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A: can / could = be able to 1 表示能力两种时态 can (could),其他时态要用 be able to 的形式 He can speak French. Was/were able to 可以表示成功做成某事的含义* managed to do / succeeded i n doing With our help, he was able to build the house. 2 表示请求或许可 Could 比 Can 更加客气* may Can I go now? Yes, you can. 3 表示推测或可能性,常用于否定句和疑问句 Can he be at school? Today is Sunday. He can't be at school. Can’t couldn’t/ Can ? Could? have done There is no light in the room. Can she have gone to bed? She can’t have gone to school----- it’s Sunday. Could have done 可用在肯定句中表示过去存在的可能性* may have done She could have gone out with some friends yesterday. Could have done 可以表示虚拟语气 某事可能发生(并没有发生) It was silly to throw the TV out of the window. It could have hit somebody. 批评某人没有完成某事(本可以做某事) You are late again. You could have got up earlier. 4 can 表示客观上的可能性* Anybody can make mistakes. B: may and might 1 表示请求和允许 类似用法 can could(更加口语化) May I watch TV now? Yes, you may. 2 表示可能性; 猜测 might 比 may 更加不确定 may/might have done 对过去的揣 测* He may be busy these days. May not 可能不;不可能;一定不可 3 表示祝愿 Wish you success! May you succeed!* C: must and have to 1 表示必须;一定要 可以用 have to 代替 must 现在;将来的必须 而且是主观看法* have to 有多种时态 而且强调客观情况 I really must stop smoking now. I had to leave early because I wasn’t feeling well. Must I come here? Yes, you must. No, you needn’t. needn’t / don’t have to must not 一定不能

做某事 mustn’t 2 must 表示推测 意思非常肯定 “一定是”“一定会” It must be raining outside. Must have done 对过去/完成的推测* must have done, didn’t / hasn’t Must be doing 推测现在正在进行 He must have gone over the article, hasn’t he? It must have rained last night, didn’t it? D: need and dare 过去时 dared 情态动词和实意动词的区别 A 人称变化 B do / to do C 直接否定 / 间接否定 can work Need /dare 肯定句中,实义动词 She needs to do it. I dare to do it. 使用在否定句,疑问句中,情态动词,实义动词。 I dare not do it. I don’t dare (to) do it. I need not do it. I don’t need to do it. 1 need 情态动词 无时态;人称的变化 多用于疑问句和否定句 You needn’t try to explain. Needn’t = don’t have to Needn’t have done sth 过去本不必做某事* 虚拟语气 2 need 实义动词 有时态;人称的变化 后接 to do You need to tell us the tr uth. The car needs repairing. The car needs to be repaired. 3 dare 情态动词 过去时 dared 无人称的变化 多用在疑问句和否定句 Dare he tell them what he knows? 4 dare 实义动词 有时态;人称的变化后接 to do 用于疑问句和否定句时 其后的 to 有时可省略 Do you dare (to) jump off the high wall? E: will and would 1 表示征求对方(第二人称)意见或询问对方意愿 would 比 will 更客气委婉 Will you have some more wine? Would you mind my smoking here? 2 will 表示习惯性动作或某种倾向 would 表示过去习惯性动作或某种倾向 Fish will die out of water. When I was young, I would play badminton on Sundays. Would 与 used to 的区别* Would 只能用来表示重复的动作而不能表示状态 Used to 既可表示动作也可表示状态, 强调现在不如此 He used to be a university student. 3 will 表示意愿 决心 I will never do that again. F: shall, should and ought to 1 shall 在问句中表示征求对方意见或请求 用于第一,三人称

What shall we do now? 2 shall 肯定句中 表示说话人强烈的感情 允许,命令,禁止和威胁 * 或表示按规定,规章和义务等用于第二,三人称 If you dare to do that, you shall be punished. These rules shall be obeyed. Shall not 禁止,不许 3 shall 决心,意愿 = will I shall come if I want to. 4 should 表示劝告,建议 = ought to 应该 You should wash your hands first. Should 主要表示主观看法* Ought to 客观情况 法律、规定、义务的使用 Should have done / ought to have done sth 虚拟语气* Shouldn’t have done / ought not to have done sth You should have done it today. 5 should 推测 推论 可能性 = ought to *估计 They should/ ought to be there by now. 6 should 说话人的感情。如惊奇、愤怒、失望等、“竟然” 否定句疑问句 You can’t imagine that well-behaved gentleman should be so rude to a lady Why should he do such a thing? 推测 肯定性 可能性 由强到弱 must / shall* / ought to / should / would* / could* / may / might /can 理论 上的可能/ can? Could? / can’t couldn’t must 用于表示"必定","必会": All mankind must die. (表示必然会发生的事) 所有的人一定会死的。 shall 用于表示"必定": I shall be rich one day. (shall be ) 总有一天我发达的。 ought to / should 用于表示"想必会"(语气较 must 弱): They should / ought to be there by now. 他们想必已到那儿了。 will 和 would 用于表示"预测"或"习惯性": I think he will be all right now. (will be 表示一定会) 我想他现在一定好了。 Could 表推测 No, but the shop could be in the east of the city. may 和 might 用于表示"事实上的可能性"或"预测": It may snow later this afternoon. (表示预测) 今天下午可能会下雪。 You might be right. (表示有可能) 你可能是对的。 Can 理论上的可能

Anybody can make mistakes. (只表示理论上的可能性) 任何人都可能犯错误。 Can? Could? / can’t couldn’t 疑问否定 He can't be at home. (否定句) 他不可能在家。 Can the news be true ? (将情态动词 can 置于主语 the news 前就成疑问句) 这消息可能是真的吗? 情态动词 be doing 情态动词 have done must / could / may / might / Can; could? have done / can’t ; couldn’t have d one 请求和允许 Can could I; he /may might I; he / will would you / shall should ought to I; he? / Must I? 不同类型语气分析 Can I go with you ? (请求) 我能跟你一起走吗? Could I ask you something ? (请求,用 could 比 can 更婉转) 我可以问你一件事吗? May I make a suggestion ? 我可以提个建议吗? Might I take a look of your work ? 我看看您的大作行吗? Will you kindly tell me the way to the post office ? (表示客气请求) 请问到邮局怎么走? Would you give me your address ? (用 would 比 will 表示更客气) 请你告诉我你的地址,好吗? Shall we talk? 我们谈谈好吗? What should we do next ? (用 should 比 shall 表示更客气) 下一步我们该怎么做? Shall he come to see you ? (用于第三人称疑问句) 要不要他来看你? Must I finish the work right now? Must I pay now ? (用于疑问句) (如回答不必时,需用 needn't 或 don't have t o) 我现在就得付款吗? 情态动词的用法:表示“应该”、“必须”命令和建议 (Must, have to , Shall, ought to, Should, May*, Might*,) Must 用于表示“必须”、“务必”: You must keep the place clean. (务必) 你务必保持地方干净。 Shall 和 Should 用于表示“必须”:

Each member shall wear a name card. (表示规定) 每一个会员必须配带名卡。 I should answer his letter as soon as possible. (表示应该) 我应该尽快给他回信。 The rules shall take effect on Jan. 1st. (shall 用于规章等,表示义务和规定) 新规则于一月一日起生效。 Ought to 用于表示“应该”(强调客观上):(大多情况可用 should 代替) You ought to go to see the doctor. (ought to 的语气比 must 弱) 你应该去看看医生。 You oughtn't (ought not) to smoke so much. (oughtn't 用于否定句) 你不应该抽这么多烟。 May 和 Might 用于表示“应该"(多用于法律等条文,一般上多用 shall ): Payment may be paid by check. (表示规定) 应以支票付款。 You might ask before you use my computer. (might 表示应该) 你应该先问过再使用我的电脑。 情态动词的用法:表示“意图”、“打算” “意愿” “决心” (will, would* shall, should*)
情态动词+完成式 对过去或完成的猜测 must / may /might / could / can’t / couldn’t/can?/could? have done 虚拟语气 could have done 本来可以;有可能 needn’t have done 本没必要做某事 should / ought to have done 本应该做某事 shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have done 本不应该做某事


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