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【高考英语资料库编写组 】 一、句子成分 (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句 子成分有主要成分和次要成分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成 分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但 在 there be 结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主 语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数 词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。一句 话语法: 主语由名词性的词来充当. 例如: During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. (主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正 的主语为后面的不定式) (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动

词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。一句话语法: 谓语由动词 充当. 有很多同学在写作的时候容易犯的错误就是要么乱用 be 动词,要么句子没有谓语动词. 谓语的构成如下: 1 、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语: (1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。 注意:这里面的动词原形非常重要. 如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (2)由系动词加表语构成。 如:We are students. (四)表语:表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位 于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。 表语一般由名词、 代词、 形容词、 分词、 数词、 不定式、 动名词、 介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。一句话语法: 表语使用形容词, 不用副词! 例如: Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) The machine must be out of order.(介词短语)

Time is up. The class is over.(副词)注意: 副词可以做表语的只有 几个,非常简单,考试不考,所以上面说:表语使用形容词,不用副词! 我们所复习的语法直接针对高考,不是搞语法研究,这点请大家一 定要记住. The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词 和介词后面。一句话语法:宾语由名词性的词充当,宾语分为动词 宾语和介词宾语 , 分别构成动宾结构和介词结构 ,这点非常重要 , 务必要牢记.例如: They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday.(名词) The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容 词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 宾语种类: (1) 双宾语 (间接宾语+直接宾语) , 例如: Lend me your dictionary, please.如果同学搞不清楚什么是双宾语,记下下面这个 句子: give me a book.一人一物做宾语就是双宾语.说得白一点,双 就是两个的意思. (2) 复合宾语 (宾语+宾补) , 例如: They elected him their monitor.

(六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以 外,还要有一个宾语补语,才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补 足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等+宾语+宾补) 。 宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句 充当。一句话语法: 宾语补足语使用形容词,不用副词.例如: His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) (七)定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。一句 话语法:定语使用形容词 定语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country. (分 词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语)

(八)状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子 (这个就叫状 语,一句话语法: 状语用副词,不用形容词),说明动作或状态特征 的句子成分,叫做状语。可由以下形式表示: Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.(不定式短语) He is in the room making a model plane.(分词短语) Wait a minute.(名词) Once you begin, you must continue.(状语从句) 状语种类如下: How about meeting again at six?(时间状语)(表示时间就是时间 状语,那表示原因的呢? 对喽,就是原因状语) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原 因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语)

I am taller than he is.(比较状语)


主语表明这句话说的是谁和什么,主语主要由名词、代词或相当 于名词的单词,短语或从句充当。 一. 名词作主语

David arrived last night. 大卫昨晚到达。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄必败。

二. 代词作主语

Who is speaking, please? (在电话中)请问您是谁?

That's OK. 这没问题。

三. 数词作主语

Two will be enough. 两个就够了。


Two-thirds of the workers are women. 三分之二的工人是女工。

四. ing 形式作主语

Skating is good exercise. 溜冰是很好的运动。

Looking up all the new words in the dictionary took him a lot of time.


五. 不定式作主语

To translate this ideal into reality needs hard work.


六. 名词化的形容词作主语

The blind and the lame are well cared for in our country.


The unemployed usually lead a hard life.


七. 短语作主语

How to do well is an important question.


Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy.


八. 从句作主语

What has happened proves that our policy is right.


Whether we'll go depends on the weather.

我们是否去要看天气。 谓语

谓语说明主语的动作或状态。谓语动词一般在主语之后。 Some children asked for cold drinks.


I shall go to see him tomorrow.


I must ask her to teach me to swim.

我一定得请她教我游泳。 宾语

宾语一般用在及物动词的后面,表示行为动词所涉及的对象。 一. 名词作宾语

Show your passport, please.


二. 代词作宾语 He didn't say anything. 她什么也没说。 三. 数词作宾语 How many do you want? - I want two. 你要几个?- 我要两个。 四. 名词化的形容词作宾语 They sent the injured to hospital. 他们把伤员送到医院。 五. 不定式或 ing 形式作宾语 The asked to see my passport. 他们要求看我的护照。 I enjoy working with you. 我和你们一道工作很愉快。 六. 从句作宾语 Did you write down what he said? 你把他的话记下了没有? 表语 表语是用来说明主语的身份、特征和状态的,它常位于联系动词

(be, become, appear, seem 等)之后。 一. 名词作表语 Africa is a big continent. 非洲是个大洲。 That remains a puzzle to me. 这对我还是个难题。 二. 代词作表语 What’s your fax number? 你的传真号是多少? 三. 形容词作表语 I feel much better today. 我今天感觉好多了。 四. 数词作表语 She was the first to learn about it. 她是第一个知道的人。 五. 不定式或 ing 形式作表语 Her job is selling computers. 她的工作是销售电脑。 Our next step was to get raw materials ready. 我们下一步是把原料准备好。 六. 介词短语作表语 The patient is out of danger.


I don’t feel at ease. 我感到不自在。 七. 副词作表语 The sun is up. 太阳升起来了。 I must be off now. 现在我得走了。 八. 从句作表语 This is what he said. 这就是他所说的话。 定语 形容词作定语 He's a tall man. 他是个高个子的男子。 名词作定语 There are a lot of banana trees on the island.(banana) 岛上有许多香蕉树。 数词作定语 Three thousand people watched the game. 三万人观看了球赛。

限定词作定语 Many men are working there. 许多人在那儿工作。 ing 形式作定语 There is a swimming pool near our school. 我们学校附近有一个游泳池。 ed 分词作定语 frozen food 冷冻食品 fallen leaves 落叶 状语 副词作状语 Don't drive so fast. 别开得这么快。 介词短语作地点状语 We live in Hangzhou. 我们住在杭州。 名词作状语 The meeting lasted an hour. 会议开了一个小时。 主语+动词+形容词(双谓语) 接在动词之后对主语起着解释或描述作用的成分,叫作主补。


They married young. 他们结婚时还年轻。 He died happy. 他怀着幸福的心情死去。 No man is born wise. 没有生而知之。 ed 分词作主补 He came in drunk. 他走进来的时候醉醺醺的。 名词作主补 He died a poor man. 他死时很穷。 He died a millionaire. 他死的时候是个百万富翁。 宾补 适用宾补的句型: 主语+谓语+宾语+宾补(S+V+O+OC)

宾补对宾语加以解释或描述。 以下成分可以充当宾补:

名词,代词,形容词,副词,ing 形式,ed 分词,不定式,介词 短语,名词性从句。 名词作宾补 I consider him a gentleman. 代词作宾补 Whom do you think me? (Whom 是宾补) 形容词作宾补 Wash your hands clean. 副词作宾补 I found him out. ing 形式作宾补 They left me wait. ed 分词作宾补 I heard my name called. 不定式作宾补 I thought him to be a good man. 介词短语作宾补 Make yourself at home. 名词性从句作宾补 His wife has made him what he is

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