚饭, 他受宠若惊了。 (by 表示原因) The snow was piled high by the gate. 门口雪堆积得很高。 (by 表示地点) 二、被动语态的用法

英语中,大多数情况下用主动语态比较简练、有力。但是,被动语态也有其特殊的用途, 它也是表达思想、描述事物的需要。人们通常在下列情况下使用被动语态: A. 不知道或不必说出动作的执行者 How is this word pronounced 这个单词怎么发音? Scientists say that work is done whenever a force moves. 科学家们说,力移动时就做了 功。 A greater number of magic English books will be published next year. 明年将有更多的 魔法英语书出版。 After war, everything had been destroyed. 战争结束后,一切都被毁坏了。 B. 强调动作的承受者 If you break the school rules, you will be punished. 如果你违反校规, 你将受到惩罚。 (强 调 you) A new Hope School will be opened in our village. 我们家乡将开办一所新的希望学校。 (强调 a new Hope School) She is liked by everybody. 大家都喜欢她。 Xiao Li was elected monitor of the class. 小李被选为班长。 C. 动作的执行者不是人而是无生命的事物 The bridge was washed away by the flood. 桥被洪水冲走了。 We were shocked by the news of his death. 我们听到他的死讯极为震惊。 Many accidents were caused by careless driving. 许多事故都是开车不小心造成的。 D. 修辞的需要,为了使句子更加简练、匀称 He appeared on the stage and was warmly applauded by the audience. 他出现在舞台 上,受到了观众的热烈鼓掌。 The old professor gave a lecture on American history and was well received. 这位老教 授作了一个有关美国历史的讲座,受到大家的热烈欢迎。 I was shown round the school campus by Sean, who had entered the school just a year before. 肖恩带我参观了校园,他去年刚进这所学校。 E. 为了表示委婉或礼貌,避免提及动作执行者或说话者自己 You've been told many times not to make the same mistake. 你已被多次告知不要犯同 样的错误。

Everybody is expected to obey the following rules. 希望大家遵守以下规定。 The control room may not be entered without permission. 非经许可,勿入控制室。 F. 科技文献中为了客观地描述事情及其过程 The film is coated with light-sensitive chemicals, which are changed by the different shades and colours of light. 胶卷上涂了一层感光的化学物质,这些物质因光的不同色度与 颜色而改变。 G. 新闻报道中为了体现新闻的客观性 The west-east gas pipeline project was kicked off on July 4, a big event in the nation's west development campaign. 西气东输工程7月4日全线开工,这是国家西部大开发战略的 一件大事。 H.有些动词习惯上常用被动语态 He was born in this city. 他出生在这个城市。

The school is situated in the suburbs. 这所学校位于郊外。 注意: 被动语态中的 by 短语通常可以省去。但如果 by 短语是句子的重点所在,或者没有 by 短 语全句的意思不完整时,则要保留 by 短语。 The vegetables didn't taste very good. They had been cooked too long. 蔬菜的味道不 好,烧的时间太长了。 (不需要动作的执行者) He arrived at the airport, where he was met by his friend. 他到达了机场并受到朋友的迎 接。 (没有 by his friend,句子的意思不完整) Everybody was cast down by such news as that. 大家都被那种消息搞得很沮丧。 (需要 by 短语)

第二章 被动语态(二)

三、主动语态变被动语态

中国人的思维的着眼点在动作的施动者,英美人思维的着眼点在动作的承受者。 中国人常这样说:I expect you to be there on time. 我希望你准时到那里。

英美人常这样说:You are expected to be there on time. 希望你准时到那里。 这就是英语中被动语态的使用比汉语中多的原因。 由于英语句子的主动语态结构不同, 因 而变成被动语态的方式也各不相同。

A. 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 “主语 + 谓语 + 宾语”结构中只有一个宾语,变为被动语态时,将宾语变为主语: They will discuss the plan at the meeting. 他们将在会议上讨论这个问题。 -- The plan will be discussed at the meeting. 这个问题将在会议上讨论。 In the past the king possessed great wealth. 过去国王拥有巨大的财富。 n 拥有。 In the past great wealth was possessed by the king. 过去,巨大的财富为国王所

B. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 在这个句型中,谓语动词跟有两个宾语。变成被动语态时,一般将通常指人的间接宾语转 化成主语,但有时也可将指物的间接宾语转化成主语: We gave the student some books. 我们给了这个学生几本书。 -- The student was given some books. 这个学生被给了几本书。 -- Some books were given to the student. 几本书被给了这个学生。 His father bought him a computer last week. 上周他父亲给他买了一台电脑。 -- He was bought a computer by his father last week. 上周他父亲给他买了一台电脑。 -- A computer was bought for him by his father last week. 上周他父亲给他买了一台电 脑。 注意: 用直接宾语作被动语态的主语时, 通常要在间接宾语前加上适当的介词(如 to, for, of 等),以加强间接宾语的语气。 They awarded him the Nobel Prize. 他们授予他诺贝尔奖。 -- The Nobel Prize was awarded(to)him. 诺贝尔奖被授予给他。 The host had caught us some fish. 主人给我们捉了一些鱼。 n 可省) n Some fish had been caught for us by the host. 主人给我们捉了一些鱼。 (for 不

C. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 在这个句型中,谓语动词后有一个宾语和一个宾语补足语,变成被动语态时,宾语转化成 主语,宾语补足语也随之变为主语补足语: All the villagers painted the houses white. 所有村民都把房子涂成了白色。 -- The houses were painted white by all the villagers. 房子都被所有的村民都涂成了白 色。 They kept us waiting for a long time. 他们让我们等了很长时间。 -- We were kept waiting for a long time. 我们等了很长时间。 We regarded him as the best doctor in town. 我们认为他是城里最好的医生。 -- He was regarded as the best doctor in town. 他被认为是城里最好的医生。 注意: 有些使役动词和感官动词,如 make, see, hear, watch, notice, observe, listen to 等,在主 动结构中跟不带 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语,在变为被动结构时,不定式应加上 to。 We heard him say good-bye to his friends. 我们听见他向朋友们道别。 n n D. 含有情态动词的主动句变被动句 含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态时,用“情态动词+ be done”构成。 情态动词 cancould maymight must havehad to willwould shallshould ought to 主动形式 cancould do maymight do must do He was heard to say good-bye to his friends. 他被听到向朋友们道别。

havehad to do willwould do shallshould do ought to do 被动形式 cancould be done maymight be done must be done havehad to be done willwould be done shallshould be done ought to be done The machine must be operated with care. 这机器必须小心操作。 Such a sentence ought not to be used here. 这个句子不应该用在这里。 What's done cannot be undone. 覆水难收。 People had to be reminded of the danger that night. 那天晚上必须提醒人们当心危险。

E. 含有“be going to do”和“be to do”等结构的主动句变被动句 含有“be going to do 和 be to do 等结构的谓语动词,变成被动语态时,分别用“be going to + be done”和“be to + be done”。在这两种结构中,be 只有一般现在时和一般过去时两 种形式。 The problem is going to be discussed at the meeting. 这个问题将在会上讨论。 This new film is to be shown on TV next week. 这部新片下周将在电视上放映。

F.含有宾语从句的主动句变被动句 带有宾语从句的句子变成被动语态时, 通常用 it 来作为被动句的形式主语, 宾语从句保留 不变。 They said that he had gone abroad to study English. 他们说他出国学英语去了。 -- It was said that he had gone abroad to study English. 据说他出国学英语去了。 We haven't decided when we should go camping. 我们还未决定什么时候去野营。

-- It hasn't been decided when we should go camping. 什么时候去野营尚未决定。 提示: 带有宾语从句的句子变成被动语态时,为了简练,还可把从句的主语变为被动句的主语, 从句的谓语部分还可以变为不定式短语。 We believed that he would succeed. 我们相信他会成功。 -- He was believed to succeed. 人们相信他会成功。 Father expected that I should become an engineer. 父亲希望我成为工程师。 -- I was expected (by my father) to become an engineer. (父亲)希望我成为工程师。 G.祈使句的被动语态 肯定的祈使句的被动语态结构是:Let + 宾语 + be + 过去分词;否定的祈使句的被动语 态结构是:Don't + let + 宾语 + be + 过去分词(或 Let + 宾语 + not + be + 过去分词) 。 Move the desks into the corridor. -- Let the desks be moved into the corridor. 把课桌搬到走廊去。 Don't trust her. -- Don't let her be trusted. -- Let her not be trusted. 不要相信她。 H. 动词短语构成的被动语态 一般情况下,只有及物动词才能跟宾语,而不及物动词不能跟宾语,所以只有及物动词才 有被动语态,不及物动词则没有被动语态。但有些不及物动词后面跟上介词或副词后,变成 一个动词短语,相当于一个及物动词,因此就可以有被动语态。 The nurses in this hospital look after the patients very well. -- The patients are well looked after by the nurses in this hospital. 病人在这所医院里被 护士们照料得很周到。 They have put off the meeting till next Saturday. -- The meeting has been put off till next Saturday. 会议已推迟到下周六了。 注意: 在使用被动语态时,千万不要遗漏句末的介词或副词。 Such a bad habit should be got rid of. 这样的坏习惯应该改掉。 All the important matters have now been attended to. 所有重要的事情都得到了处理。 I. 双重被动结构

双重被动结构指的是句中谓语动词和其后的不定式均为被动结构, 句子的主语既是谓语动 词的承受者,同时又是不定式动作的承受者。 They asked us to discuss the problem at once. -- We were asked to discuss the problem at once. -- The problem was asked to be discussed at once. 这个问题被要求立刻讨论。 (双重被 动) She offered to buy a recorder for me. -- A recorder was offered to be bought for me. 有人提出要帮我买一台录音机。 (双重被 动) The teacher ordered that we should take the desk away. -- The desk was ordered to be taken away. 课桌被要求搬走。 (双重被动) J.下列句子变成被动语态时,要用 with,不用 by Smoke filled the meeting room. 烟充满了会议室。 The meeting room was filled with smoke. 会议室里充满了烟。 A cloth covered the table. 一块布把桌子罩了起来。 The table was covered with a cloth. 桌子上铺着一块布。 K.不能变为被动语态的结构 1.受动词的限制 ①表示状态的及物动词,只能用于主动语态。 某些表示状态的及物动词,如 have, own, cost, lack, want (缺乏), become (适合), fit, resemble, fail, last, flee, benefit, hold 等作谓语时,不能变为被动句。 She resembles her mother. 她像她妈妈。 He lacks self-confidence. 他缺乏自信。 This hall can hold 2,000 people. 这个大厅能容纳两千人。 ②当及物动词 have 表示“吃饭”、“患病”、“明白”、“知道”等意思时,没有被动语态形式。 Would you have a cup of tea 你要喝杯茶吗? She had a bad cold yesterday, and now she is feeling much better. 昨天她得了重感冒, 现在好多了。 ③当动词 get,take 表示“懂得”、“知道”,owe 表示“欠”,cost 表示“使失去(生命、健康 等)”的意思时,动词没有相应的被动语态。

Do you get me

你明白我的意思吗?

How do you take this passage 这段话你怎么理解? I owe 50 pounds to you. 我欠你五十英镑。 His careless driving cost his life. 他粗心的驾驶使他丧了命。 2.受宾语的限制 ①当宾语是相互代词、 反身代词或具有类似相互代词的关系时, 动词不能用于被动语态形 式。 They simply cannot contain themselves for joy. 他们简直无法抑制内心的喜悦。 He absented himself from a meeting yesterday. 他昨天缺席会议了。

For years the two sisters looked after one another. 多年来两姐妹互相照顾。 ②当宾语前带有主语的形容词性物主代词时,谓语动词通常不能转换为被动语态。 I could not believe my eyes when I saw him still alive. 看到他还活着,我简直不相信自 己的眼睛。 The doctor shook his head and then went out without any words. 医生摇了摇头,一句 话也没说就出去了。 注意: 动词的宾语是身体的一部分,一般不可变为被动语态,但也有例外。 He fixed his eyes on the oil painting. 他注视着这幅油画。 -- His eyes were fixed on the oil painting. 他的两眼注视着这幅油画。 ③当宾语起状语作用,表示数量、重量、大小或程度时,不能用被动语态。 This kind of dictionary costs ten dollars. 这种字典价值十美元。 The case weighs twenty kilos. 这箱子重二十公斤。 ④当宾语是同源宾语时,通常不能转换成被动语态。 He laughed a hearty laugh. 他由衷地笑了笑。 She dreamt a sweet dream. 她做了一个美梦。 ⑤如果宾语是动词不定式或动词的-ing 形式时,谓语动词一般不能变换成被动语态。 He admitted having done wrong. 他承认做错了。 He has decided to go and study abroad. 他已决定出国留学。 ⑥如果 enter, leave, reach 的宾语是地点、国家机关等,不能改为被动语态 He left the army in 1998. 他1998年退伍。

She entered the hall at once. 她立刻就进入了大厅。 ⑦另外,不可拆开的短语动词,如 take place, lose heart, belong to, consist of, change colour 等,也不能改为被动语态。 The book belongs to me. 这本书是我的。 She caught a very bad cold. 她患了重感冒。 必背:一些常见的不能变为被动语态的动宾词组 catch a cold eat one's words lose heart lose patience make a face make up one's mind make bed make room for keep watch keep silence speak one's mind take place 发生 take one's time take office 就职 take one's leave take notes take up arms 请假 从容不迫,别着急 铺床 为……腾出地方 守望 保持安静 表明见解 感冒 食言 丧失信心 失去耐心 做鬼脸 决心

作笔记 拿起武器

take one's place 就位 ⑧含有 would rather 或情态动词 dare 的句子,不能改为被动语态。 I would rather do it now. 我宁可现在就干这件事。 He dare not do it. 他不敢干那件事。

四、被动语态与系表结构 所谓系表结构,在此指“连系动词+用作表语的动词-ed 形式”结构。它与被动语态的形式

完全一样,所以在应用时应注意它们的区别。 A. 被动语态中的过去分词是动词,多强调动作;系表结构中的过去分词相当于形容词, 多强调状态。前者通常可用 by+人或 by+抽象名词表动作的执行者,而后者则一般不用。 The gate to the garden was locked by the girl. 花园门被那个女孩锁上了。 (被动结构) The gate to the garden was locked. 花园门锁了。 (系表结构) The tree was blown down by the high winds. 那棵树被大风吹倒了。 (被动结构) The tree was blown down when we saw it. 我们看到那棵树时,它已经被吹倒了。 (系表 结构) 注意: 少数“连系动词 be + 用作表语的动词-ed 形式”也带 by 短语。 The old man was surrounded by small children. 老人被孩子们团团围住。 (被动语态) Guilin is surrounded by hills and mountains. 桂林周围都是山。 (系表结构) We were held up by fog. 我们因雾受阻。 (被动语态) The tree is known by its fruit. 看到果子就知道是什么树。 (系表结构) B. 系表结构一般只用于一般现在时、一般过去时等少数几种时态;而被动语态可用多种 时态。 The composition is well written. 这篇作文写得很好。 (系表结构) The composition is being written. 这篇作文正在写。 (被动语态) C. 系表结构中的过去分词可被 very, too, so 修饰,被动语态中的过去分词须用 much 修 饰。 The boy was too frightened to move. 这孩子吓得动也不敢动。 (系表结构) He was very excited.他很激动。 (系表结构) He was much excited by the news. 他听到消息后很激动。 (被动结构) D. be + 不及物动词的过去分词通常是系表结构。 Her money is all gone. 她的钱都花光了。 The honoured guests are arrived. 贵宾们到了。 The moon is risen. 月亮升起来了。 She is grown up. 她长大了。 The leaves are fallen. 树叶落了。 We are prepared for the worst. 我们已准备好应付最坏的情况。

E. 表示“充满”意思的“be + 过去分词 + with”结构多为系表结构。 The mountain is covered with snow all the year round. 这座山终年被积雪覆盖。 The classroom was crowded with pupils. 教室里挤满了学生。 The lake is dotted with fishing boats. 湖里渔帆点点。 The floor was piled with old books. 地板上堆满了旧书。 F. remain, feel, lie, stand 以及 become, grow 等词 + 过去分词结构多为系表结构。 The matter remained unsettled. 这件事悬而未决。 She felt disappointed. 她感到失望。 The road became crowded. 道路拥挤了。 G. 句中有时间状语和地点状语时,一般为被动语态,反之为系表结构。 The bank is closed. 银行现在关门了。 (系表结构) The bank is usually closed at six. 银行通常六点关门。 (被动语态) He is married. 他结婚了。 (系表结构) 五、主动形式表示被动意义 英语中有些结构形式上是主动的,而表达的意义却是被动的。 A.某些不及物动词的被动意义 英语中一般只有及物动词才用于被动语态,不及物动词不用于这种结构。但有些时候,某 些不及物动词,其主动形式含有被动的意义。 When did the accident occur 事故是什么时候发生的? 冰淇淋在暑天销路好。

Ice-cream always goes well in hot weather.

Does life exist on the moon 月球上存在着生命吗? B.一些表示“开始”、“结束”意思的动词 Class begins at eight. 八点钟开始上课。 The meeting ended up with warm applause. 会议在热烈的掌声中结束了。 C.一些表示“运转”意义的动词 The machine runs well. 机器运转良好。 His voice records well. 他的音录下来很好。

D.当 read, write, translate 等动词与表示行为方式的状语连用时 动词 read, write, translate, act, add, wash, wear, cook, lock, sell, tear, cut, keep, feel, burn, strike, last 等常和表示行为方式的状语连用,表示被动意义。这些动词既是及物动词

又是不及物动词。当主语是人时,是及物动词;当主语是物时,是不及物动词,即用主动形 式表示被动意义。 The book sells well. 这书的销路很好。 My pen writes smoothly. 我的笔很好写。 The play reads more easily than acts. 这剧本易读不易演。 提示: 这些动词常和情态动词(多半是否定式)连用,表示被动。 His car can't move. 他的车不能开了。 E.表示状态特征的连系动词的被动意义 有些表示状态特征的连系动词,如 look, smell, taste, sound, prove, appear, turn out 等主 动形式表示被动意义。 Good medicine tastes bitter. 良药苦口。 What he said proved to be correct. 他的话证明是正确的。

The flowers smell sweet. 这些花闻起来很香。 Your sentence doesn't sound right. 你这话听起来不大对头。 F.一些动词的进行时态可以表示一个被动的动作 The meat is cooking. 肉正在烧。 The book is printing. 这本书正在印刷之中。

G.有些作表语的不定式,在结构上是主动的,但在意义上却是被动的 She is to blame. 她应该受到责备。 The house is to let. 此房出租。

六、被动形式表示主动意义 英语的被动形式表示主动的意义, 主要见于状态被动语态句中。 一般说来有以下几种情况。 A.反身动词的被动形式表示主动意义 反身动词(及物动词+反身代词)作谓语时,其宾语反身代词,表示动作返回到执行者本 身,主语既是动作的执行者,又是动作的承受者。由于反身动词具有这一特点,在被动结构 中动作的承受者,也就是动作的执行者,在句中表现出主动的意义。 He seats himself at the back of the classroom. 他坐在教室的后面。 -- He is seated at the back of the classroom. 他坐在教室的后面。

He lost himself in the forest. -- He was lost in the forest. 他在森林中迷了路。 He dressed himself in a dark blue suit. -- He was dressed in a dark blue suit. 他穿着一套深蓝色的衣服。 注意: 有些介词短语作定语或表语时,也有被动的含义。 The tall building under repair is an office building. 正在修建的那座高楼是一座办公楼。 The result is nnow under consideration. 结果现在正在考虑中。 个别介词短语用冠词时表示被动的意义,不用冠词表示主动意义。 The children are in the charge of this nurse. 孩子们由这位护士照管。 This nurse is in charge og the children. 这位护士负责照看孩子们。 B.“引起……感情”等动词的被动形式表主动意义 The teacher is satisfied with what he said. 老师对他所说的感到满意。 We are opposed to unjust wars. 我们反对非正义的战争。 We are prepared to accept his proposal. 我们准备采纳他的建议。 He was tired with playing all day. C.某些表示定位、移位的动词 The earth is tilted a little. 地球有点儿倾斜。 Hundreds of soldiers were stationed around the prison. 数百个士兵驻扎在监狱周围。 The village is located at the foot of a hill. 这个村庄坐落在山脚下。 D.不及物动词的-ed 形式与 be 连用表示主动意义 Spring is come. 春天来了。 The moon was set and it was very dark. He is advanced in years. 他年纪很大了。 E.表示终止动词的-ed 形式 He is done with it. 他做完了这件事。 月亮落了,天很黑。 玩了一整天他感到很疲倦了。

My fever is gone, but I still have a cough. 我的烧已经退了,但还有点儿咳嗽。 F.一些习惯用法 He was graduated from Beijing University. 他毕业于北大。 You are mistaken. 你弄错了。 He is retired. 他退休了。 G.被动的祈使句 Do be seated. 请坐! Be prepared, please. 请准备好。 Get washed. 洗吧。 Be concerned more about the well-being of the masses. 多关心群众的生活。 He was married in Beijing. 他是在北京结婚的。 (被动语态)

虚拟语气

第三章虚拟语气
虚拟语气(the subjunctive mood) ,又称假设语气,是谓语动词的一种形式, 表示说话人叙述的内容与事实相反,在现实中并不存在,或实现的可能性很小。

一、动词的语气 语气用来区别讲话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。英语中的语气 (mood) 有三种,分别是陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

1.陈述语气 陈述语气一般用来叙述事实或就事实提出询问,主要用于陈述句、疑问句和某 些感叹句。 Where there is a will, there's a way.有志者事竟成。 Can you help me carry the box upstairs 你能帮我把箱子搬到楼上吗? How I missed the life in the countryside!我多么想念乡村的生活啊!

2.祈使语气 祈使语气表示说话人向对方提出请求或下达命令。

Come this way, please!请这边走。 Don't make any noise, will you 别吵,行吗? Do be careful when crossing the street.过马路时一定要小心。

3.虚拟语气 虚拟语气表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设 或推测等。 If I were a bird, I could fly in the air.如果我是一只小鸟,我就能在空中飞行。 I wish it were spring all the year round.但愿四季如春。 May good luck be yours!祝你好运!

二、条件句中的虚拟语气

英语中条件从句有两类,一类是真实条件句,另一类是非真实条件句。如果假 设的情况可能发生, 是真实条件句;如果假设的情况是不存在的或不大可能发生 的,则是虚拟条件句。

A.真实条件句 真实条件句表示的假设是可能发生或实现的, 主句和从句的谓语动词都要用陈 述语气。 If he doesn't come at 8, we won't wait for him.如果他八点不来, 我们就不等他了。 If a flood happened in the past, there was usually a great loss of life and property. 过去发生洪水的话,常有很大的生命和财产损失。 We shall go there unless it rains tomorrow.如果明天不下雨,我们将去那里。 I'll let you use my bike on condition that you keep it clean.如果你能保持车子干 净,我就让你用我的自行车。

B.非真实条件句 在含有非真实条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词都要用虚拟语气,其

构成有三种形式: 与现在事实相反 if 条件句的谓语:were did

主句的谓:would (couldshouldmight) + do 与过去事实相反 if 条件句的谓语:had done

主句的谓:would(couldshouldmight) + have done 与将来事实相反 if 条件句的谓语:didwere would (couldshouldmight) + do were to do

主句的谓:should do

1.表示与现在事实相反的条件 条件从句用动词的过去式(be 动词用 were) ,主句用 should(第一人称)或 would(全部人称)+动词原形。可用情态动词 could, might 代替 should, would 表 示情态。 If it were Sunday tomorrow, I would go and see my friends.明天要是星期天的话, 我就去看望我的朋友。 If I were you, I should go and try.我要是你,我就去试试。 If wishes were horses, beggars might ride. 如果幻想能成为马匹,叫花子都有了坐骑 ?would go if they treated me like a slave.要是他们把我当奴隶对待,我就走。

2.表示与过去事实相反的条件 条件从句用动词的过去完成时,主句用 should(第一人称)或 would(全部人 称)+have done,也可用 could, might 代替 should, would。 If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have telephoned you.如 果昨天我知道你的电话号码,我就给你打电话了。 If it had not rained this morning, I should have gone shopping.今天早上要是没下 雨,我就去买东西了。 The flood might have caused great damages to the people if we had not built so many reservoirs.倘若我们没有修建这么多的水库,洪水就会使人民遭受巨大的损 失。

3.表示在将来不太可能实现的条件 表示在将来不太可能实现的条件从句有三种形式: ①weredid 条件从句用动词的过去式(be 动词用 were) ,主句用 should(第一人称)或 would(全部人称)+动词原形。也可用 could, might 代替 should, would。 If he were here tomorrow, I would speak to him.明天如果他在这里的话,我就和 他谈谈。 If you dropped the glass, it would break.你要是把杯子掉下来,会打碎的。 If she had time, she could help me.她要是有时间,就会帮我了。 ②should do 条件从句中不管什么人称都用 should do,可表示有偶然实现的可能性。 If it should rain, the crops could be saved.假如下雨,庄稼可能就有救了。 We would trust him if he should be honest.如果他真是诚实的,那我们就相信他。 ③were to do 条件从句用 were + to do。这种形式比较正式,常出现在书面语中,其假设成 份很大,实现的可能性很小。 If I were to do the work, I should do it in a different way.要是我做这项工作,我就 会以不同的方式去做。 If the headmaster were to come, what would we say to him 假如校长来了, 我们对 他说什么呢? 对比: 将来不太可能实现的三种非真实条件句中的虚拟语气对比 If it snowed tomorrow, I would stay at home.如果明天下雪的话,我就留在家里。 (常用形式) If it should snow tomorrow, I would stay at home.如果明天下雪的话, 我就留在家 里。 (可能性较小) If it were to snow tomorrow, I would stay at home.如果明天要下雪的话,我就留

在家里。 (可能性最小)

C.省略 if 的条件句 在书面语中,非真实条件句中有 were, had, should 时,可以省略 if,而把 were, had, should 放在主语前,用倒装结构。 Were it necessary, I might go without delay.如果需要的话, 我可以立即去。 (= If it were necessary......) Had you taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the exam.你要是听了我的 建议,就不会考试不及格了。 (= If you had taken my advice......) Should I have time, I would call on her.要是有时间,我就去看她。 (= If I should have time......)

D.错综条件句 虚拟条件句中的主句和从句涉及的动作发生的时间不一致, 这时主句和从句的 谓语形式应按照各自动作发生的实际时间来表达。 If you hadn't watched TV yesterday, you wouldn't be so sleepy now.如果你昨天不 看电视,你现在也就不会这么困了。 (从句 yesterday 说明过去,主句 now 说明现 在) If they had left home early this morning, they would arrive in half an hour.如果他 们今天一早就离开家的话,再过半小时他们就该到了。 (从句说明过去,主句说 明将来。 ) If you hesitated this moment, you might suffer in the future.如果你此刻犹豫不决, 你将来会吃苦头的。 (从句说明现在,主句说明将来) 注意: 在很多情况下, 我们也可以用 was 来代替当主语是第一人称或第三人称单数时 的 were。 If were here tomorrow... 也可以说成:If he was here tomorrow... I wish I were a bird.

也可以说成:I sish I was a bird. 但倒装句型中的 were 不可被 was 来替换。 Were I in your position,I would not do it.如果我处在你的位置,我是不会干这件 事的。

E.含蓄条件句 非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子 叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况:

1.条件暗含在短语中 He would not get such a result without your help.没有你的帮助,他就不会有今天 的成果。(条件暗含在介词短语 without your help 中) But for you, I could not be recovered so soon.要不是有你,我就不会恢复得这么 快。(条件暗含在 But for you 中) This same thing, happening in the past, would lead to a disaster. 同样的事,如发

生在过去,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语 happening in the past 中) He must have been there, or he never could know the place so well. 过那儿,否则他绝不会对那个地方如此熟悉。(暗含条件是连词 or) 他一定是去

2.条件可根据上下文推理出 It would do you no good.这可能会对你没好处。 (条件可能是 if you should give up the job 如果你放弃这项工作的话) They could have won. 如果他们有耐心的话) Such mistakes could have been avoided.这种错误完全能避免。 (条件可能是 if you had been more careful 如果你更加小心一点的话) Why didn't you tell me about it I should have helped you.为什么你不告诉我?我 会帮助你的。 (条件可能是 if you had told me about it 如果你当时告诉我的话) --- Did you go to see him yesterday 你昨天去看他了吗? 他们本来是会赢的。 (条件可能是 if they had been patient

--- I would have, but someone dropped over to my house for a visit.原想去的, 但有 人到我家来玩了。 (条件是 if no one had dropped over to my house for a visit 如果没 人到我家来玩的话)

3.条件用其他形式来表示 She was ill, otherwise she would have been present at the meeting.她病了,否则的 话就会出席会议了。 (条件通过连词 otherwiseor 表示出来 If she had not been ill...) I told him to go there himself, but perhaps I should have gone together with him.我 让他自己去那里,但也许我应该和他一道去。 (连词 but 暗示条件) Suppose you were in my shoes, what would you do 假若你站在我的立场上,你会 怎么办?(用 supposesupposingproviding 等词表示 if) To talk with her, you would know she could not hear well.如果你同她交谈,你就 会知道她的听力不好。 (动词不定式带有假设的意思,相当于 If you should talk with her...) Left to himself, he could not have finished the work.要是放任他的话, 他是不可能 完成工作的。 (动词的-ed 形式表示条件 If he had been left to himself...) 提示: 在很多情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。 You wouldn't know. 你不会知道。 我愿意和你一起去。

I would like to go with you.

三、虚拟语气在各种从句中的用法

虚拟语气除主要用于非真实条件句外,还可用在部分主语从句、宾语从句、表 语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句之中。

A.名词性从句中的虚拟语气 主句中的动词、名词、形容词如表示要求、建议、命令或愿望等含义,与其相 关的名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)中的谓语动词 要用虚拟语气。

1.主语从句中的虚拟语气 主语从句通常用于“It is +形容词名词动词的-ed 形式+ that ...”结构。主语从 句中是否用虚拟语气取决于所用的形容词或动词的 -ed 形式,其谓语动词常用 “should +动词原形”(美国英语常省略 should,只用动词原形) 。 ①表示建议或命令 It is important that we (should) work out a study plan.重要的是我们要制订出一个 学习计划。 It will be better that we (should) meet some other time.最好我们在另一个时间见 面。 It is suggested that each student (should) sing a song in English.有人建议每个学生 都要唱一首英文歌曲。 It is demanded that he should leave at once.要求他立刻离开。 ②表示惊讶 It is strange that he should have failed to see his own shortcomings.真奇怪他竟看 不到自己的缺点。 It is a pityshame that I should be at school instead of lying here in hospital.真可惜, 我应当在学校而不是躺在医院里。 It is natural that you should forget it first.你起先记不住是很自然的。

必背: 常见的要接含有虚拟语气主语从句的词 形容词:important, necessary, urgent, essential, vital, natural, strange, proper 等 动词的 -ed 形式: arranged, suggested, ordered, required, desired, demanded, proposed 等 It is necessary that the program (should) be loaded into the computer.有必要把程 序输入电脑。 It is strange that he should have learned so much in such a short time.很奇怪他竟 然在如此短的时间内学了那么多的东西。

It is desired that we (should) get everything ready by tonight.希望一切在今晚前准 备就绪。

2.宾语从句 虚拟语气常用在表示要求、建议、命令或愿望的动词后的宾语从句中。 常见的宾语从句中需用“should+动词原形”的动词有: 一个坚持:insist 两个命令:order,command 三个建议:suggest,advise,propose 四个要求:demand,require,ask,desire ①在 suggest(建议), order(命令), propose(建议), insist(坚持要做), command (命令), request (要求) , advise (建议) 等动词后的宾语从句中, 谓语动词用 should +动词原形(美国英语常省略 should) 。 The examination instructor asked that the students (should) not use a calculator.考 官要求学生不要使用计算器。 The workers demanded that their wages (should) be raised by 10 percent.工人们要 求增加百分之十的工资。 They requested that he (should) sing a song.他们要求他唱一首歌。 比较: 动词 suggest 和 insist 后面的宾语从句,应根据不同情况选用陈述语气或虚拟 语气。 suggest 作“建议”解时,用虚拟语气,作“使想起、暗示”解时,用陈述语 气。 His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.他的沉默暗示他赞同我的 决定。 (暗示) He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 (建 议) insist 作“坚决要求”解时,用虚拟语气,作“坚持认为”解时,用陈述语气。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people's health.他坚持认为做

早操对健康有益。 (强调) He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.他坚持每天都要做早 操。 (要求) ②在动词 wish 后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气,表示不可能实现的愿望。 一般过去时 weredid 表示目前不可能实现的愿望

I wish I were a bird.但愿我是一只小鸟。 I wish I knew the answer.我要是知道答案就好了。 过去完成时 had done 表示过去不可能实现的愿望

I wish she had taken my advice.那时她要是接受我的建议就好了。 I wish that I had seen her yesterday.真希望我昨天见过她。 过去将来时 wouldcould do 表示将来没有把握或不可能实现的愿望 I wish you would stay an hour longer.我希望你再呆一个小时。 I wish it could stop raining.但愿雨能停。 提示: 由于 wish 和 hope 的汉语意思差不多,在使用上往往容易出错。wish 一般表示 “希望”、“但愿”,表示不可能实现的愿望,后接从句时要用虚拟语气;hope 表示“希望”,指可以实现的希望,后接从句时用陈述语气。 The students hope that their football team will win the game.学生们希望他们的足 球队获胜。 (可能实现) I wish I could see him now.我希望现在就能看到他。 (不可能实现)

3.表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气 在表示建议、劝告、命令等含义的名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动 词要用“should +动词原形”结构。 My advice is that you (should) practise speaking English as often as possible.我的 建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。 The demand is that the composition (should) be written on one side only. 按照要求 作文必须单面誊写。 It is my desire that all the members of the family (should) gather once a year. 我的

愿望是所有家庭成员一年团圆一次。 The suggestion that education (should) be reformed is reasonable.教育要改革的建 议是合理的。 必背: 表示建议、劝告、命令等含义的名词常见的有 advice demand desire 建议 要求 愿望

decision 决定 idea motion order 命令 proposal 提议 requirement request 要求 请求 意见 提议

regulation 规章 suggestion 建议

B.状语从句中的虚拟语气

①方式状语从句 由 as if 或 as though 引导的状语从句可以用陈述语气表示可能符合事实的情况, 也可以用虚拟语气表示与事实不符或与事实相反的情况。 a.表示与现在事实不相符,用一般过去时 The teacher treats the pupil as if he were her own child.这位老师对待这位学生就 像自己的亲生孩子一样。 (这位学生并不是她的亲生孩子) b.表示与过去事实不相符,用过去完成时 I felt as though we had known each other for years.我感觉我们好像认识多年了。 (其实并没有认识多年)

c.表示与将来事实不相符,用 wouldmightcould It looks as if it might rain.天看上去好像要下雨。 (不大可能下雨) 对比: He looks as if he is young.看样子他好像很年轻。 (他就是年轻) He looks as if he were young.看样子他好像很年轻。 (实际上他不年轻)

②目的状语从句 a.由 in case, lest, for fear that 引导的目的状语从句,动词用“should +动词原 形”结构,表示忧虑或目的。 Please remind me of it again tomorrow in case I (should) forget.请你明天再提醒 我这件事,以免我忘记。 She emphasized it again and again, lest he (should) forget.她一再强调这一点免得 他忘记。 We had a meeting and talked the matter over face to face for fear that there should be any misunderstanding. 我们开了一个会,面对面谈了这件事,以免发生任何误会. b. 在 in order that 和 so that 引导的目的状语从句中,往往用 can(could) 或 may(might)。 I shall write down your telephone number so that I may not forget.我要把你的电 话号码记下来,以免忘记。 They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time.为了能提前完成工作,他们比往常更加努力。 We will tell you the truth so that you can judge for yourself.我把真实情况告诉你, 使你能自己作出判断。

③让步状语从句 让步状语从句指事实时, 从句谓语动词用陈述语气。若从句内容表示现在和将 来的假设情况,从句谓语动词用虚拟语气。 Though he (should) fail, there would still be hope.即使他失败了,仍有一线希望。

I should say the same thing even if he were here.即使他在这里, 我还是要这么说。 Whether he (should) succeed or fail, we shall have to do our part.不管他成功还是 失败,我们还是要做好自己的事。 However hard it might rain rains, we shall go there together.不管雨下得多么大, 今 晚我们还是要去那里。 No matter what his social position (might) be, a man is equal in the eye of the law. 一个人不论其社会地位如何,在法律面前都是平等的。

C.定语从句中的虚拟语气 在 It is (high) time (that) ...结构中,定语从句的谓语动词用过去式,表示“到某 人该做某事的时间了”。 It is time that the children went to bed.到孩子们睡觉的时间了。 It is high time that we began the meeting.正是我们开会的时间了。

四、其他句型中的虚拟语气

A.If only...... If only 位于句首引起的感叹句用虚拟语气,动词用一般过去时表示目前的愿 望,用过去完成时表示过去的愿望,用 would 或 could 表示将来。 If only he knew the answer.他要是知道答案就好了。 (用过去时表示现在) If only I could speak several foreign languages! 我要是能讲几种外语就好了! (用 wouldcould 表示将来) If only you had told me the truth before. 去完成时表示过去) 注意:if only 和 wish 的用法相同,表示的意愿也基本相同。 If only it would rain.但愿天能下点儿雨!= How I wish it would rain. If only I had known her earlier!要是我早点儿认识她就好了!= I wish I had known her earlier. B.would rather 要是你以前告诉我真相就好了。 (用过

would rather, would prefer, would sooner 等后接从句,表示“宁愿”,动词用过 去时表示当时和将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况。 I would rather you left today.我宁可你今天走。 I would prefer he didn't stay here too long.我倒希望他不要在这儿呆得太久。 I would rather I hadn't seen that film yesterday.我宁愿昨天没有看那场电影。 提示: would rather 主要有两种用法。 1.后接不带 to 的不定式 I'd rather play tennis than swim.我宁愿打网球,也不愿游泳。 I'd rather not go to the movies.我宁愿不去看电影。 Which would you rather have, tea or coffee 你喜欢喝茶,还是咖啡 2.后接不用连词的 that 从句 I'd rather you went home now.我希望你现在就回家。 I would rather my daughter attended a public school.我希望我的女儿能上公立学 校。

C.表示愿望的感叹句 在表示祝愿的感叹句中,用动词原形,表示愿望。 Long live the People's Republic of China!中华人民共和国万岁! May you be happy!祝您快乐! God bless you!上帝保佑你! Success attend you!祝你成功! The Lord save us!愿主救我们!

D.情态动词用于虚拟语气 部分情态动词的过去形式(could, might, should, would) ,可以用于非真实条件 句以及其他结构中表示虚拟语气。

1.表示想像或猜测

If I could speak French, I would teach you.如果我会说法语,我就能教你。 (我不 会,所以不能教你) If you phoned him right now, you might get the matter settled.如果你现在给他打 电话,你就可以把问题解决了。 There could be something wrong with the tape recorder.这台录音机可能出毛病 了。 He might have said so.他可能这样说过。 Could he have done such a foolish thing 他会做这样的傻事吗?

2.表示委婉或客气 虚拟语气(could, would, might +动词原形)可使说话者的口气变得委婉客气。 You could answer this email for me.你可以替我回这个电子邮件。 Could you leave me your telephone number and address 你能将电话号码和地址 留给我吗? Would you mind opening the window 劳驾把窗子打开,好吗? You might as well put off the discussion till next week.你们不妨把讨论推迟到下 个星期。

比较: would lide to do 愿意,想要 would lide to have done 本来想 I would like (to have) a word with you.我想和你谈一谈。(现在想) I would like to have talked with you.我原本想和你谈一谈的。 (没有谈成)

3.表示惋惜或责备 Given more time, we could have done better.如果给我们更多时间, 我们能够干得 更好些。 (我们并没有得到更多的时间)

You could have got up a little earlier! 你完全可以早点儿起来! (实际上没有早起) It was cold yesterday. I should have worn a heavy coat.昨天很冷, 我该穿件厚外套 的。 (但我没穿) This wall shouldn't have been pained blue.这墙不应该漆成蓝色。 (但已漆了) 提示: 当代英语一个显著的变化就是虚拟语气的使用越来越少, 许多该用虚拟语气的 地方都用陈述语气代替。 He suggested that I went to the hospital at once.他建议我们立刻去医院。 (原应用 should go) We shall write down the address lest we forget.我们要把地址记下来,以免忘记。 (原应用 should forget) Imagine you are an astronaut.设想你是个宇航员。 (原应用 were)

情态动词

第四章 情态动词(一)
情态动词表示说话人对动作或状态的各种观点和态度,如需要、猜测、意愿或 怀疑等。情态动词有词义,但不完全,是所谓的“辅助性”动词,在句中不能单 独充当谓语。

一、

情态动词的特征和形式

A.情态动词的各种形式见下表: 情态动词 may might can could must have to

ought to will would shall should need dare used to

否定式 may not might not cannotcan not could not must not do not have to ought not to will not would not shall not should not need not dare not used not to did not use to

简略否定式 mayn't(老式英语,现在不常见) mightn't can't

couldn't mustn't don't have to oughtn't to(否定句中 to 可省略) won't wouldn't shan't(只用于英国英语) shouldn't needn't daren't usedn't to didn't use to

B.情态动词除 ought to, used to 等外,后面只接不带 to 的不定式。

1.情态动词+do You shouldn't be so careless.你不该这样粗心大意。 Jessica told him yesterday she might not go on the trip. 杰西卡昨天告诉他,她可能不去旅行了。 Difficulties can and must be overcome. 困难能够而且必须克服。

2.情态动词+be doing She must be listening to pop music. 她肯定在听流行音乐。 You should be reviewing your lessons. 你应该在复习功课。 My mother maymight be cooking now. 我妈妈可能正在做饭。

3.情态动词+have done They might have visited the Great Wall. 他们可能参观过长城了。 He must have got up very early to catch the train. 他一定起得很早去赶火车了。 You ought to have come earlier. 你本该早一点儿来。

4.情态动词+be done This word can also be used as a verb. 这个词也可以用作动词。 Something must be done to stop pollution. 必须采取措施来制止污染。 The work ought to have been finished long ago. 这工作早就该完成了。

C.情态动词第三人称单数一般现在时没有词形变化。 You ought to wear a raincoat. 你应该穿件雨衣。 She ought to wear a raincoat. 她应该穿件雨衣。 Plants must have oxygen in order to live. 为了存活植物必须有氧气。 A plant must have oxygen in order to live. 为了存活植物必须有氧气。

D.情态动词的时态并不是区分时间的主要标志。在一些场合中,情态动词的现在 式和过去式都可以表示现在时间、过去时间或将来时间。 I'm afraid it might rain tonight.

我看今晚可能要下雨。 Could I borrow your thermos 我可以借用你的暖水瓶吗? It's a nice day today. We could go for a walk. 今天天气不错,我们可以出去散散步。

E.情态动词是互相排斥的,一般不允许两个意义相近的情态动词连用。 【误】Soldiers must have to obey orders. 【正】Soldiers have to obey orders. 军人必须服从命令。 【正】Soldiers must obey orders. 军人必须服从命令。 【误】Can I be able to borrow two books at a time 【正】Can I borrow two books at a time 我能一次借两本书吗? 【正】Will I be able to borrow two books at a time 我能一次借两本书吗? 一、 情态动词的意义和用法

A. may 和 might

1.表示请求、许可,常译为“可以”。 在口语中可用 can, could 代替 may,但在正式场合用 may。表示允许时,也可 用 might 代替,might 不表示过去时,而是表示口气比较婉转。 You may take this seat if you like. 如果你喜欢可以坐这个位置。 MayCan Could Might I have a talk with you 我可以和你谈谈吗? --- MayMight I come into the room to see my mother

我可以进房间看我母亲吗? --- No, you mustn't. She needs to have a good rest. 不,你不能进。她需要好好休息。 提示: May I ...问句常见的肯定回答和否定回答。 肯定回答 Yes, please. Certainly. Yes, of course. Sure. Go ahead, please.

否定回答 No, you can't.(最常见) No, you mustn't.(具有强烈禁止的意思) Please don't. You'd better not. I don't think you can. I'm sorry it's not allowed.

2.表示推测,可译为“可能,也许”。 Your math teacher maymight be in his office. 室里。 (一般情况下,might 表示的可能性很小) The light isn't on. It maymight be broken. 那盏灯没有亮,它可能坏了。 There may might be some ink left in the bottle. 瓶子里也许还剩点儿墨水。 注意: 用 may 表示推测一般不用于疑问句,在疑问句中通常用 can 来代替。 Can he be at home 你们的数学老师可能在办公

他可能在家吗? --- Can it be true 这可能是真的吗? --- It may be, or may not be. 可能是,也可能不是。

3.用在目的状语从句中,构成谓语。 He wants to take a taxi so that he may get there in time. 他想坐出租车,这样他就能及时到达那里。 I arrived at the airport earlier in order that I might meet him. 我早早地就到了机场为了能接到他。

4.有时可以用于祈使句表示祝愿。 May you succeed. 祝你成功 May you be happy. 祝你快乐。 May that day come soon. 希望这一天早日到来。

B. can 和 could 1.表示能力,可译为“能,会”。 I can swim.我会游泳。 Emily can dance well and her mother could dance well when she was young. 艾米丽舞跳得很好,她妈妈年轻时舞跳得也很好。 The cinema can seat 1,000 people. 这电影院能容纳1,000人。 I could not read such an easy book when I was 7 years old. 我七岁时连如此简单的书我也看不懂。

2.表示允许、许可,常用在口语中。could 比 can 语气上要客气。 --- Could I use your dictionary 我可以用一下你的字典吗? ---Yes, go ahead. 可以,用吧。 (或 Yes, you can.但不能说 Yes, you could.) Could Can you tell me how to get to the zoo 劳驾,你能告诉我怎么去动物园吗? He asked me whether he could take the book out of the reading room. 他问我可不可以把书带出阅览室。

3.表示推测,可用于肯定句(can 罕见) 、否定句和疑问句,但更常见于疑问 句或否定句。在此种用法中 can 和 could 没有时态的区别,只是表示可能性的大 小,can 表示推测的可能性比 could 大。 Can he be ill at home 他会是生病在家吗? Can the story be true 这个故事会是真的吗? He cannot be at home. 他不可能在家。 You mustn't smoke while you are walking around in the woods. You could start a fire. 在林子里走时一定不要吸烟,那样可能会引起火灾。

4.表示惊异、怀疑、不相信等态度,主要用于否定句和疑问句中。 How can you be so careless 你怎么这么粗心? Where can could they have gone 他们会去了哪里? He can'tcouldn't be over sixty.

他不可能超过60岁。

5.Could 可以用在虚拟条件句中。 If I could fly, I should be very happy. 如果我能飞,我会很高兴。 If you had followed my advice, you could have finished it. 如果你当时听我的,你早就做完了。 If you had tried harder, you could have passed your exam. 如果你再努力些,你就能通过考试了。

6.can 与 be able to 的区别

①can 表示“能力”时,和 be able to 相当,许多场合都可以互相替换。但当叙 述过去经过一番努力才能完成的事情或前面有特殊说明,表示你有能力时,只能 用 be able to。 【正】Can you speak any foreign languages 你会说外语吗? 【正】Are you able to speak any foreign languages 你会说外语吗? 【误】The fire spread the building quickly but everybody could escape. 【正】The fire spread the building quickly but everybody was able to escape. 大火迅速蔓延到整幢大楼,但大家都逃了出来。 【正】The fire spread the building quickly but everybody managed to escape. 大火迅速蔓延到整幢大楼,但大家都想法逃了出来。

②be able to 比 can 有更多形式。 No one could answer the question. 没人能回答这个问题。 (这里 could 可用 was able to 代替) When he grows up, he will be able to support his family.

他长大后就能养家了。 Frank is ill. He hasn't been able to go to school for one week. 弗兰克病了,已经一周没去上学了。 I'm sorry for not being able to help you in time. 对不起,不能及时帮你的忙。

③could 经常和动词 see, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember, understand 等连用。 When we went into the house, we could smell something burning. 当我们走进屋子时,我们闻到什么东西烧焦了。 (不用 was able to) She spoke in a very low voice, but I could understand what she said. 虽然她讲话的声音很低,但我还是明白了她说的话。

④在谈论说话时发生的动作,用 can,不用 be able to。 【误】Look! I'm able to swim. 【正】Look! I can swim. 看,我会游泳了!

C.must 和 have to

1.must 表示有做某一动作的必要或义务,强调主观看法,可译为“必须,应 该”。 Everyone must obey the rule. 人人都必须遵守制度。 We must do everything step by step. 我们必须逐步做每件事。 Teachers must be patient enough with their students. 老师必须对学生有足够的耐心。

2.have to 表示因客观需要促使主语不得不做某事。 You can't turn right here. You have to turn left.

你不能在这里右拐,你必须左拐。 My eyesight is very poor. I have to wear glasses for reading. 我的视力很差,看书时不得不戴眼镜。 You have to pass a test before you can get a driving licence. 你在取得驾照之前必须先通过考试。 提示: 在口语中,我们可以使用 have got to 来代替 have to. I've got to work on Sunday. 我不得不星期天工作。 When has Ann got to go 安必须什么时候走?

3.must 与 have to 的比较。 must 与 have to 在表示“必须”这个意思时意义相近,但在用法上有所区别。 ①must 含有说话者的强烈决意(表示主观的看法) ,have to 则表示外力环境或 习惯使然(即表示客观的必要,作“不得不”解) 。 I must study hard. 我必须努力学习。 (发自内心的决定) I have to study hard. 我不得不努力学习。 (外界因素逼迫) You must stay for supper. 你必须留下来吃晚饭。 (because I want you to) You have to stay for supper. 你得留下来吃晚饭。 (because there is nowhere else to go) ②must 只有一种形式,而 have to 可有多种时态。 They had to put off the sports meet due to the bad weather. 由于坏天气,他们不得不推迟运动会。 These last two days he has had to take a rest at home. 这两天他必须一直在家休息。

③must 的否定式和 have to 的否定式的意思完全不同。 You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anyone. 你必须保密,你不可以告诉任何人。 (mustn't 表示“禁止”) You don't have to tell me the secret.你不必告诉我这个秘密。 (don't have to 意思是“没有必要”= don't need to)

4.must 用于表示推测,它的肯定程度比 may, might, could 大得多,一般只用 于肯定句。 ①must do (这里的 do 通常是状态动词或系动词),表示对现在状态的推测。 He must be very lazy for his desk is very untidy. 他肯定很懒,因为他的课桌很不整洁。 Carol must get very bored with her job. She does the same thing every day. 卡罗尔肯定对她的工作厌烦了,她每天都做同样的事。 ②must be doing 表示对现在动作或状态的推测。 Put on more clothes. You must be feeling cold with only a shirt on. 多穿点儿衣服,你只穿一件衬衣,肯定觉得冷。 ③must have done 表示对过去的动作或状态的推测。 The ground is wet. It must have rained last night. 地面是湿的,昨晚肯定下雨了。 I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我没听见电话铃响,我一定是睡着了。 提示: must 表示推测只用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句要用 can, could 来代替 must。 He's just had his lunch. He can't be hungry already. 他刚吃过午饭,不会饿的。 They have just arrived here. They can't know many people. 他们刚到这里,不可能认识很多人。 Leslie walked past me without speaking. He can'tcouldn't have seen me. 莱斯利从我身边走过而没打招呼,他肯定没看见我。

5. must 可用来表示根据逻辑推理必然要发生的事, 可译为“必然会, 总是会”。 We all must die. 我们都会死。 Truth must be out. 真相必然会大白的。 Winter must be followed by spring. 冬天到了,春天还会远吗?

6.must 有时可用来表示“偏偏”的意思。 Why must it rain today

为什么偏偏在今天下雨? When I was taking a nap, a student must knock at the door. 正当我午睡时,偏偏一个学生在这个时候来敲门。 D.will 和 would

1.will 和 would 可用于第二人称疑问句,表示请求和建议等。would 比 will 委 婉客气。 Will you have some tea 你喝点茶,好吗? Will you share your happiness with us 你可以把你的欢乐与我们共享吗? Would you pass this book to the student in the last row 请你把这本书传给最后一排的学生好吗? 必背: WillWould you ...表示请求和建议的答复。 肯定回答 Yes, please.是的,请。

Certainly.当然可以。 Sure.当然了。 All right.好啊!

否定回答 I'm sorry. I can't.对不起,不行。 No, thank you.不,不行。 No, I won't.不,不行。

2.will 和 would 可表示意志、愿望和决心,用于各种人称陈述句。 I will do anything for you. 我愿为你做任何事。 I will never tell you the secret. 我永远不会告诉你这个秘密。 None is so blind as those who won't see. 不愿看的人眼睛最瞎。 They would not let him in because he was poorly dressed. 他们不让他进去因为他衣着破旧。

3.will 和 would 可表示某种倾向或习惯性动作。will 表示现在的习惯动作, would 表示过去的习惯动作。 He will surf the Internet every night. 他每天晚上都在上网。 The boy will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by. 那男孩常常坐在那儿好几个钟头,看着车辆行人通过。 He would be nervous when he met strangers. 遇见陌生人时他总是很紧张。 In class he would ask some silly questions, and his classmates would laugh at him. 课上,他总是问一些蠢问题,他的同学们总是嘲笑他。

4.will 可表示固执坚持,这时 will 不可使用'll 的简略形式。用于非人称主语 时,表示物体的固有性质和倾向。 I will take the job, and no one can stop me. 我就要这个工作,没有人可阻止我。 He won't do what he's told. 他就是不愿按所吩咐的去做。 The window won't open. 窗子打不开。 This glass will not crack under heavy pressure. 这种玻璃在重压下也不会破碎。

5.will 表示将来时间时,不可用于条件状语从句,但 will 表示意愿或决心时, 可用于条件状语从句。 If you will read the book, I'll lend it to you. 如果你愿意读这本书,我会把它借给你。 If you will give up smoking, your health will improve. 如果你愿意把烟戒掉的话,你的健康状况就会好转。

6.will 和 would 可表示推论或猜测。 The patient took the sleeping pills an hour ago. He will be asleep now. 病人一小时前吃的安眠药,现在应该睡着了。 It would be about ten when he left home. 他大约在十点钟离开的家。 I thought he would have told you about it. 我认为他已告知你此事。 It would be raining when she went home. 她回家时可能正在下雨。 比较:

Would you like ...表示邀请 Do you like ...表示习惯 ——Do you like going go the cinema 你喜欢看电影吗? ——Yes,I go to the cinema a lot. 是的,我经常去看电影。 ——Would you like to go to the cinema tonight 今天晚上去看电影好吗? ——Yes,I'd love to. 非常乐意。

E.shall 和 should

1.shall ①表示征询意见或请求指示,用于一、三人称疑问句。 Shall I carry it for you 我来帮你搬它,好吗? Shall we sing a song 我们唱一支歌,好吗? Shall they wait outside 让他们在外面等吗? Shall the waiter bring meals to your room 要服务员把饭送到你房间去吗? 提示: Shall I open the window 我打开窗子好吗? Will you open the window 你打开窗子好吗? Shall he open the window

他打开窗子好吗? ②表示说话人的意愿,有“命令、允诺、警告、决心”等意思,用于第二、三 人称陈述句中。 You shall do as I say. 按我说的做。 (命令) He shall be sorry for it one day, I tell you. 我告诉你,总有一天他会后悔的。 (警告) You shall fall behind in your exam if you keep playing. 如果你一直玩,你就会在考试中落后。 Nothing shall stop us from carrying out the plan. 什么也阻止不了我们执行这项计划。 (决心) He shall have the book when I finish reading. 我看完这本书就给他看。 (允诺) I shall do my homework after reading this story book. 读完这本故事书后我就做作业。

2.should ①表示义务,意为“应该”(某件事宜于做) ,用于各种人称。 Children should obey their parents. 儿童应该服从他们的父母。 One shouldn't be selfish. 人千万别自私。 Customers who get bad service should complain, shouldn't they 没有得到满意服务的顾客应该抱怨,不是吗? ②常与 what, how, why 等词连用,表示意外、惊讶等情绪。 How should I know 我怎么会知道呢 Why should I fear 我为什么会害怕? What should she do but cry for help

除了呼救外,她还能干什么? I don't know why you should think I did it. 我真不知道你凭什么认为这件事是我干的。 ③表示对过去、现在或将来情况的某种推测,可译为“可能、照说应该”。 It should be fine tomorrow. 明天可能天是晴天。 He should be taking a bath now. 他可能在洗澡。 It's nearly seven o'clock. Jack should be here at any moment. 已经快七点了,杰克随时都可能到这儿。 The film should be very good as it is starring first-class actors. 这部新电影是一流演员主演的,估计拍得很好。 ④表示对现在或以前的动作的责怪、批评(应做的事却没做) 。 The boys shouldn't be playing football. They should be at school. 这些男孩子不应该在踢足球,他们应该在上课。 You shouldn't have entered the teachers' office without permission. 没有允许你们不应该进老师办公室。

F.ought to 1.表示义务,意为“应该”(因责任、义务而该做) ,口气比 should 稍重。 We ought to defend our country. 我们应当保卫我们的国家。 (每一个公民应尽的义务) You ought to respect your parents. 你应当尊敬你的父母。 Oughtn't we to do everything possible to stop pollution 难道我们不应当尽可能地制止污染吗? 2.表示推测,暗含很大的可能,可译为“应该是,会是”。 Prices ought to come down soon. 价格可能会很快下跌。 Han Mei ought to know his telephone number.

韩梅该知道他的电话号码。 There's a fine sunset; it ought to be a fine day tomorrow. 今天有晚霞,明天应该是个好天。 3.ought to 和 should 一样,表示对现在或以前应做的事却没做的责怪、批评。 You ought to be washing your clothes. Why are you playing Ping-Pong 你应该在洗衣服(可是你没洗) 。为什么你在打乒乓球? You ought to have handed in the exercise last week. 你上周就应当交练习。 (可你没交,含责备的意思。 ) He ought to have asked me before he took my bike. 他在用我自行车之前应该和我讲一声。

4.ought to 与 should 的比较。 ought to 和 should 的含义较近,但不完全相同。ought to 表示“应该”,是从 “义务”或“按理推断”的角度来讲的。 should 则是从说话人的个人看法这一角 度来讲的。 You are her mother. You ought to look after her. 你是她的母亲,你应当照管她。 (是道义上的责任,不能和 should 互换。 ) We should encourage him for we are his classmates. 我们应该鼓励他,我们是他的同班同学啊! 提示: 表示“义务”时,我们在口语中可以用 had better 或 be supposed to 来代替 should 和 ought to。 If you are not well, you had better ask Alice to go instead. 如果你不舒服,你最好叫艾丽丝代替你去。 I'm supposed to be there at 8 o'clock. 我应该八点到那里。

G.used to 1.used to 表示过去的习惯或过去某时期的状况,但现在已不存在。 He used to drink tea but now he drinks coffee.

他过去总是喝茶但现在他喝咖啡了。 (强调现在不喝茶了) I know where there used to be a river here. 我知道这儿以前哪里有条河。 (现在没有河了) When I was a child I didn't use to like tomatoes. 我小时候不喜欢吃西红柿。 He is not what he used to be. 他已不是原来的他了。 Where did you use to live before you came here 来此之前你住在什么地方?

2.would 和 used to 的用法区别。 ①used to 表示过去与现在或过去某时与后来的情况有不同,强调“现已无此 习惯了”,而 would 只表示过去的情况,与现在无关。 When he was young, he would smoke a lot. 他年轻时总是吸许多烟。 (不含有和现在比较,现在他也许还在抽,也许不抽 了。 ) He used to live in the country, but now he lives in the city.他过去住在乡下,现在 住在城里。 ②used to 可表示过去的习惯动作或状态,而 would 只表示过去的习惯动作。 Kate used to be very thin. 以前凯特非常瘦。 There used to be a building at the street corner, but it has been pulled down. 街道拐角处过去有座楼房,现在拆了。 (不用 would) ③used to 可泛指过去的习惯动作或状态,而 would 表示过去的习惯动作时, 往往要带有一个特定的时间状语。 【误】We would play hide-and-seek in the fields. 【正】We used to play hide-and-seek in the fields. 我们过去常在田野里玩捉迷藏。 【正】 Whenever we were in the country, we would play hide-and-seek in the fields.

每当我们在乡下,我们都在田野里玩捉迷藏。 H.dare dare 既可用作情态动词,也可用作行为动词,指勇气和胆量上的可能,可译为 “敢”。 1.情态动词 dare ①dare 作为情态动词时主要用于疑问句和否定句,一般不用于肯定句中。 I dare not daren't walk through the forest at night. 我不敢在黑夜穿过森林。 --- Dare you walk through the forest at night 你敢在黑夜穿过森林吗? --- Yes, I dare. 是的,我敢。 --- No, I daren't. 不,我不敢。 He dare not drive too fast on the rainy day. 下雨天他不敢开得太快。 He dared not do it last year. 去年他不敢做这事。 (dare 的过去时为 dared)

②可以用于表示怀疑的名词性从句中。 I wonder how he dare say such things. 我真奇怪他怎么竟敢说出这样的话。 We don't know whether he dare climb the mountain. 我们不知道他是否敢爬那座山。 ③可以用于条件状语从句中。 If the enemy dare enter the village, we'll fight against them to the end. 如果敌人敢进入村里,我们就和他们战斗到底。 If you dare cheat in your exam, I will give you some punishment. 如果你们敢在考试中作弊,我就惩罚你们。

2.行为动词 dare ①dare 可以作为行为动词,多用于肯定句中,但也可用在疑问句和否定句中 He will dare any danger. 他敢面对任何危险。 He dared me to jump over the stream. 他激我跳过小溪。 Did anyone dare to admit it 有人敢于承认吗? I have never dared (to) go back to take a look. 我再也不敢返回去看一眼了。 (否定句中 to 可省略) ②和其他行为动词一样,dare 在句子中要随着主语的人称和数发生变化。 He doesn't dare to walk at night. 他不敢走夜路。 (作行为动词) He daren't walk at night. 他不敢走夜路。 (作情态动词) Does he dare to walk at night 他敢走夜路吗?(作行为动词) Dare he walk at night 他敢走夜路吗?(作情态动词) He didn't dare to walk at night fifteen years ago. 15年前他不敢走夜路。 (作行为动词) He daren't walk (=dared not walk) at night fifteen years ago. 15年前他不敢走夜路。 (作情态动词) Will you dare to do the same experiment tomorrow 明天你敢做同样的实验吗?(作行为动词) Dare you do the same experiment tomorrow? 明天你敢做同样的实验吗?(作情态动词) 必背:

英语口语中 dare 的几个常用结构: ●I dare say... 我想,大概,可能,或许?? I dare say things will improve. 我想情况会好转的。 ●How dare you ... 你怎么敢??? How dare you ask me such a question 你怎么敢问我这样的问题? ●I dare you ... 我谅你也不敢?? I dare you to tell your parents! 我谅你也不敢告诉你父母!

I.need 1.情态动词 need need 和 dare 一样,作为情态动词时,主要用于否定句和疑问句,一般不用于 肯定句中(在肯定句中常被 must, have to, ought to, should 等情态动词取代) 。作 为情态动词,它的词形只有 need 一种形式。 You needn't return the book now. You can keep it till next week if you like. 在不必还书, 如果愿意,你可以下周还。 (needn't = don't have to) Need I hand in my homework now 我现在就要交家庭作业吗? --- Need he finish the article next week 他要下个星期完成这篇文章吗? --- Yes, he must. 是的,他必须完成。 --- No, he needn't. 不,他不需要。 (= he doesn't have to) 你现

2.行为动词 need need 和 dare 一样,也可以作行为动词,可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句中。 行为动词 need 有人称和数的变化。 Plant needs water. 植物需要水。 My shirt needs a button. 我的衬衫需要一枚钮扣。 My car needs repairing. 我的车该修理了。 He has grown up. We don't need to worry about him. 他已经长大了,我们不必为他担心。 You don't need to buy so many things for the picnic. 你不必为这次野餐买这么多东西。 Patience is needed for that job. 干那工作,需要耐心。 提示: Need 作为情态动态时,不要用于肯定句中。 【误】She need do her homework by herself. (need 作为情态动词时,不用于肯 定句中) 【正】She needs to do her homework by herself. 她该独立完成家庭作业。

第四章 情态动词(二)
一、 情态动词+动词完成式

“情态动词+have done”是情态动词的一个十分重要的结构,这种结构有两个 主要的用法。

表示对过去发生的动作或状态的推测或估计 may might have done 表示“大概已经” 通常用于肯定句和否定句。 might 有时可用于疑问句。 can could have done 表示“可能已经” 通常用于疑问句和否定句。 could 有时可用于肯定句。 must have done 表示“一定已经” 只用于肯定句,具有较大的可能性 should have done 表示“该”,可能性较小 表示对过去发生的动作的遗憾或责备 might have done 表示“本可以 通常用于肯定句 could have done 表示“本可以 通常用于肯定句。 should have done 表示“应该 可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句。 ought to have done 表示“应该” 同 should have done。 needn't have done 表示“本没有必要” 只用于否定句。

A.may /might /have done 1.表示对过去事实不大肯定的推测,常译为“可能已经”。 They might have taken a later train.也许他们乘坐的是晚一点儿的火车。 He seems to know the city quite well. He may have been there before. 他似乎对那 个城市很熟悉,他以前可能去过那儿。 2.表示“本来应该或可以做但没有做某事”,含有轻微的责备口吻或遗憾。 You might have given him more help, though you were busy.你本来应该给他更多 的帮助,虽然你很忙。 The proposal might have been refused.这个建议本该拒绝的。

B.cancould have done

1.表示对过去事实的推测,常用于否定句和疑问句。 He can't couldn't have watched TV yesterday for he knew they would have an exam. 昨天他不可能看电视,因为他知道快要考试了。 I don't know why she didn't call me yesterday. Can (Could) she have forgotten my telephone number 我不知道昨天她为什么没给我打电话,难道她会把我的电话号 码忘了吗? He didn't come to school yesterday. Can he have been ill 他昨天没来学校, 难道他 生病了?

2.could 可表示对过去能做而未做的事感到惋惜、遗憾,可译成“本来是可 以??的”。 Why didn't Sophie apply for the job She could have got it.为什么索菲不申请这项 工作?她本来是能得到的。 Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York You could have stayed with Barbara. 你到纽约时为什么住宾馆?你完全可以和芭芭拉住在一起的。

Given more time, we could have done the work better.如果给我们更多的时间,我

们完全可以把这项工作干得更好。

C.must have done

1.表示对过去事实有把握的推测,具有较大的可能性。只用于肯定句中,否 定句和疑问句用 cancould have done。 His watch must have stopped.他的表肯定停了。 --- I rang your flat yesterday. A man answered but I didn't recognize the voice.昨天 我给你家打电话,一位男士接了电话,但我没听出来是谁的声音。 --- Oh, it must have been my brother Peter. 哦,那一定是我哥哥彼得。

2.用于虚拟语气中时,表示与过去事实相反。 You must have caught the bus if you had got up earlier. 如果你早一点儿起床的

话,你准能赶上那一班公共汽车了。 (事实上没有赶上公共汽车) He must have won the game if he had been careful enough.如果他足够细心的话, 他准能赢得比赛。.

D.needn't have done 用于对过去的责备,表示“没有必要做某事,可是做了”。 The airport is close to us. You needn't have hurried there early.机场离这儿很近, 你 没必要早早地赶到那里。 (可是你早早地到那儿了) He is still young. You needn't have sent him such an expensive present.他还小,你 没必要送他这么昂贵的礼物。 注意: 如表示“过去不必做也没有做”之意,需用 didn't need to do。 It is not cold today. I didn't need to take the thick sweaters out.今天天气不冷, 我没 有必要把厚毛衣拿出来。 (实际上也没拿)

E.shouldought to have done

1.表示对过去动作的责备或批评。 You should have gone over your lessons. (In fact you didn't go over your lessons.) 你们应把功课复习好的。 (可事实上你们没有。 ) You shouldn't have watched TV last night. (In fact you watched TV last night.)你们 昨天晚上本不该看电视。 (可你们看了。 ) You oughtn't to have entered the teachers' office without permission.没有经过允 许,你们本不该进老师的办公室。 You oughtn't to have gone to the deserted place alone. 地。 你不该独自去那荒凉之

2.表示期待或推测。 If the flight was on time, you should ought to have arrived in Shanghai early this morning.如果航班准点的话,你今早就能到上海了。 The building should ought to have been completed by the end of the week.这幢

建筑物本周末前应该能完工。

F.would have done

表示与过去事实相反的假设或结果。 I would have been happy to see him, but I didn't have time.我会很高兴和他见面 的,但我没时间见他。 If your father had still been alive, he would have felt very proud of you. 你父亲如 果还健在的话,他会为你骄傲的。 动词不定式

第五章 动词不定式(一)

动词不定式是动词的一种非谓语形式,在句中不能单独作谓语。动词不定式具 有动词的性质,它可以有自己的宾语和状语,从而构成动词不定式短语。它还可

以有形式的变化,即一般式、进行式、完成式和被动式。同时,动词不定式也具 有非动词的性质, 相当于一个名词、 形容词或副词, 可以在句中担任主语、 宾语、 宾语补足语、表语、定语和状语。

一、动词不定式的特征和种类

动词不定式是由不定式符号 to+动词原形构成,在某些情况下 to 也可省略。

A.不定式的一般式 不定式的一般式表示的动作通常与主要谓语的动作同时或几乎同时发生, 或是 在它之后发生。 He appears to be very happy.他看起来好像很高兴。 (同时发生) To catch the train, we'd better hurry to the station by taxi.为了赶上火车, 我们最好 赶紧乘出租车去车站。 (to catch the train 发生在 hurry to the station 之后)

B.不定式的进行式 不定式的进行式表示正在进行的或与谓语动词同时发生的动作。 It happened to be raining when I got there.我到达那里的时候,天碰巧在下雨。 I'm glad to be traveling with you.我很高兴和你一起旅游。

C.不定式的完成式 不定式的完成式表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生。 I'm sorry to have lost your key.我很抱歉把你的钥匙弄丢了。 I meant to have finished my work last night, but I didn't feel very well.我本来想昨 晚完成工作的,但是我感觉身体不舒服。 It has been an honor for me to have been invited to your country.对我来说, 被邀请 来你们国家是一件很荣幸的事情。

D.不定式的完成进行式

不定式的完成进行式表示的动作在谓语之前发生并且一直进行着。 He was said to have been living in London for twenty years.据说他在伦敦一直住 了20年。 I'm sorry to have been interrupting you.很抱歉,我一直打扰你。 比较: 不定式的时态意义。 He is said to be studying abroad.据说他正在国外读书。 (不定式的进行式表示动 作正在进行) He is said to have studied abroad.据说他在国外学习过。 (不定式的完成式表示动 作已经结束)

E.不定式的被动形式 当不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用 被动形式。 不定式的被动形式根据其与谓语动作发生的先后关系,有一般式和完 成时两种。

1.一般式 to be done These are the books to be given out to the students.这些是要发给学生的书。 He asked to be sent to the place where he was most needed.他要求被派往最需要 他的地方。 2.完成式 to have been done The novel is said to have been translated into many languages.据说这部小说已被 译成多种语言。 He appeared to have been questioned for many times.看起来他已经被询问过很多 次了。

F.不定式的否定形式 不定式的否定形式由 not 或 never 加不定式构成。 We decided not to go out because of the bad weather.由于天气不好,我们决定不

出去。 Never to have made any mistake is impossible.从不犯错是不可能的。 注意:谓语动词的否定和不定式的否定不同的意义 I did not promise to wake him up.我没有答应叫醒他。 I promised not to wake him up.我答应了不叫醒他。 一、动词不定式的用法

动词不定式除了不能单独作谓语外,几乎能担任句子中所有的句子成分。

A.动词不定式作主语 不定式具有名词的特征,可在句子中充当主语。 1.不定式短语在句首作主语 To know oneself is difficult.人贵有自知之明。 To say is one thing and to do is another.说是一回事,做又是另一回事。 To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness one can get.爱与被爱是一个人能 获得的最大幸福。 2.用 it 作形式主语 在很多情况下,人们通常用 it 作为形式上的主语,而把不定式移到谓语之后, 使句子结构显得平稳一些。 It's rude to turn your back to your teacher and refuse to answer.背对着老师,拒绝 回答问题是不礼貌的。 It is impossible to learn a foreign language without making painstaking effort.想不 下苦功就能学会外语是不可能的。 It seemed a pity to have wasted so much time.浪费了这么多时间,真是遗憾。 注意: 当主语和表语都是不定式时,不能用形式主语代替动词不定式。 To respect others is to be respected.尊重别人就是尊重自己。 To become a slave is to give up one's freedom.做奴隶就等于放弃自由。

B.动词不定式作表语 不定式作表语可以说明主语的具体内容或表示目的。 His wish is to become an astronaut. 他的愿望是成为一名宇航员。

What he hoped was to be admitted into the university.他希望能被大学录取。 To live is to do something worthwhile.活着就是要做一些有价值的事情。 注意: 有些作表语的不定式,在结构上是主动的,但在意义上却是被动的。 She is to blame.她应该受到责备。 The house is to let.此房出租。 The result is not long to see.结果不久就会看到。

C.动词不定式作宾语 不定式可以充当部分及物动词的宾语, 也可以充当 but 和 except 等介词的宾语 以及形容词的宾语。 1.作动词的宾语 ①不定式可以充当部分及物动词的宾语。 Father likes to listen to music in silence. 父亲喜欢静静地听音乐。 他宁愿饿死也不愿乞讨。

He prefers to be starved to death rather than beg.

I never thought to meet you here.我没想到在这里遇见你。 必背: 可接不定式作宾语的动词有: afford 负担得起 agree 同意 aim 以??为目标 ask 要求 attempt 尝试 begin 开始 care 喜爱 choose 决定

continue 继续 decide 决定 desire 要求 determine 决心 expect 期待 fail 不能 forget 忘记 hate 不愿 hope 希望 ntend 打算 manage 设法 mean 打算 offer 表示愿意 plan 计划 prefer 宁愿 pretend 假装 promise 答应 refuse 拒绝 remember 记起 try 努力 want 想要 wish 希望 ②在 feel, find, make, think, consider 等动词后,如果宾语带有宾语补足语时, 人们常常用 it 作形式宾语,而把真实宾语放在宾语补足语之后。 I found it possible to work out the problem without a computer.我发现有可能不用 计算机而解出这道题目。 She made it a rule to get up at five.她养成了五点起床的习惯。 I feel it a great honor to be invited to speak at the meeting before so many students. 我觉得被邀请在会上面对这么多学生发言是一件很光荣的事情。

③在表示“希望、打算”等动词(如 hope, expect, intend, mean, want 等)的过 去式后,可接动词不定式的完成式来表示没有实现的动作。 I intended to have called on you, but was prevented from doing so.我原想来拜访 你的,但没来成。 I expected to have met him here last night.我以为昨天晚上能在这里见到他。 (但 没做到) We meant to have stayed there a week.我们原打算在那儿呆一个星期的。 I wanted to have dropped her a line, but forgot to do so.我原想写一封信给她,但 忘记了。

提示: 表示“原打算、原以为”还可以用这类动词的过去完成时来表达。 I had intended to call on you.我原想来拜访你的。 I had expected to meet him here last night.我原以为昨天晚上能在这里见到他的。 We had meant to stay there a week.我们原打算在那儿呆一个星期的。

2.作介词的宾语 不定式可以作介词 but 和 except 的宾语。 The teacher made no comments except to tell him to work hard.老师除了叫他努力 学习外,未做任何评价。 He had no choice but to sit there as usual. 在那儿。 There is nothing we can do but wait patiently. 我们只能耐心等待。 他没有什么选择,只好像往常一样坐

3.作形容词的宾语 不定式作形容词的宾语有两种句型,一个是句子的主语是不定式的逻辑主语, 另一个是句子的主语是不定式的逻辑宾语。 ①句子的主语是不定式的逻辑主语。这类形容词有 able, afraid, angry, anxious, careful, clever, content, cruel, determined, disappointed, eager, foolish, fortunate, frightened, happy, impatient, glad, lucky, naughty, prepared, proud, ready, slow,

shocked, sorry, surprised, willing 等。 I am sorry to say that he is going from bad to worse. 很遗憾, 他的情况每况愈下

She was not content to live a quiet life in a small town.她不满足在一个小镇里过 默默无闻的生活。 John was happy to be given the job.约翰得到这份工作很高兴。 ②句子的主语是不定式的逻辑宾语。 这类形容词有 easy, hard, cheap, expensive, dangerous, difficult, funny, fit, impossible, interesting, nice, pleasant, simple, strange, useful 等。 This problem is easy to solve.这个问题很容易解决。 The water is not fit to drink.这水不适于饮用。 She is hard to get along with.她这个人很难相处。 注意:在这种结构中,如果不定式是不及物动词,则必须加上结构或含义所需 的介词。 The river is dangerous to swim in.在这条河里游泳很危险。 A spring mattress is comfortable to sleep on.席梦思床垫睡上去很舒服。

D.动词不定式作宾语补足语 不定式可以在“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语”句型中充当宾语补足语。在这 一句型中,宾语是动词不定式的逻辑主语。

1.在表示感觉的动词后作宾语补足语,并且不定式都不带 to。这类动词有: see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe, look at, listen to 等。 I heard them sing yesterday.昨天我听见他们唱歌了。 Did you see him go out 你看见他出去了吗? I felt something crawl up my leg.我感到有什么东西爬到我腿上了。 注意:转为被动语态时,原不带 to 的不定式要变成带 to 的不定式。notice 和 watch 没有被动语态。 We saw the car stop. ???????The car was seen to stop.我们看见这辆车停了下来。? ????????

2.在使役动词后作宾语补足语,不定式不带 to。 这类动词有:make, let, have 等。转为被动语态时,其后通常都用带 to 的不定 式(have 没有被动语态) 。 有些动词跟不定式作宾语补足语时省去了 to,这些动词有: 一感二听三让四观看。 一 感 : feel 二 听 : hear,listen to 三 让 : let,have,make 四观看:

observe,see,watch.,look at What would you have me do 你要我做什么? She made him give up smoking.她让他戒了烟。 Let him do whatever he wishes to do.他想干什么就让他干吧。 Though he had often made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little sister. 虽然经常是他弄哭小妹妹,但今天他却被小妹妹弄哭了。

3. 在表示心理状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有: consider, think, believe, discover, find, imagine, judge, suppose, prove 等。这类动词后的不定式通常是“to be+形容词或名词”结构,think, consider, find 后的 to be 常可省略。 We consider him (to be) a good teacher.我们认为他是一个好老师。 He proved that theory (to be) very important. 他证明那个理论是很重要的。

I thought her (to be) nice and honest the first time I met her.我第一次见到她的时 候就认为她人很好,很诚实。

4. 在表示情感状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有: love, like, prefer, hate, want, wish, expect 等。 I'd prefer you to leave him alone.我希望你不要打扰他。 I don't want there to be any trouble.我不想有任何麻烦。

5.动词 advise, allow, ask, beg, command, tell, invite, force, oblige, get, help, encourage, persuade, permit, remind, request, order, warn, cause 等后面, 多接不定式 短语作宾语补足语。

We don't allow such things to happen again. 生。 Most of the parents agree to forbid their 禁止自己的孩子抽烟。

我们不容许这种事情再发

children to smoke.大多数父母都同意

She asked me to answer the phone in her absence.她请我在她不在的时候接电话。 Please remind me to leave her this note.请提醒我留给她这张纸条。 She requested him to go with her.她邀请他一同去。 注意:hope, demand, suggest 等动词后面不能接不定式作宾语补足语。 【误】I hope you to give me a hand. 【正】I hope you can give me a hand.我希望你能帮我一把。 【正】I wish you to give me a hand.我希望你能帮我一把。 【误】He demanded me to be present at the meeting. 【正】He demanded that we should be present at the meeting.他要求我们出席会 议。 【正】He required us to be present at the meeting.他要求我们出席会议。 【误】Mr Li suggested her not to go there alone. 【正】Mr Li suggested that she should not go there alone.李先生建议她不要独自 去那里。

6.动词不定式也可作一些短语动词的宾语补足语。 I'm waiting for James to arrive.我正等着詹姆斯的到来。 He's arranged for a car to pick them up at the station.他已安排了一辆汽车去车站 接他们。 The UN has called on both sides to observe the ceasefire.联合国号召交战双方遵 守停火协定。 必背: 这些带介词的短语动词有: call on 号召 arrange for 安排

ong for 盼望 wait for 等待 depend on rely on 依靠

指望

E.动词不定式作定语 不定式作定语通常放在其修饰的名词或代词之后, 和被修饰的名词或代词之间 是主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系和修饰关系。

1.主谓关系 The future to greet us will be bright.我们的未来会十分美好的。 He is always the first person to come and the last one to leave. 最后一个离开。 The next train to arrive was from New York.下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。 他总是第一个来

2.动宾关系 On Sundays, he always has a lot of letters to write.星期天,他总是有许多信要写 The teacher left us a lot of problems to solve.老师给我们留了许多道题要解答。 He can find no one to make friends with.他找不到可交朋友的人。 注意:由于动词不定式与其修饰的词之间往往有动宾关系,因此,如果该不定 式是不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。 She has a child to take care of.她有一个孩子要照看。 There is nothing to worry about. 没什么可担心的。

He has no friend to depend on.他没有可依靠的朋友。 I've got a lot of things to see to this morning. 今天上午我有许多事情要处理。

3.同位关系 He broke his promise to write to his parents regularly.他没有遵守诺言定期给他父 母亲写信。 We students should have the courage to face any difficulty.我们学生应该有勇气面

对任何困难。 I have no wish to quarrel with you.我不想和你吵架。

4.修饰关系 Now it is time to begin our class.现在是上课的时间了。 I need somewhere to take a nap.我需要一个地方打个盹。 Is that the way to open the can 那就是打开罐头的方法吗?

F.动词不定式作状语 不定式作状语可以表示行为的目的、结果、原因、条件等。

1.表示目的 I'm saving up to buy a computer.我在存钱买电脑。 To save the child, he laid down his life.为了救那个孩子,他献出了生命。 注意: 有时为了强调或突出这种目的, 也可以用 in order (not) to do,和 so as (not) to do 结构(so as to do 不可以置于句首) 。 He shouted and waved in order to be noticed.为了吸引注意,他又嚷嚷又挥手。 I'll write down his telephone number so as not to forget it.我要把他的电话号码记 下来,以防忘记。 2.表示结果 He got to the station only to find the train had gone.他赶到车站,发现火车已经开 走了。 What have I said to make you so angry 我说了什么话使你气成这样? After the meeting, they parted, never to see each other again.散会后, 他们分手了, 从此再也没有见面。 必背:不定式表示结果常见于下列句型。 1)so ... as to do Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle 把你的自行车借给我好吗? 2)such ... as to do

We are not such fools as to believe him.我们还没蠢到竟会相信他。 3)enough to do He didn't run fast enough to catch the train. 4)only to do He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet.他搬起石头砸自己的脚。 5)too ... to do His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters.她的视力太差了, 不能看这么小 的字。 注意:too...to...结构中的形容词如果是 eager, pleased, happy, ready 等,动词不 定式不表示结果,也没有否定的意思。 The boy was too eager to get a geography book.那个男孩非常急切地想要得到一 本地理书。 He is too anxious to know the examination results.他很急切地想知道考试结果。 3.表示原因 I was a fool not to listen to you at that time. 我当时不听你的话,真是傻瓜。 他跑得不够快,没赶上火车。

She wept to find him in such a difficult situation.看到他处于这么困难的情形,她 哭了。 4.表示条件 A man would be blind not to see that.一个人如果看不到这点,那他就是瞎子。 How can you catch the train to start so late 这么晚才动身,你怎么能赶上火车?

第五章

动词不定式(二)

一、动词不定式的几种常见结构

A.不定式的复合结构

动词不定式的逻辑主语(即不定式动作的执行者)通常是句子的主语或宾语。 如果不定式的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,此时一般用“for +名词(代词)+不定

式”来构成不定式的复合结构,这种复合结构在句中可以做主语、宾语、表语、 状语、定语。 This box is too heavy for the little boy to carry. 太重了。 That's for you to decide.那个由你来决定。 He stood aside for me to pass.他站到一边让我通过。 I have some books for you to read.我有几本书送给你读 。 B.be +不定式结构 “be +不定式”结构可以表示将来发生的动作,常有以下两种情况: 1.表示命令和指示 The room is to be locked.这房间要上锁。 You are not to stand here.你不能站在这里。 2.表示计划或安排 We are to begin the work next month.我们安排下一个月开始这项工作。 What's to be done next 下一步该怎么办? 这个箱子让这个小男孩来搬

C.疑问词+不定式结构 疑问词 who, what, which, when, where, how, why 后加动词不定式构成不定式 短语,它在句中可作主语、宾语和表语。 I don't know whether to go to the meeting or not.我不知道要不要去开会。 The problem was how to get rid of the waste thrown by the passengers. 问题是 如何处理乘客们丢弃的垃圾。 When to visit the Palace Museum has not been decided yet.何时参观故宫博物 院还没有决定。

D.withwithout +名词+不定式结构 “withwithout +名词+不定式”结构在句子中通常起状语的作用。 With so much work to do, I shall not be able to go to the cinema with you. 有这

么多工作要做,我不能和你去看电影了。 With him to stay in the house, I feel quite safe.有他住在家里,我感到十分安 全。 Without anything to eat, he died of hunger.由于没有东西吃,他饿死了。

E.It is +形容词+ forof sb + to do 结构 在“It is +形容词+ of sb +不定式”结构中,形容词往往表示人物的性格和特 征, 如 kind, silly, good, unwise, clever, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, rude, impolite, bold, thoughtful, honest, bad, sensible, naughty 等。在“It is +形容词 +for sb +不定式”结构中,形容词通常表示事物的性质,如 important, possible, impossible, necessary, difficult, hard, reasonable 等。 It's kind of you to think so much of us. kind to think so much of us.) How careless it is of him to break such a valuable vase!他真不小心,把如此贵 重的花瓶打破了。 It is easy for me to see through his trick.我很容易看穿他的鬼把戏。(=For me to see through his trick is easy.) It is hard for him to get rid of his bad habits.他很难改掉自己的坏习惯。 比较: It is good lf you to help me with my English. you 的特征=You are good to help me.) It is good for you to give up smoking. 戒烟对你有好处。 (强调的是 give up 你真好,帮助我学英语。 (强调 难为你这么为我们着想。(= You are

smoking 这一行为=Fof you to give up smoking is good.)

F.分裂不定式

动词不定式 to do 通常是不拆开的, 但偶尔也可在不定式符号 to 和动词原形之 间插入一个副词,构成分裂不定式。 He was too ill to completely carry out that program.他病得太重,不能完成那

个项目。 He has made up his mind to once more try this method. 试试这个方法。 他已经下定决心再

G.用作独立成分的不定式 有一些不定式短语可以作状语修饰整个句子,也可被称为插入语。 To be honest, we are not sure to find the girl in the forest.说老实话,我们不能 确保在森林里能找到那个女孩。 To be frank, I don't agree with what you said. 话。 坦率地说,我不同意你说的

必背:用作独立成分的不定式 to tell you the truth 说老实话 to be frank 坦率地说

to begin with 首先 to be brief 简言之 to make a long story short 长话短说 to be exact 精确地说 to say nothing of 姑且不说 to conclude 总而言之 to be sure 诚然,固然 to do him justice 说句对他公道的话 so to speak 可以这么说 H.用主动式表示被动含义的不定式 动词不定式在句中究竟用主动还是被动,有时比较复杂,主要有下面几种情 况:

1.不定式做后置定语,和被修饰的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,但又 和该句主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系时。

Do you have anything to say on this question 针对这个问题你有什么要说的 吗? He is a pleasant person to work with.他是一个与其合作起来令人感到愉快的 人。

2.不定式作形容词的宾语,和句子主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系时。 The book is difficult to understand.这本书很难理解。 The chair is comfortable to sit on.这把椅子坐起来很舒服。

3.There be 结构中,当说话人考虑必须有人去完成某件事时。 There is nothing to worry about.没什么可担心的。 There is nothing to fear.没有什么可害怕的。 比较: There is a lot of work to do.有许多事情要做。 (表示某人必须做这工作) There is a lot of work to be done.有许多事情要做。 (强调有许多事情必须做) She has two letters to type.她有两封信要打。 (自己打) She has two letters to be typed.她有两封信要打。 (别人打) I.表示虚拟语气的不定式完成式。 I hoped to have met him at the railway station, but he didn't turn up.我本希望 在火车站接到他,但他未露面。 We would love to have gone to the match, but the tickets were all sold out. 我们 原想去看这场比赛的,但票已售完了。 The plane was to have taken off at 9, but something went wrong. 飞机原计划九 点起飞,但出现了一些故障。

J.用于感叹句。 不定式可用于感叹句,含有惊异、不满、惋惜或赞美等感情色彩。 To think that he should do this!想想,他竟然干出这等事! (表示惊讶) Oh, God, to see her dance !哦,天哪,看看她的舞蹈! (表示赞美)

To think that all the money has been wasted.想想, 所有的钱都被浪费掉了! (表 示不满) 一、关于不定式符号的几个问题

A.不带 to 的不定式 1.在口语中,动词原形 come 和 go 后可接不带 to 的不定式。 Go tell her.去告诉她吧。 Come have a glass.来喝一杯。 2.在 why 引起的一些问句中,疑问词直接跟动词原形或 not+动词原形。 Why make so much noise Why not join us 为什么发出这么大的噪音?

为什么不加入我们?

3.在 had better, had best, would rather, would rather...than, would sooner, would sooner...than, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but 等结构后直接跟动词原 形或 not +动词原形。 You'd better listen to your teacher's opinion. 你最好听一听老师的意见。

We had best call for the doctor at once.我们最好马上就请医生来。 She can't do anything but ask silly questions.她一直在问一些愚蠢的问题。 Rather than ride on a crowded bus, he always prefers to ride a bicycle. 他宁愿骑自 行车,也不愿挤公共汽车。 He cannot but move to another street, because his building has to be pulled down soon.他不得不搬到另一条街上去,因为他住的大楼很快就要被推倒。 We cannot help but admire his courage. 我们情不自禁地钦佩他的勇气。

4.如不定式前有行为动词 do,那么在表语从句中的不定式和介词 except 或 but 之后的不定式可不带 to。 The only thing I could do was go home.我能做的唯一一件事就是回家。 They could do nothing but wait for the doctor to come.他们只能等待医生的到来。

5.在两个动词不定式并列使用时,为了避免重复,后面的不定式符号 to 可省 略。 The little girl hardly knew whether to laugh or cry.这小姑娘不知道是哭好还是笑 好。 Can you help me to call him and ask him to attend the meeting at 200 p.m. 你能不 能帮我打电话给他,叫他下午两点来开会?

6.在 help 之后,既可用带 to 的不定式也可用不带 to 的不定式。 Can I help (to) carry the box for you 我帮你搬箱子,好吗?

7.在一些固定搭配中用不带 to 的不定式。 He let go the rope.他松开了绳子。 I hear say there will be an earthquake soon.我听说不久就要有一次地震。 She made believe she was innocent.她假装清白。

8. 在感官动词 see, hear, watch, feel, notice 以及使役动词 make, let, have 等后作 宾语补足语的动词不定式不带 to。 She watched the children cross the street.她看着孩子们穿过了马路。 They made the boy apologize to his friend for being so rude.他们让那男孩因他的 粗鲁而向他的朋友道歉。 Don't forget to have him come earlier.别忘了让他早点儿来。

B.不定式符号的单独使用 为了避免重复上文中出现过的动词,可以用不定式符号 to 来代替上文中出现 过的不定式结构。 1. 在助动词或情态动词之后, 如 be going to, used to, have to, ought to, be able to, be about to 等。 She must go but you don't have to. 她必须走,但你没有必要。 你认为我应该去看医生吗?

---Do you think I ought to go to see my doctor

---Yes, I think you ought to.

是的,我想你应该去。

2.在 want, decide, like, love, hope, wish, mean, refuse, try 等动词之后。 You may go with them if you hope to. ---Did you go to see the Great Wall ---I wanted to, but I was too busy. 如果你希望的话,你可以和他们一起去。

你游览长城了吗? 我本来想去的,但我太忙了。

3.在做宾语补足语的 ask, tell, order, advise, persuade, warn, wish, permit, allow, forbid 等动词之后。 Don't do anything unless your father tells you to. 要做任何事情。 ---May I use your car ---No, I forbid you to. 我可以用你的汽车吗? 不,我禁止你使用。 除非你父亲叫你去做,不然不

4.在对话的答语中的 happy, glad, eager, anxious, willing, ready, pleased, afraid 等形容词之后。 ---Will you lend me a hand 你能帮我一个忙吗? 我很愿意,但现在不行。

---I'm willing to, but I can't now.

---Would you please come to my birthday party tomorrow 明天下午来参加我的生 日聚会好吗? ---I'll be glad to.我很乐意。 提示: 如果动词不定式是 to be 或 to have,则一般不省。 --- Did you finish the work 你的工作完成了吗? --- No, but I hoped to have.没有,但我希望已经完成了。

C.介词 to 和不定式符号 to to 既可以是不定式符号,后接动词原形;to 也可以是介词,后接名词或动词的 -ing 形式。英语中有很多常用短语带有 to,我们要正确判断 to 是不定式符号还 是介词,千万不可混淆。

1.不定式符号 to

He made it a rule to read English aloud for half an hour every morning. 他坚持每天 早晨朗读半小时英语。 These young lads are longing to go to watch the football match.这几个小伙子极想 去看足球赛。 必背:常见的带不定式符号 to 的短语 be supposed to do 应该做某事 be determined to do 决心要做某事 fail to do 未能做某事 go all out to do 全力以赴做某事 have the nerve to do 有胆量做某事 have a great mind to do 很想做某事 make a point to do 坚持做某事 make up one's mind to do 决定做某事 take the trouble to do 不辞辛苦地做某事 prepare oneself to do 有思想准备做某事

2.介词 to If you stick to the truth, you will have nothing to fear.如果你坚持真理,就没有什 么可害怕的。 You must get used to getting up early.你必须习惯早起。 Isn't it time you got down to marking those papers 难道还没到你定下心来阅卷的 时间吗?

必背:常见的带介词 to 的短语 be used to 习惯 be equal to 胜任 be given to 沉溺于 be opposed to 反对 be related to 与??有关

devote oneself to 献身于 get down to 着手做 give rise to 引起 lead to 导致 look forward to 盼望 object to 反对 pay attention to 注意 put one's mind to 全神贯注于 stick to 坚持第6章

动词的-ing 形式

动词的 -ing 形式包括传统语法的“动名词”( gerund )和“现在分词” (present participle)两个部分。动词的-ing 形式具有动词的特征,同时又具有 名词、形容词和副词的特征,因此它可以在句中作主语、表语、定语、宾语、 宾语补足语和状语。

一、动词-ing 形式的特征和种类

与动词不定式一样, 动词的-ing 形式也具有动词的特征, 有时态和语态的变化, 并可带状语、宾语等。

A.动词-ing 形式的一般式 1.动词-ing 形式的一般式可用来泛指一个动作,没有特别的时间意义。 Swimming is her favorite sport.游泳是她最喜欢的体育运动。 Learning is important to modern life.学习对现代生活很重要。 2.动词-ing 形式的一般式可用来表示和谓语动词同时发生的动作。 They went out of the classroom, talking and laughing.他们有说有笑地走出教 室。 She listened carefully to her neighbours speaking.她倾听她邻居的讲话。 3.动词 -ing 形式的一般式有时也可表示在谓语动词的动作之前或之后发生的

动作。 I remembered sending him an e-mail last week. 一份电子邮件。 He suggested taking my daughter to the zoo the next Sunday.他建议下个星期 天带我女儿去动物园。 我记得上星期给他发过

B.动词-ing 形式的完成式 动词的-ing 形式的完成式表示一个已完成的动作, 这个动作发生或完成在谓语 动词表示的动作之前。 Having lived in this city for three years, she knows it very well. 在这个城市生 活了3年,她对这里已很熟悉。 I really regretted having missed such an exciting lecture.错过了这么振奋人心 的演讲,我真的很遗憾。 注意: 在现代英语中,作宾语的-ing 形式的完成式可用一般式来代替。 I really regretted missing such an exciting lecture.错过了这么振奋人心的演 讲,我真的很遗憾。(=I really regretted having missed such an exciting lecture.) We remembered seeing the film.我们记得看过这部电影。(=We remembered having seen the film. )

C.动词-ing 形式的被动形式 动词的-ing 形式的被动形式表示它的逻辑主语是 -ing 形式表示的动作的承受 者。 1.一般式的被动形式 The question being discussed is very important. I can't stand being kept waiting. 2.完成式的被动形式 I heard of his having been chosen to be the coach of the team.我听说他被选为 球队的教练。 我不堪久候。 正在讨论的问题很重要。

Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the school library. 在被带去 看了实验室之后,我们又被带去参观校图书馆。 D.动词-ing 形式的否定形式 动词的-ing 形式的否定形式是由 not 加动词的-ing 形式构成。 His not coming made everyone present very disappointed. 场的每个人都很失望。 I'm sorry for not being present at the meeting in time.我很抱歉没能按时赴会。 Not knowing his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait. 不知道 他的地址,我只好在家里等着。 Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. 因为没有努力学习功课,他考试不及格。 二、动词的-ing 形式的用法 他没来使在

A.动词的-ing 形式作主语

1.动词的-ing 形式可直接置于句首作主语。 Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。 Collecting stamps is interesting.集邮很有趣。 Learning about a language is easier than using it.学习有关语言的知识比使用语言 容易。 Being invited to the party was a great honor to the family.被邀请参加晚会是这家 人的荣耀。 2.为了保持句子平衡,通常用先行词 it 作形式主语,而把真正的主语放在句 末。 It is easy making plans, but it is difficult carrying them.制定计划很容易,实行它 却很难。 It is no use crying over spilt milk. It's a waste of time arguing about it. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。 争论这事是浪费时间。

必背:动词的-ing 形式作主语的几个常用句型。

It's no good talking to him.

和他谈话是没有用的。

It is useless telephoning him. He is not willing to come.给他打电话没用。他不愿 意来。 It's worth making an effort. 努力一下是值得的。 无法断定这场雨什么时候会停。

There is no saying when it will stop raining. There is no joking about such matters.

这种事开不得玩笑。

B.动词的-ing 形式作表语 动词的-ing 形式作表语的有两种不同的含义: 1.表示主语的内容是什么。 Her job is keeping the lecture hall as clean as possible.她的工作是尽量使报告厅 保持干净。 The real question is getting to know the needs of the students.真正的问题是了解 学生的需要。 His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。 2.表示主语具有的特征。 The problem is quite puzzling.这个问题很令人困惑。 It was astonishing to see the animals and plants that are found nowhere else in the world. 看到了世界上其它地方找不到的动植物真是令人惊讶。 宴会上的食物似乎并不

The food at the dinner party did not seem very inviting. 诱人。 比较:

一般说来,动词的-ing 形式表示一般性、习惯性的动作,或抽象性的动作,时 间概念不强。 而动词不定式表示的动作往往是具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将 来的动作。 Smoking is forbidden here.这里禁止吸烟。 (泛指) It's not good for you to smoke so much.吸这么多烟对你的身体不好。 (具体) They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold.天冷时他们喜欢呆在室内。 (泛指)

Would you prefer to stay at home this evening 今晚你想待在家里吗?(具体

C.动词的-ing 形式作宾语 动词的-ing 形式既可作及物动词的宾语,也可作介词的宾语。 1.作动词的宾语 能用-ing 形式作宾语的及物动词可分两类,一类是只能用-ing 形式作宾语,另 一类是既可用-ing 形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语。 ①只能用-ing 形式作宾语的动词 这类动词只能用-ing 形式作宾语,不能用不定式作宾语。 Fancy meeting you here!想不到在这儿见到你了! I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。 他们不在乎被人当作宾客对待。 他们承认在大厅里抽过烟。

They didn't mind being treated like guests.

They admitted smokinghaving smoked in the hall.

I regret sayinghaving said what I said.我很后悔自己说过的话。 He couldn't help laughing.他情不自禁地笑了起来。 I can't imagine the boy speaking so rudely to you. 话这么没礼貌。 我不能想像这个男孩对你说

必背: 只接动词的-ing 形式而不接不定式作宾语的动词有 admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 consider 考虑 delay 耽搁 dislike 嫌恶 enjoy 喜欢 escape 避免 excuse 原谅

fancy 想不到 feel like 意欲 finish 完成 forgive 原谅 give up 放弃 cannot help 情不自禁 imagine 设想 include 包括 keep 保持 mention 提及 mind 介意 miss 逃过 put off 推迟 practice 练习 resist 抵制 risk 冒险 ②既可用动词-ing 形式作宾语,也可用不定式作宾语 这类动词虽然既能用-ing 形式作宾语, 也能用不定式作宾语, 但用法并不相同, 主要有以下几种情况: a.有些动词,如 attempt, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer 等,后面接动词 的-ing 形式或不定式区别不是很大。 They prefer spending to spend their summer vacation in Dalian.他们更喜欢在大 连度暑假。 I intend to buy buying an English-Chinese dictionary.我想买一本英汉词典。 提示:应尽量避免接连出现两个动词-ing 形式。 I am starting to learn Russian. 我开始学俄语。 我开始学俄语。

避免说:I am starting learning Russian.

b. need, require, want 作“需要”解时,后面接-ing 形式的主动形式或不定式的 被动形式,意义上并无差别,但用-ing 形式比较普通。

Your composition needs correcting to be corrected.你的作文需要修改。 His coat wants cleaning to be cleaned. 他的大衣需要洗了。

The old woman requires looking after carefully to be looked after carefully.这个 老大娘需要细心地照料。 2.作介词宾语 动词的-ing 形式作介词宾语大都和一些固定搭配有关。常见的几种搭配形式 有: ①动词+介词+ -ing 形式 Jason aims at becoming an astronaut.詹森立志要当宇航员。 I dream of being the best footballer in the school.我梦想成为全校最好的足球队 员。 比较: keep doing 继续或保持做某事。 (强调动作的持续性) News lf successes keeps pouring in. 捷报频传。

Keep on doing 继续或反复做某事。 (强调动作的反复性) We will keep on trying and.if we get anything done.will notify you. 我们将继续努力。有结果将通知你。 Keep sb doing 使某人一直做某事(表示被迫进行的动作) I'll try not to keep you waiting.我尽量不让你久等。 Keep sb from doing 阻止某人做某事(=preventstop sb from doing) The stone walls keep the farmer's cows from joining his neighbor's cows. 石头墙使农民家的牛不会混入邻居的牛群中去。 ②动词+名词+介词+ -ing 形式 Please excuse me for being late.对不起,我迟到了。 What prevented you from joining us last night 昨天晚上什么事使你不能和我们在 一起 Sandy wasted no time in getting to know the boss's daughter.桑迪很快就开始就和 老板的女儿套近乎了。 ③名词+介词+ -ing 形式

We like his way of teaching English.我们喜欢他教英语的方式。 He has little hope of passing the examination.他几乎没有什么希望通过考试。 I have no difficulty in communicating with foreigners.我在和外国人交谈方面没 有什么困难。 ④形容词+介词+ -ing 形式 I'm tired of having the same food every day.天天吃同样的东西我感到腻烦了。 Peter is angry about not being invited to the party.没有被邀请出席聚会, 彼得很生 气。 Who's responsible for organizing this conference ⑤whathow about + -ing 形式 What about going for a walk 去散步好不好? How about playing a game of chess now 现在来下盘棋好吗 ⑥介词 to +动词-ing 形式 to 既可以是介词,也可以是不定式符号,在使用中比较容易混淆。若是不定式 符号,to 后接动词原形;若是介词,to 后需接-ing 形式。 You must get used to washing your face with cold water.你必须习惯用冷水洗脸。 John has admitted to breaking the window.约翰已承认了打碎窗子。 I'm looking forward to seeing you this summer vacation.我盼望今年暑假见到你。 He has devoted his whole life to benefiting mankind.他为全人类的利益献出了自 己的一生。 However, others strongly object to developing private cars.然而,另有一些人强烈 反对发展私人小汽车。 He is equal to doing this task.他能胜任这项任务。 The man took to drinking shortly after his wife died.他妻子死后不久, 这人就开始 嗜酒。 Isn't it time you got down to marking those papers 难道还没到你安下心来阅卷的 时 D.动词的-ing 形式作宾语补足语 1.动词的-ing 形式可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, feel, smell, look at, listen to, observe, find 等表示感官和心理状态的动词后面作宾语补足语,和一个名词或代 是谁负责组织这次大会?

词一起构成复合宾语。 We heard the children shouting upstairs. 我们听见孩子们在楼上叫喊。

I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car.我下车的时候注意 到一个男人从银行里跑出来。 I felt my heart beating violently. 我觉得我的心在猛烈地跳动。

2.动词的-ing 形式和不定式作宾语补语的区别 在 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等感官动词后,既可用动词的-ing 形式构成复合 宾语,也可用不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有一定的区别。用动词的-ing 形式 时, 表示动作正在进行; 用不定式时, 表示动作发生了, 即动作的全过程结束了。 He saw a girl getting on the car.他看见一个女孩在上汽车。 (She was getting on the car.) He saw a girl get on the car and drive off. on the car and drove off.) Do you hear someone knocking at the door 你听见有人在敲门吗?(Someone is knocking at the door.) Do you hear someone knock at the door 你听见有人敲门了吗? (Someone knocked at the door just now.) 他看见一个女孩上车开走了。 (She got

提示: 如果宾语补足语是一系列的动作,通常只能用不定式来表示,不用动词的-ing 形式。 I saw him enter the room, sit down and light a cigarette.我看见他走进房间,坐了 下来,点燃了一根香烟。 3.动词的-ing 形式也可用在 have, get, leave, keep, set, catch 等表示“致使”的 动词后作宾语补足语。 They should not leave us wondering what they will do next.他们不应该不让我们 知道他们下一步要做什么。 I won't have you running about in the room.我不允许你在房间里跑来跑去。 We kept the fire burning all night long. 我们使火整夜燃烧着。

E.动词的-ing 形式作定语

1.单个的动词的-ing 形式可以作前置定语,一般有两种含义。 ①说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。 a reading room= a room which is used for reading 阅览室 running shoes= shoes for running 跑鞋 a working method = a method of working 工作方法 必背: a sewing machine a swimming pool a drawing board a dining car 缝纫机 游泳池 画板

餐车 驾驶许可证 手杖 歌咏比赛

a driving permit a walking stick

a singing competition a waiting room

候车室

②表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近一个定语从句,可以表示 正在进行的动作,也可表示经常性动作或当时的状态。 developing countries = countries that are developing 发展中国家 an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary 看起来很普通的房子 a puzzling problem = a problem that puzzles somebody 困扰人的问题 The working people are masters of our country.劳动人民是我们国家的主人。 Let sleeping dogs lie.不要惹麻烦。

必背: a disappointing play 令人失望的戏剧 an astonishing adventure 惊人的冒险 boiling water 正在沸腾的水

a sleeping baby a barking dog the setting sun the coming week failing sight

熟睡的婴儿 狂吠的狗 落日 下一周

逐渐衰退的视力

2.作定语的-ing 形式如是一个短语,则应放在被修饰词的后面。 The bottle containing vinegar should be sent to the laboratory.装着醋的那个瓶子 应送到实验室去。 They lived in a house facing south. 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。

The book being discussed a lot will be published next month.人们谈论很多的那本 书下一个月将出版。 3.有些情况下,动词的-ing 形式不能用来作定语,必须使用定语从句。 ①作定语的-ing 形式表示的动作要与主句谓语的动作同时发生, 如两者不能同 时发生的话,则需使用定语从句。 【误】The professor coming here yesterday will give us a lecture. 【正】The professor who came here yesterday will give us a lecture.昨天来的教授 将要给我们作一个讲座。 ②-ing 形式的完成式一般只用来作状语,不作定语。 【误】The temple having been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 【正】The temple which has been destroyed by the earthquake will be rebuilt soon. 被地震毁坏的庙宇很快就要修建了。 间吗?F.动词的-ing 形式作状语

动词的-ing 形式可以作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示时间、原因、结果、条件、 让步、行为方式或伴随情况等。-ing 形式作时间、原因、条件、让步状语时多位 于句首;作结果、伴随情况状语时常位于句末。 1.表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。 Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood.看到那些画,她想起了自己

的童年。 (= When she saw those pictures...) Having made full preparations, we are ready for the examination.我们已经作好了 充分准备,现在可以应考了。 (= After we have made full preparation...) 2.表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。 Not knowing his address, I can't send this book to him.因为不知道他的地址, 我不 能把这本书送给他。 (= As I don't know his address...) Being ill, he didn't go to school yesterday.由于生病, 他昨天没有上学。 (= Since he was ill...) 3.表示结果,相当于一个并列谓语。 His father died, leaving him a lot of money. and left him a lot of money) She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground, breaking it into pieces. 她非 常生气,把玩具扔在地上,摔成了碎片。 (= ... and broke it into pieces...) 4.表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Going straight down the road, you will find the department store.顺着这条路一直 走,你就会发现那家百货商店。 (= If you go straight down the road...) Working hard at your lessons, you will succeed.如果你努力学习,就一定能成功。 (= If you work hard at your lessons...) 5.表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句。 Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage.尽管知道了一切情况, 他们还 是要我赔偿损失。 (= Although they knew all this...) Working hard as he did, he was still unable to earn enough money to buy a car.他虽 然努力地干,但仍然挣不够买车的钱。 (= Though he worked hard as he did...) 6.表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,相当于一个并列结构。 He lay on the grass, staring at the sky for a long time.他躺在草地上,长时间地望 着天空。 (= ...and stared at the sky for a long time) She came into the house, carrying a lot of books. 她捧着许多书走进了房间。 (= ...and carried a lot of books) 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱。 (= ...

三、动词的-ing 形式的逻辑主语

A.作主语的-ing 形式 -ing 形式作主语时,其逻辑主语对于谈话双方是不言而喻的。 Reading aloud is very helpful.朗读是很有好处的。 (Reading aloud 的逻辑主语是 泛指任何人,因而无需表达出来) 提示: 如果作主语的-ing 形式需要自己的逻辑主语时, 一般用物主代词或名词所有格 (即名词后加's) 。 His father's falling ill worried him greatly.他父亲生病使他很着急。 (his father 是 falling ill 的逻辑主语) Your coming to work with us will be a great encouragement to us.你来和我们一道 工作,对我们是很大的鼓舞。 (you 是 coming to work with us 的逻辑主语)

B.作表语的-ing 形式 -ing 形式作表语时,其逻辑主语往往是句子中的主语,但作表语的-ing 形式也 可带有自己的逻辑主语。 What worries me most is Julia's staying too late every night.我担心的是她天天晚 上熬夜熬得太迟。 (staying too late every night 的逻辑主语是 Julia) The main problem is your not having practiced a lot.主要的问题是你缺乏大量的 练习。 (not having practiced a lot 的逻辑主语是 you)

C.作定语的-ing 形式 -ing 形式作定语时,其逻辑主语就是它修饰的名词。 an interesting book 一本有意思的书= a book that interests its readers a running stream 一条奔流的小溪= a stream that is running 如果-ing 形式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者,就要用-ing 形式的被动式。 The meeting being held in Beijing now is of great importance.正在北京召开的会 议非常重要。 (逻辑主语 the meeting 和“举行”之间的关系是被动的,所以用 being held

D.作宾语的-ing 形式 -ing 形式作宾语时,其逻辑主语常是句子中的主语。如要明确动作的执行者, 也可以在-ing 形式前加上名词或代词表示逻辑主语。 I can't imagine John's giving a speech in front of so many people.我不能想像约翰 会在这么多人前面发言。(John 是 giving a speech 的逻辑主语) He was awakened by someone knocking at the door. 他被某人的敲门声吵醒了。 (someone 是 knocking at the door 的逻辑主语) The boss understood himhis wanting to leave.老板明白他为什么要离职。 (“他” 是 wanting to leave 逻辑主语) 比较: He insisted on doing it himself.他坚持要自己做。 (doing it 的逻辑主语是句子的 主语“他”) He insisted on my doing it.他坚持要我做。 (doing it 的逻辑主语是“我”) Would you mind opening the window 请你把窗子打开好吗?( opening the window 的逻辑主语是“你”) Would you mind my opening the window 你介意我把窗子打开吗?(opening the window 的逻辑主语是“我”)

E.作宾语补足语的-ing 形式 动词-ing 形式作逻辑主语时,它的逻辑主语就是它前面的宾语。 We often hear her singing this song.我们经常听见她唱这首歌。 (singing this song 的逻辑主语是“她”) We often hear this song (being) sung.我们经常听见这首歌被人唱。 (逻辑主语 “this song”和宾语补足语“唱”的关系是被动,所以用-ing 形式的被动式或-ed 分词。 )

F.作状语的动词-ing 形式

1.动词的-ing 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语保持一致。 Entering the classroom, I found nobody in it. 走进教室,我发现里面没人。 (entering 的逻辑主语是 I,相当于 when I entered the classroom, I found nobody in it.) 如-ing 形式表示的动作不是句中主语发出或承受的,那就是误用。这种无依着 的-ing 形式,语法上称之为“垂悬分词”。 【误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful.(looking out through the window 的逻辑主语是 the garden,显然不对) 【正】 Looking out through the window, we saw a beautiful garden.从窗户看出去, 我们看见一个漂亮的花园。 【误】Reading the evening newspaper, a dog started barking.(逻辑主语是 dog, 它不会看晚报) 【正】I was reading the evening newspaper when a dog started barking.我看着晚 报的时候,一只狗开始叫起来。 2.如不能和句子中的主语保持一致,该-ing 形式必须有自己的逻辑主语,通 常有名词或代词来担任。 The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.末班车已经开走了,我们不得不 走回家。 (having gone 的逻辑主语是 the last bus,而不是 we) Time permitting, the football match will be played on Friday.天气允许的话,足球 赛将在周五举行。 (permitting 的逻辑主语是 time,而不是 the football match) 注意: 高中阶段有一些固定的-ing 形式短语,如 generally speaking, judging from..., considering..., talking of..., supposing...等, 它们的逻辑主语可以和句子的主语不一 致。这种-ing 短语可当作一个插入语。 Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls. 来,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣。 Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada.从他的口音看,他一定来自 加拿大。 Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free. 考 一般说

虑到他是多么的穷,我们决定让他免费听音乐会。 Supposing it rains what will you do 假使下雨,你会怎么办呢? 过去分词

第7章

动词的过去分词形式

动词的-ed 形式也是非谓语动词的一种,它具有动词的一些特点,同时也具有 形容词、副词的句法功能,在句中可用作表语、定语、状语和宾语补足语等。

一、动词的-ed 形式的特征 A.动词的-ed 形式是由动词的过去分词构成 动词的-ed 形式只有一种形式,即传统语法中的过去分词。绝大部分的动词的 -ed 形式由动词原形加-ed 构成,也有一些动词的-ed 形式是不规则的。 1. 规则动词的-ed 形式 limit→limited(限制) pretend→pretended(假装) escape→escaped(逃脱) provide→provided(提供) refer→referred(提交) drag→dragged(拖) pray→prayed(祈祷) supply→supplied(供应) 2.不规则动词的-ed 形式 cast→cast(投掷) spread→spread(传播) bite→bitten(咬) forgive→forgiven(原谅) spit→spat( 吐) wear→worn(穿) fight→fought(搏斗) lose→lost(丢失)

3.少数动词的-ed 形式作定语时,读音与一般过去分词不同 learned aged beloved a learned professor 一位知识渊博的教授 an aged man 老人

his beloved computer 他心爱的计算机

B.动词的-ed 形式的否定形式 动词的-ed 形式的否定形式是由 not 或 never 加动词的-ed 形式构成。 Not allowed to go in, he had to wait outside. 不允许他进去,他只好 在外面等着。 Never invited to his party, she got angry with him. 从未被邀请过去 他的聚会,她很生气。 C.动词的-ed 形式的特征 动词的-ed 形式有被动的意思,有时也可表示完成的动作。 1.动词的-ed 形式表示已完成的动作。 除了作形容词用的-ed 形式外,动词的-ed 形式可带有完成的意义,有的同时 也带有被动的意义。 Born and brought up in the countryside, he was interested in biology. 由于在农村出生并长大,他对生物很感兴趣。 One of the glasses was found broken. 有人发现其中一个杯子破了。 The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people. 鲁迅写的这些书,受到了许多中国人的喜爱。 2.及物动词的-ed 形式一般表示被动的意思。 Given more time, I could have solved that riddle. 要是有充足的时间, 我就能猜出那个谜语。 (句子的主语 I 和动词 give 之间是被动关系。 ) When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. 你说英 语的时候,一定要让人懂得你的意思。 (动词 make 的宾语 yourself 和宾语补足 语 understand 之间是被动关系。 ) The experience gained in the army was of great value to our study. 在 军队获得的经验对我们的学习很有帮助。

3.不及物动词的-ed 形式只表示完成的意思,并不带有被动的含义。 an escaped prisoner 逃犯 (= a prisoner who has escaped) a retired worker 退休工人 (= a worker who has retired) a newly arrived guest 新来的客人 (= a guest who h

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