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【最高考】2015高考英语语法精讲+精练:专题八+定语从句常考点


专题八 定语从句常考点

定语从句是英语语法学习中的一大难关,也是高考中的常考点。主要考查引导定语从句的关系代词和 关系副词的选择;非限制性定语从句(特别是当先行词是整个句子时),由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语 从句等。做有关定语从句题目时,一定要将先行词还原到从句里,看其在从句部分充当什么成分。

1

关系代词和关系

副词的基本用法 指人 指物 定语 表语 that 主语 that, which 地点 where=介词+which 宾语 that, which (可省) 定语 whose 原因 why=for which 表语 that

主语 关系代词 that, who

宾语

that,who, whom whose (可省) 时间

关系副词

when=介词+which

[注]学习定语从句时,必须加强对从句句子结构的分析,切记关系代词在定语从句中作主语、宾语、 定语和表语,而关系副词在定语从句中作状语。

用适当的关系代词或关系副词填空: ①I still remember the day ________ we studied together. I still remember the day ________ we spent together. ②This is the factory ________ he used to work. This is the factory ________ we visited yesterday. This is the factory ________ makes this kind of car. ③This is the reason ________ he explained. This is the reason ________ he failed in the exam. ④I don't know the way ________ he used last time. I don't know the way ________ he solved the problem last time.

【答案】 ①when ; that/which/不填 ④that/which/不填;that/in which/不填

②where ; that/which/不填; that/which

③that/which/不填; why

2

介词+关系代词

介词后只能用 which 指物,whom 指人,不可用 that。介词的选用可根据从句中相关词组确定,也可 结合句意根据先行词确定。该介词也可放在从句之尾。

用适当的“介词+关系代词”填空:

①He is the person ________ we should learn. ②The bag ________ he put his books is lost. ③The man ________ she is talking is a doctor. ④The train ________ he was travelling was late.

【答案】①from whom ②in/into which ③to/about whom ④on which

3

关系代词 as 的用法

用于限制性定语从句中:当先行词被 so,as,such,the same 所修饰时,关系代词用 as 指人或物,而 不用 which。 用于非限制性定语从句中: 非限制性定语从句,特别是先行词是整个主句时,由 which 和 as 引导的 非限制性定语从句,是高考命题的热点。 [注] as 引导的非限制性定语从句与 which 引导的非限制性定语从句的区别: as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句前、插在主句中间或放在主句末尾,而 which 引导的非限制 性定语从句只能放在主句后面;as 引导的从句有“正如”之意,而 which 则没此意。

用适当的关系词填空: ①This is such a heavy bag ________ I can't carry. This is such a heavy bag ________ I can't carry it . ②This is the same place ________ I visited three years ago. This is the same place ________ I worked three years ago. ③He failed in the exam,________ made his father very angry. He failed in the exam,________ I had expected. ④A lot of language learning, ________ has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during that period.

【答案】①as;that ②as;where ③which;as ④as

4

并列句和非限制性定语从句的判断

并列句是由两个简单句组成的,句子中间必须要有并列连词;而定语从句是由主句和从句构成的。

完成下列句子: ①He has two brothers,and both of ________ are workers. He has two brothers,both of ________ are workers. ②China has hundreds of islands,the largest of ________ is Taiwan. China has hundreds of islands,and the largest of ________ is Taiwan. ③He may not come,in ________ case we will not wait for him. He may not come and in ________ case we will not wait for him.

【答案】①them;whom ②which;them ③which;that

5

先行词模糊化

表地点的先行词模糊化在句中作状语时用关系副词 where,相当于 in which;在句中作主语和宾语仍 用关系代词。 常见的词有: point, situation, position, profession, job, case, system, scene, activity, society, culture,strategy,model,accident,economy,crime 等;常见的表时间的词有:period,occasion,stage, interval,stay 等。

用适当的关系词填空: ①This is one point ________ we must insist on. I have reached a point in my life ________ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. ②Occasions are quite rare ________ I have the time to spend a day with my kids.

【答案】①that/which/不填;where ②when

6

定语从句中的数要保持一致

关系代词指代的是先行词,因此定语从句中的谓语在数上应与先行词保持一致。

完成下列句子: ①Those who ________(break) the law should be punished. =Anyone who ________(break)the law should be punished. =Whoever ________(break) the law should be punished. ②He is one of the students who ________praised at yesterday's meeting. He is the one of the students who ________praised at yesterday's meeting.

【答案】①break;breaks;breaks ②were;was

7

定语从句中含有插入语

定语从句和先行词之间常常会有 I think,you know,I believe,I thought 等插入语。做此类题目时, 我们要先去除插入语,再选择正确的关系词。

完成下列句子: ①This is the school ________ you know I once studied. ②I picked up a man ________ I thought was honest. =I picked up a man ________ I thought to be honest. ③He made a discovery,________(我认为) is very important.

【答案】①where ②who;that/who/whom/不填 ③which I think

8

只能用 that 或 which 的情况

只用 that 的场合: ①当先行词既指人又指物时。

②当先行词是不定代词 anything,nothing,everything,all,some,little,few,much,none 或被不定 代词修饰时。 ③当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词所修饰时。 ④当先行词被 the only 和 the very 所修饰时。 ⑤当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。 ⑥当要避免与疑问词 which 重复时。 只用 which 的场合: ①“介词+which”,指物。 ②非限制性定语从句中。 ③防止重复。 ④指人的性质身份时,而不是指人时。

用适当的关系代词或关系副词填空: ①He told us all ________ had happened. ②This is the most interesting film________ I have ever seen. ③This is the first place ________ we visited yesterday. This is the first place ________ we worked. ④This is the only plant ________ grows in the area. The earth is unlikely to be the only planet ________ life has developed gradually. ⑤The glasses without ________ he couldn't see clearly were lost. ⑥I said nothing,________ made him angry.

【答案】①that ②that/不填

③that/不填;where ④that;where ⑤which ⑥which

9

关系代词 whose 的用法

在高考中,关系代词 whose 的考点频繁出现。在定语从句中,作定语的关系代词用 whose,在表示某 物时,相当于 the+n.+of which 或 of which+the+n.。

用适当的关系词填空: ①Do you know the man in ________ car she came here? ②The man pulled out a gold watch,________ hands were made of small diamonds. =The man pulled out a gold watch,the hands of ________ were made of small diamonds. =The man pulled out a gold watch,of ________ the hands were made of small diamonds.

【答案】①whose ②whose;which;which

10

找准先行词

一般说来,定语从句是跟在它所修饰的先行词之后,但有时也会出现先行词和定语从句被一个词或一 个短语所分隔,或者谓语太短等情况,这时我们要根据定语从句的句意判断哪一个词是先行词。

用适当的关系词填空: ①I've become good friends with several of the students in my school ________ I met in the English speech contest last year. ②She'll never forget her stay there ________ she found her son who had gone missing two years before. ③The days are gone ________ we used the foreign oil.

【答案】①whom/who

②when ③when

11

“the one+that/which/where”和 that,which,where 的区别

完成下列句子: ①Is this the museum ________ you visited last year? Is this museum ________ you visited last year? ②Is this museum ________ you worked last year? Is this the museum ________ you worked last year?

【答案】①that/which/不填;the one that/which 或 the one ②the one where/where;where/in which

12

from where 和 since when 结构的区别

完成下列句子: ①They stood at the window,from ________ they could see what was happening in the street. ②The book was written in 1946,since ________ the education system has witnessed great changes.

【答案】①where ②when

1. (2014· 江苏卷)The book has helped me greatly in my daily communication, especially at work ________ a good impression is a must. A. which B. when C. as D. where 2. (2014· 江西卷)Among the many dangers ________ sailors have to face, probably the greatest of all is fog. A. which B. what C. where D. when 3. (2014· 陕西卷)Please send us all the information ________ you have about the candidate for the position. A. that B. which C. as D. what 4. (2014· 重庆卷)We'll reach the sales targets in a month ________ we set at the beginning of the year. A. which B. where C. when D. what 5. (2014· 安徽卷)The exact year ________ Angola and her family spent together in China was 2008. A. when B. where C. why D. which 6. (2013· 江苏卷)The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China,________ he remembers starting as early as his childhood. A. where B. which C. what D. when 7. (2013· 浙江卷)The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform________ visitors can watch the big glass houses being built. A. what B. where C. when D. why 8. (2013· 安徽卷)Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012,________ made one of the Chinese people's long-held dreams come true. A. it B. that C. what D. which 9. (2013· 陕西卷)________ is often the case with children,Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived. A. It B. That C. What D. As 10. (2012· 江苏卷)After the flooding,people were suffering in that area,________ urgently needed clean water,medicine and shelter to survive.

A. which B. who 【答案】1. D 2. A 3. A 4. A

C. where D. what 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. D 9. D 10. B

1. Do you know the man ________? A. whom I spoke B. to who I spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 2. I am very grateful to my high school teachers,without ________ help I wouldn't be so excellent. A. whom B. them C. which D. whose 3. —Where did you meet him while in Beijing? —It was in the hotel ________ I stayed. A. that B. which C. when D. where 4. The settlement is home to nearly 1, 000 people, many of ________ leaving their village homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B. which C. them D. those 5. The time is not far away ________ modern communications will become widespread in China's vast countryside. A. as B. when C. until D. before 6. He talked a lot about things and persons ________ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 7. Her sister has become a lawyer,________ she wanted to be. A. who B. that C. what D. which 8. I'm told that languagepractising.com is a free website ________ learners can not just learn various languages but also chat online. A. where B. which C. that D. what 9. The way ________ he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D. / 10. By serving others,a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself,________ can be very eye -opening and rewarding. A. who B. that C. which D. what 11. My neighbours used to give me a hand in time of trouble,________ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 12. He's got himself into a dangerous situation ________ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why 13. Young people who have got jobs may realize university lessons can't be the only preparation for all of the situations ________ appear in the working world. A. where B. when C. that D. what 14. The manager had to go to Beijing on business on June 23,________ happened to be his only son's birthday. A. when B. that C. which D. what 15. The picture often reminds me of the happy hours time and again ________ I was playing happily with my friends during the holidays. A. how B. that C. when D. where 16. Nowadays teenagers like to go to fast food restaurants,________ serve junk food. A. which B. who C. what D. where 17. Is this research centre ________ you visited the modern equipment last year? A. which B. that C. the one where D. the one that

18. She is such a good teacher ________ we all love and respect. A. that B. as C. so D. who 19. The volunteers paid a visit to all the senior citizens in the community,most of ________ are aged from 70 to over 90 years old. A. whom B. those C. them D. which 20. Last week,we watched Beijing Opera,________ style was unfamiliar to most of us. A. what B. which C. where D. whose 21.The school shop, ________ customers are mainly students, is closed for the holidays. A. which B. whose C. when D. where 22. My pen friend sent me an e-mail yesterday ________ he described how he spent his summer holiday. A. when B. where C. what D. which 23. Last term our English teacher set so difficult an examination problem ________ none of us worked out. A. as B. that C. which D. whose 24. That evening, ________ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. which C. what D. when 25. There was a time in my life ________ I hated to go to school because I didn't get on well with my classmates. A. that B. when C. what D. which 26. You'll find taxis waiting at the bus station ________ you can hire to reach your host family. A. which B. where C. when D. as 27. Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator, ________ it will keep for two or three weeks. A. when B. which C. where D. while 28. After graduation she reached a point in her career ______ she needed to decide what to do. A. that B. what C. which D. where 29. Women ________ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ________ don't. A. who; / B. /; who C. who; who D. /; / 30. Last month, part of Southern Asia was struck by floods, from ________ effects the people are still suffering. A. that B. whose C. which D. what 【答案】1. C 2. D 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. D 8. A 9. D 10. C 11. B 12. A 13. C 14. C 15. C 16. A 17. C 18. B 19. A 20. D 21. B 22. B 23. A 24. B 25. B 26. A 27. C 28. D 29. C 30. B


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