当前位置:首页 >> 初中教育 >>

2014最新人教版八年级英语下册各单元语法点汇总


甘肃新学教育培训学校
Gansu Newlearning Education

Unit 1 What’s the matter? 一、 询问某人的健康问运及遭到麻烦的表达方法 (1)询问某人患了何种疾病或遇到了何种麻烦时,常用以下几种结构来表达: What’s the matter (with sb.)?(某人)怎么了? What’s wrong

(with sb.)?(某人)怎么了? What’s the trouble (with sb.)?(某人)出什么事了? What happened (to sb.)?(某人)发生了什么事? Are you OK?你没事吧? Is there anything wrong with sb.?某人有什么事吗? (2)要表达身体疼痛或不舒服,可用以下结构: ①某人+have/has+病症. The twins have colds.双胞胎感冒了。 ?某人+have/has+a+headache/toothache/stomachache/backache/earache. She had a stomachache last night.她昨晚肚子痛。 ③某人+have/has+a+sore+发病部位. He has a sore throat.他喉咙痛。 ④某人+hurt(s)+身体部位或反身代词. He hurt his leg.他的腿受伤了。 ⑤某部位+hurt(s). My head hurts badly.我头痛得厉害。 ⑥某人+have/has+a pain+in one’s+身体部位, I have a pain in my chest.我胸口痛。 ⑦(There is)something wrong with one’s+身体部位. There is something wrong with my right eye. .我的右眼有毛病。 ⑧其他表达方式 She has a heart trouble.她有心脏病。 He got hit on the head 他头部受到了撞击。 She cut her finger.她割破手指了。 二 情态动词 should 的用法 1.Should 为情态动词,意为“应该;应当” ,否定式为 shouldn’t,其后接动词原形,无人称和数的变化。常用来表 示征询意见、建议、劝告、要求或义务等。 You should drink hot water with honey.你应该喝加有蜂蜜的开水。 He should put his head back 他应该把头后仰。 We should try our best to help him.我们应当尽力去帮助他。 You shouldn‘t watch TV.你不应该看电视。 2 . Should 用于主语为第一人称的疑问句,表示征询意见。 Should I put some medicine on it? 我应当给它敷上药 吗? Should we tell her about it?我们应该告诉她这件事吗? 【拓展】在英语中,表示建议的说法有很多,而且都是中考考查的重点。主要结构有: ①Would you like (to do) sth.?你想要/愿意(做)某事吗? Would you like to play basketball with me?你想要和我一起打篮球吗? ②Shall I/we do sth ?我/我们做??好吗? Shall we go to the zoo tomorrow?明天我们去动物园,好吗? ③Why not do sth ?为什么不??呢? Why not join us?为什么不加入到我们当中来呢? ④How/What about doing sth ?做某事怎么样? How about going swimming?去游泳怎么样? ⑤Let’s do sth 让我们做??吧。 Let’s go home.咱们回家吧。 ⑥You’d better (not) do sth 你最好(不)要做某事。 You’d better not go there alone.你最好不要一个人去那儿。 Unit 2 I'll help clean up the city parks
1

甘肃新学教育培训学校
Gansu Newlearning Education

动词不定式 A. 作主语——为避免句子的头重脚轻,常用 it 作为形式主语,而真正的主语动词不定式后置。 常用句型: It +be+adj./n.+(for/of sb.) to do sth./It takes sb. some time to do sth. B. 作宾语——动词 want, decide, hope, ask, agree, choose, learn, plan, need, teach, prepare?常接动词不定式作宾语。 C. 作(后置)定语——常用于“have/has+sth.+to do”或“enough+名+to do” “It’s time to do sth.”等结构中。 D. 作 宾 语 补 足 语 — — tell, ask, want, invite, teach, like, call 等 可 接 带 to 的 动 词 不 定 式 作 宾 语 补 足 语 , 构 成 tell/ask/want /call/invite sb. to do sth.结构。 【注意】动词不定式作使役动词和感官动词的宾语补足语时应省去 to : “一感 (feel) ,二听 (listen to, hear) ,三让 (let, make, have,,四看(look at, see, watch, notice),半帮助(help)” 。 E. 动词不定式作状语 主要用来修饰动词,表示目的,结果或原因。为了强调目的,有时可以把动词不定式放在句首,或在不定式前加 in order (to) 或 so as (to) “为了,目的是” 。常用结构有 too + adj./adv. + to do sth.等。 F. 固定句式中动词不定式的用法 常见的形式有: had better (not) do sth./Would you like to do sth.?/Why not do sth.?/Would you please (not) do sth.?等。 Unit 3 Could you please clean your room Could you please...?句型 (1)请求别人时通常用此句型,也可以说:Can you...please?情态动词 could 或 can 在这里均表示请求,在意思上无 区别,但是用 could 在于其上显得更委婉、客气、诚恳。在日常生活中常使用 could you/I...?若在句末加上 please, 则显得更礼貌。 Could you help me find my book,please?你能帮我找到我的书吗? (2)对 could you/I...?的问句作出肯定回答,常用“sure/certainly/of course”等;如果作否定回答,常用“sorry 或 oh,please don’t” 。 一般不用 no 开头,用 no 显得语气生硬、不礼貌。 (3)表示请求的句式: Would you like to do...? Would you mind doing...? Let’s do.... Shall I/we do...? Please do...(祈使句前加 please) 提示:could you please...与 could I Please...两种问句,前者是请求别人帮忙的句式,后者是有礼貌地向别人请求允许 的交际用语。试比较: Could you please help me?请你帮我一下好吗? Could I please invite my friends to my birthday party,Mom? 妈妈, 我能邀请我的朋友参加我的生日聚会吗? Unit 4 Why don't you talk to your parents? 1.提建议向别人发出邀请,请求,建议,或征求某人的意见的其他表达方式:How /what about doing sth.?(about 是 个介词,可跟名词或动名词) “?怎么样?” You’d better (not) do something.“你最好(不)做某事” Would you like sth ??:“你想要某物 Let?s do sth?? What should I do ?? ( should 表示请求、征询对方意见) 2.学会谈论问题和学会用 why don't you?提建议向别人发出邀请,请求,建议,或征求某人的意见的表达方式: Why don?t you do something? =Why not do something? 你为什么不做某事呢? 来表示请求、征询对方意见 3.until, so that ,although 引导的状语从句: 1)until:在带有 till 或 until 引导的时间状语从句里,如果主句用肯定式,其含义是“一直到??时” ,谓语动词只能 用延续性动词。如果主句用否定式,其含义是“直到??才??”, “在??以前不??”, 谓语动词可用瞬间动词。 Don?t get off until the bus stops. 2)so that 引导目的状语从句(为了,以便)例如:He studies hard so that he could work better in the future 3)although 的用法意思相当于 though(尽管,虽然) ,引导让步状语从句。引导的从句不能与并列连词 but,and, so 等连用, 但可以和 yet,still 等词连用例如: Although he was tired, he went on working.尽管他很累, 但是他继续工作。
2

甘肃新学教育培训学校
Gansu Newlearning Education

Unit 5 What were you doing when the rainstorm came? 过去进行时 1. 基本概念:过去进行时表示在过去某一时刻或一段时间内正在进行的 动作。这一特定的过去时间除有上下文暗示以外, 一般用时间状语来表示。 2. 结构 was / were ( not ) + 动词-ing 3. 句式 肯定式: I/He/She/It was working. We/You/They/ were working. 否定式: I/He/She/It was not working. We/You/They/ were not working. 疑问式和简略回答: Was I working? Yes, you were. No, you were not. Were you working? Yes, I was. No, I was not. Was he/she/it working? Yes , he/she/it was. No, he/she/it was not. Were we/you/they working? Yes, you/we/they were. No, you/we/they were not. 注: 1) was not 常缩略为 wasn’t; were not 常缩略为 weren’t。 2) 一般过去时与过去进行时用法的比较: 一般过去时表示在过去某个时间发生过的动作或存在的状态, 而过去进行 时则表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。 例如: David wrote a letter to his friend last night. 大卫昨晚给他的朋友写了封信。(信写完了。) David was writing a letter to his friend last night. 大卫昨晚一直在给他的朋友写信。(信不一定写完。) 4.过去进行时中的 when 和 while when, while 区别: 1) 由 when 引导的时间状语从句,主句用过去进行时,从句应用一般过去时; 由 while 引导的时间状语从句,主句 用一般过去时,从句应用过去进行时。 When the teacher came in, we were talking. 当此句改变主从句的位置时,则为: While we were talking, the teacher came in. 2)如果从句和主句的动作同时发生,两句都用过去进行时的时候,多用 while 引导。如: They were singing while we were dancing. Unit 6 An old man tried to move the mountains 1. unless 引导条件状语从句 unless = if ? not ―除非,若不 They will go tomorrow unless it rains. = They will go tomorrow if it doesn’t rains. 2. as soon as 引导时间状语从句。 ―??就 He will come and see you as soon as he can. 3. so.......that 引导结果状语从句 句型 1:主语+谓语+so+形容词/副词+that 从句 The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward. 句型 2: so +形容词 + a/an + 单数名词 + that 从句 It was so hot a day that they all went swimming. 句型 3. so + many/ few + 复数名词 + that 从句 He has so few friends that he often feels lonely.
3

甘肃新学教育培训学校
Gansu Newlearning Education

句型 4: so +much/ little + 不可数名词 + that 从句 I had so little money that I couldn’t buy a pen. Unit 7 What’s the highest mountain in the world? 形容词副词的原级、比较级和最高级 (一)原级句型: 1. A is as+原级+ as+ B 表示 A 与 B 一样?eg: He is as tall as me. 2.A is not as/so +原级+ as B 表示 A 不如 B?eg:He is not as tall as me. 3.只能修饰原级的词,very,quite,so,too,so, enough, pretty 等 例如,He is too tired to walk on.他太累了以至于不能再继续走了。 (二)比较级句型 可以修饰比较级的词,much,a lot,far,?的多 a little,a bit,?一点儿 even 甚至,still 仍然 Eg. Lesson One is much easier than Lesson Two.第一课比第二课容易得多。 Tom looks even younger than before.汤姆甚至比以前更年轻。 1.当句中有 than 时则用比较级。 eg: He is fatter than me. 2.当句子中的比较对象为两者时用比较级: “特殊疑问词+be+形容词比较级,A or B?” eg: Which is bigger,the earth or the moon?哪一个大,地球还是月球? 3. “比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越??” 。 eg.The flowers are more and more beautiful.花儿越来越漂亮。 加 more 构成比较级的形容词则用 more and more +形容词表示越来越? eg: English is more and more important. 4. “the+比较级,the+比较级”表示“越??,越??” 。 Eg. The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you’ll make. 5.“A+be+the+形容词比较级+of the two+??”表示“A 是两者中较??的” 。 Eg.Look at the two boys. My brother is the taller of the two. 6.A+be+形容词比较级+than+any other+单数名词(+介词短语)” 表示“A 比同一范围的任何一个人/物都??” ,含 义是“A 最??” 。 Eg. The Yangtze River is longer than any other river in China. =The Yangtze River is the longest river in China. (三)最高级常用句型结构 1. “主语+be+the+形容词最高级+单数名词+in/of 短语”表示“??是??中最??的” 。 eg:Tom is the tallest in his class./of all the students. This apple is the biggest of the five. 2. “主语+be+one of the+形容词最高级+复数名词+in/of 短语”表示“??是??中最??之一” 。 Eg:Beijing is one of the largest cities in China. 3.“特殊疑问词+be+the+最高级+A,B,or C?”用于三者以上 eg Which is the biggest? The moon,the sun or ths earth? 4.“the +序数词+最高级+单数名词+范围” 。表示?是第几大(?) eg: The Yellow River is the second longest river in China . 【注意】形容词最高级之前要加 the,但当最高级之前有形容词性物主代词或名词所有格时则不用加 the eg: He is the best student in my class. He is my best friend. (四)形容词副词的规则与不规则变化 ? 规则变化 1.一般在词尾直接加 er 或 est,例如,tall-taller-tallest,long-longer-longest 2.以不发音的字母 e 结尾的单词在词尾直接加 r 或 st,例如,nice-nicer-nicest
4

甘肃新学教育培训学校
Gansu Newlearning Education

3.以辅音字母+y 结尾的词,把 y 变为 i,再加 er 或 est,例如, heavy-heavier-heaviest 4.重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加 er 或 est, eg. big-bigger-biggest 5.部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加 more 构成比较级和 most 构成最高级,例如, slowly-more slowly-most slowly;beautiful- more beautiful-most beautiful 不规则变化 原级 good/well bad/badly/ill many/much little far old 比较级 better worse more less farther further older elder 最高级 best worst most least farthest furthest Oldest(无血缘关系的) eldest(有血缘关系) Unit 8 Have you read Treasure Island yet? Unit 9 Have you ever been to a museum? 现在完成时 (Present Perfect Tense) (1)表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 —It’s so dark. 太黑了。 —Someone has turned off the light. 有人把灯关上了。 (2)表示从过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在的动作或状态。 常与 since+过去的时间点,for+一段时间,since+时间段+ego, so far 等时间状语连用。 Eg. I have lived here for ten years.我已经住在这里 10 年了。 (从 10 年前开始,持续到现在还住这儿) Eg. I have lived here since 2003. 自从 2003 年我就住在这儿。 (从 2003 年开始,持续到现在还住这儿) (3) 基本结构及句型转换:主语+have/has+过去分词(done) (当主语是第三人称单数 has,其余人称用 have。) ①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他 I have finished my homework. (肯定句) ②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他 I have not finished my homework. (否定句) ③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他 —Have you finished your homework? —Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t, (一般疑问句及肯定、否定回答) (4)has gone (to), has been (to), has been (in) 的区别 ? Have/Has gone(to) :去了(现在不在说话现场) Eg. ---Where is your father? ---He has gone to Shanghai. ? Have/Has been (to) :去过(已不在去过的地方) Eg. My father has been to Shanghai. ? Have/has been in:呆了多久(还在所呆的地方) Eg. My father has been in Shanghai for two months. =My father has been in Shanghai since two months ago. (5)现在完成时的标志: ①常与 just, already, yet, ever, never, before, so far 等连用,强调动作的完成,不强调动作的持续。 Have you ever been to Japan? I have just finished my homework.
5

甘肃新学教育培训学校
Gansu Newlearning Education

②for + 时间段;since + 过去的时间点;since + 段时间 ago;since + 一般过去时的句子。 They have known each other for five years. Since he was a child, he has lived in England. (6)动词过去式和过去分词的变化 规则变化: 1. 一般在动词词尾直接加 ed。如: pick → picked → picked; wish → wished → wished; stay → stayed → stayed 2. 以不发音的 e 结尾的动词后面加 d。如:like → liked → liked; hope → hoped → hoped; phone → phoned → phoned 3. 以―辅音字母 + y‖结尾的动词,变 y 为 i,再加-ed。如: study → studied → studied; hurry → hurried → hurried; reply → replied → replied 4. 词尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节动词,要双写辅音字母,再加-ed。如: stop → stopped → stopped; clap → clapped → clapped 不规则变化: 5. 以不变应万变。如:let → let → let; put → put → put; read → read → read 6. 若中间有双写 e,则去掉一个 e,单词末尾再加 t。如: feel → felt → felt; keep → kept → kept; sleep → slept → slept 7. 结尾的字母 d 变 t。如:lend → lent → lent; build → built → built; send → sent → sent 8. 变为以-ought 或-aught 结尾。如:buy → bought → bought; bring → brought → brought; catch → caught → caught; teach → taught → taught Unit 10 I've had this bike for three years. 短暂性动词(buy, die, join, finish 等)不能直接与 for, since 连用, 需要改变动词。 9)leave-- be away(from) 1)begin(start)--be on 2) open--be open 10)catch a cold--have a cold 3)become--be 11)join the army--in the army/be a soldier 4)die--be dead 12)borrow---keep 5) fall asleep-- be asleep 13)join the party-- be in the party/ be a party member 6)close -- be closed 14) buy---have 7)end/ finish---be over 15)come/go/ arrive/reach/get /move to ---be in /at 8) put on--wear 总结:1.现在完成时表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响和结果; 2.还可以表示过去发生的动作,一直持续到现在,也有可能持续下去. 3..一般情况下,for+时间段; since+过去的时间点;since + 段时间 ago;since + 一般过去时的句子 4.句型:现在完成时态(have/has+延续性动词的过去分词)+ for/ since...

6


相关文章:
2014最新版八年级英语下册单元知识点归纳
2014最新版八年级英语下册单元知识点归纳_英语_初中教育_教育专区。本人编写的,可以下载使用,但不要乱上传 2014年新版八年级英语下册知识点 Unit 1. what’s the...
2014新版八年级英语下册第1至第10单元知识点总结
2014新版八年级英语下册第1至第10单元知识点总结_英语_初中教育_教育专区。2014 新版八年级英语下册第 1---第 10 单元知识点总结 Unit 1 What’s the matter...
最新人教版八年级英语下册各单元语法点汇总
最新人教版八年级英语下册各单元语法点汇总_英语_初中教育_教育专区。Unit 1 ...人教版新目标八年级下册... 10页 2下载券 新2014年人教版八年级下... 15...
2014年新人教版八年级下册英语各单元知识点总结
2014新人教版八年级下册英语各单元知识点总结_英语_初中教育_教育专区。最新的知识点总结新人教版八年级下册英语知识点总结 Unit 1 Will people have robots? 1...
2014年新版人教版八年级英语下册重点句型·短语
2014新版人教版八年级英语下册重点句型·短语_英语_初中教育_教育专区。Unit 1...八年级英语上期末知识点... 新目标英语八年级上期末... 八年级上册英语知识点...
2014新人教版八年级下英语各单元复习提纲
2014新人教版八年级下英语各单元复习提纲_英语_初中教育_教育专区。2014 新人教版八年级下英语各单元复习提纲 Unit 1 What’s the matter? 一、重点短语 1. ...
2014最新版新目标八年级英语下册单元知识点归纳
2014最新版新目标八年级英语下册单元知识点归纳_英语_初中教育_教育专区。八年级英语下册知识点 Unit 1. what’s the matter? 一.重点短语归纳 1. foot---feet...
新人教版八年级英语下册各知识点归纳总结
新人教版八年级英语下册各知识点归纳总结_英语_初中教育_教育专区。壹学英语 No.1 English 2012 年秋新人教版八年级英语下册各知识点归纳总结 Unti1 what’s ...
2016年人教版八年级下册英语各单元重点短语、句型及语法
2016年人教版八年级下册英语各单元重点短语、句型及语法_英语_初中教育_教育专区。人教八下重要短语、句型及语法 Unit 1 What’s the matter? 一、重点短语 1. ...
2014年新课标人教版八年级英语上册单元知识点归纳
2014课标人教版八年级英语上册单元知识点归纳_英语_初中教育_教育专区。...的意思 6. different kinds of 不同种类的 7.write down 写下; 记下 write...
更多相关标签:
人教版八年级上册语法 | 人教版八年级下册语法 | 人教版八年级英语语法 | 八年级下英语单元语法 | 八年级英语各单元语法 | 初中英语语法大全汇总 | 日语二级语法汇总 | 高中英语语法大全汇总 |