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直接引语和间接引语语法讲解


直接引语和间接引语 Name ____________ No._________ 一、直接引语:直接引用别人的原话。具有以下特点: ①直接引语通常置于引号内,不作任何改动。②没有时态呼应的问题。 ③引用原话前可以用逗号“,”,也可以用冒号“: ” 。 ④第二个引号前,亦即用重述的话之末,按其类别放一个句号(.)或问号(?)等。 二、间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的意思,或引用自己说

过的话。间接引语多数用宾语从句来表达。间接 引语具有以下特点: ①不要逗号,冒号,引号。②要考虑人称的变化(人称的变化与汉语是一样的) 。 ③要考虑时态的变化。④要考虑时间状语的变化,地点状语的变化和指示代词的变化。 三、直接引语与间接引语的转换。 ㈠转述陈述句或感叹句,去冒号和引号连词用 that (that,无词意,不作成分,口语中可省)) 接宾语从句,,从句 中要作人称、时态等相应的变化(时态为“主现从实,主过从相过” ;人称/物主/反身等代词:引号内的第一 人称改为与主句的主语相同的人称;第二人称改为第一人称;第三人称不变。 ) 。例如: "You speak English very well." She said.她说,“你英语讲得不错” 。 She said that I spoke English very well.她说我英语讲得不错。 ㈡转述一般疑问句,去冒号和引号。 连词用 if/whether(有词意"是否",不作成分,不可省)接宾语从句,其后改用 陈述句语序。从句中要作人称、时态等相应的变化。注意:①当助动词为 do/does/did 时,改为宾语从句时 应去掉,而在谓语动词上体现时态,但如为 don't/doesn't/didn't 时,则不能去掉。②当连词为 if/whether 时,其前 谓语动词 say/says/said →ask/asks/asked,say/says/said to sb→ask/asks/asked sb 例如: He said,"do you have a knife?"→He asked if/whether I had a knife. He asked ,"Have you ever been to the Great Wall?"他问,"你去过长城吗?" He asked (me) if /whether I had ever been to the Great Wall?他问我是否去过长城? ㈢转述特殊疑问句,去冒号和引号。用疑问词作连词(有词意,要作成分,不可省)引导宾语从句,改用陈述句语 序,其后改用陈述句语序。从句中要作人称、时态等相应的变化。 注 意 : ① 当 助 动 词 为 do/does/did 时 , 改 为 宾 语 从 句 时 应 去 掉 , 而 在 谓 语 动 词 上 体 现 时 态 , 但 如 为 don't/doesn't/didn't 时 , 则 不 能 去 掉 。 ② 当 连 词 为 疑 问 词 时 , 其 前 谓 语 动 词 say/says/said → ask/asks/asked,say/says/said to sb→ask/asks/asked sb 例如: Li Lei said,"Why didn't he go to school?"→LiLei asked why he didn't go to school. She said:"Where are you from?" 她说: “你去哪里?” She asked (me) where I was from.她问我要去哪里。 ㈣转述祈使句或疑问形式的祈使句,通常改为"Sb ask/asks/asked/tell/tells/told/order /orders/ordered+宾语+不 定式"的简单句。ask 表"请求",tell 表“吩咐”,order 表“命令”例如: "Open the door." The teacher said.老师说: “把门打开” 。 The teacher told me to open the door.老师要我把门打开。 "Would you please show me the book?"He said. 他说:"你能把书递给我吗?" He asked me to show him the book. 他要我把书递给他。 四、直接引语变间接引语不仅有人称、时态的变化,有时还要把物主代词、指示代词,时间状语、地点状语 作相应的变化。变化列表如下: ①动词的时态:(时态为“主现从实,主过从相过”)引语前或后的主句谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句的谓语动 词作如下调整: 一般现在时→一般过去时 一般过去时→过去完成时/一般过去时 一般将来时→过去将来时 现在进行时→过去进行时 现在完成时→过去完成时 过去完成时→过去完成时 注意:时态不变的情况:

⒈当直接引语表示真理或经常性的特点时,保持原来的一般现在时。 例如:She said,"The earth is round."她说: “地球是圆的” 。 She said that the earth is round. 她说地球是圆的。 ⒉当直接引语中有绝对具体的一般过去时间作状语时,保持原来的一般过去时。 例如:He said,“I joined the army in 1934.”他说:“我是 1934 年参军的” 。 He said that he joined the army in 1934.他说他是 1934 年参军的。 ②人称/物主/反身等代词:引号内的 第一人称改为与主句的主语相同的人称;第二人称改为第一人称; 第三人称不变。 ③指示代词:this/these 改为 that/those. ④时间状语:now→then,today→that day,tonight→that night, tomorrow→the next day,next week→the next week, last night→the night before,yesterday→the day before, the day before yesterday→two days ago,ago→before. ⑤地点状语:here 改为 there ⑥动词:come,bring 分别改为 go,take 三、直接引语改为间接引语(宾语从句)的注意事项: 1、当直接引语为客观真理时,从句的时态不变,与主句无关。 The teacher tells/told us,"The moon moves round the earth." →The teacher tells/told us that the moon moves round the earth 2、当助动词为 do/does/did 时,改为宾语从句时应去掉,而在谓语动词上体现时态,但如为 don't/doesn't/didn't 时,则不能去掉。 He asked,"do you have a knife?"→He asked if/whether I had a knife. Li Lei asked,"Why didn't he go to school?"→LiLei asked why he didn't go to school. 3、当疑问词作主语及其定语时,改为宾语从句后其后的语序不变。 Who's on duty? What's in the box? What's wrong/the matter/trouble with ...? What happened to...? Which is the way to...? Whose daughter is Ann? Which boy is Bill? How many of you go to school by bike? 4、当连词为 if/whether 及疑问词作连词时,其前谓语动词 say/says/said →ask/asks/asked,say/says/said to sb→ask/asks/asked sb He says to you ,"Can you fly a kite?" →He asks you if/whether you can fly a kite. 5、 如果主句为 Could/Would you tell me 时,不表过去时态,而是语气较 Can/Will you tell me 更委婉的表达方 式。因此从句时态不变。(直接引语中的二人称不变) Could you tell me? Are you a teacher?→Could you tell me if/whether you are a teacher. 6、 直接引语中,有 any,anything,anybody,anyone 时,改为宾语从句后,不能改为 some 及其合成词。 Do you know? Does anyone live here?→Do you know if/whether anyone lives here? 7、if 与 whether 的区别在以下情况中只用 whether 不用 if. ①放在句前时:I don't know whether /if he will come.= Whether he will come, I don't know. ②与 or not 连用时:"Do you like English or not?" He asked. →He asked Whether I liked English or not. ③与 to do 连用时: He wants to know whether /if we will go .=He wants to know whether to go. ④做介词的宾语时:He thinks about whether he was born in China. ⑤从句中有两种选择时: Tell me whether you go with us or stay at home. 8、if/when 引导宾语从句及状语从句的区别:

I want to know if/when he _____(come) . If/When he _______(come), I_________(tell) you.(=I_________(tell) you if/when he _______(come) . ) 9、选择连词填空时 ⑴缺什么选什么: 缺时间选→when/what time 缺地点选→where, 缺定语选→which/whose/how much/how many/ what class/grade, 缺状语选→how/how often/how soon/how long, 缺人选→ who/whom ⑵不缺的则选 that 或 if/whether,动词为 say/say to sb/tell sb 则选→that(整个句子表达陈述语气时); 动 词为 ask/ask sb 则选→if/whether(整个句子表达疑问语气时) 10、当直接引语为祈使句时,改为复合宾语,句型为: Sb tell/ask/order sb (not) to do sth eg: Jim asked Li Lei,"Clean the floor twice a week."→Jim asked LiLei to clean the floor twice a week. The teacher said "Don't talk in class." →The teacher told/asked/ordered the students(LiLei) not to talk in class. 11. think/believe/expect/suppose/guess 等引导的宾语从句,从句不用否定式,如果要用,常转移到主句的谓语动 词。 I think... He isn't a hero.→ I don't think that he is a hero. They won't come in time.(I suppose)→I don't suppose that they will come in time. 12. 如果直接引语是反意疑问句或选择疑问句,变为间接引语时与一般疑问句一样,在从句前加连词 if 或 whether "You haven't finished the homework,haven't you?" My mother asked. →My mother asked me if/whether I had finished the homework . "Do you have lunch at home or at school?" He asked. →He asked me if/whether I had lunch at home or at school. 13. 以 "Let's .../Let us ..."开头的祈使句变为间接引语时,通常用"suggest +动名词/从句(... should )" He said ,"Let's go to see the film." →He suggested going to see the film. → He suggested that they should go to see the film. 15.直接引语是感叹句时,转变为间接引语可把感叹句视为陈述句,即用 say+that 从句。 Alice said,"How fast Tom runs!"→Alice said that Tom ran very fast. "What a nice watch it is!"Mary said.→ Mary said that it was a very nice watch.


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