IELTS writing TASK2 Oct,2013
Task 2 要求考生在40分钟内写作一篇 不少于250字的议论文。A类和G类在 Task 2方面非常相似。考生可能需要 1.对某个观点发表支持或反驳意见， 2.或者讨论针锋相对的一组观点， 3.或者解释某种问题出现的原因并提出相应的 解决办法。 ?
? 雅思评分按9分制。基本上，移民或读语言 学校起码要5分（Modest User）。留学 需要6分（Competent User）以上。如 果读的是法律、传媒、管理等名校的研究生 的话，写作最好达到7分（Good User）。 但考生最后写作成绩并不是Task 1和 Task 2的简单平均，而是以Task 2为主。
? 雅思写作的评分标准不象四六级或托福采用整体 式的评分，而是分项式评分（analytical scoring）。也就是说，考官给考生并不只打一个 分数，而是根据具体的评分细则分项给分。 书信或图表评分标准： Task 1（书信或图表）按照以下三方面评分： Task Fulfilment（完成任务）；Coherence and Cohesion（连贯与衔接）；Vocabulary and Sentence Structure（词汇与句子结 构）。
? Coherence and Cohesion指的是文章通过一 定的衔接手段（Cohesive Devices）来表明上下 文的连贯性（Coherence）。衔接手段，或叫语 篇纽带，经常用的有（logical）逻辑、 （grammatical）语法和（semantic）语义三方 面的连接词（connectors）。 Vocabulary and Sentence Structure指的 是文章的语言表达。5分或5分以下的作文一般语 法错误较多。6分作文则一般没有致命的语法错误， 用词和句子基本准确。而7分以上的作文用词丰富 （Variety）、句子结构复杂（Complexity）。
? Task 2（议论文）的三方面评分标准是： Arguments, Ideas and Evidence （论证，论点和论据）； Communicative Quality（交流质量）； Vocabulary and Sentence Structure（词汇与句子结构）。 Arguments, Ideas and evidence涉及对于议论文的内容要求。具 体说来，应该是内容切题，论据合理，论证 充分。
一、任务完成情况（Task Response） ? 内容是否切题（Content） 找准topic and topic questions ? 立场是否鲜明并有效阐释（Position） a)主题句topic sentence 放在文章首段，开明见山表明立场，只能1个 b)论点main ideas 放在中间段首句，论点须有2个以上 c)论据supporting points 放在论点后，包括证据evidence,例子examples等
? 结构是否有逻辑性（Structure） a)引言introduction 涵盖主题、写作任务和主题句 b)主体body 包括足够的论点、论据 c)结论conclusion 重申观点、提出建议或者展望未来
二、连贯与衔接（Coherence and Cohesion） ? 文章段与段，句与句之间的衔接 ? 段落之间的“转”“承”“启”“合” a)表开始：first of all, in the first place, at the very beginning, to begin with, currently, at present, for one thing等 b)表承接：besides, further more, in addition, moreover, what?s more, meanwhile, apart from, as well as, similarly, in the same way
c)表转折：however, whereas, while, on the contrary, in contrast, on the other hand d)表结论：in conclusion, in brief, in short, to sum up, ultimately, overall e)表原因：because(of), accordingly, due to, owing to, for this reason, since, as result, as a consequence f)表观点：in my opinion, personally, from my viewpoint, it seems to me, it is clear to me that, as far as I am concerned
g)表举例说明：for example,for instance, as follows, such as, that is to say, namely, just as, in particular h) 表让步：althouth, in spite of, despite of, despite the fact that, regardless of
三、词汇资源（Lexical Resources） ? 词汇多少不能决定文章好坏，但用词精确性 可以加分 a)用词难度的拔高 b)近义词多种表达上提升
四、语法多样性与准确性（Grammatical Range and Accuracy） ? 句子结构的准确性（主谓一致/句子平衡） ? 句子结构的丰富性（不同句式/不重复） ? 句子长度的复杂性（长短结合） ? 用语的逻辑性与正式性（连接与用语）
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 科技发展主题 The development of science 2 政府的职能和职责 About government 常见考点：宏观政府职能？具体职能？ 3 环境污染和保护 The environmental protection 常见考点：狭义环保+广义环保（动物） 4 当代社会问题 People in modern society 常考考点：经济类，工作类，家庭类…
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
5 文化和艺术 Cultures and arts 6 教育问题 Education 特点：雅思大作文最常考类 7 新闻传媒和广告 News ，media and advertisements 8 道德和犯罪 Moral and crime 9 健康、医学、心理、及其他 Health , medicine, psychology and other topics
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Argumentation : do agree or disagree . 特点：同意、不同意 Options: Which you prefer Which major/better /most / best ….. 二选一、多选一 Discussion & report：what reasons / causes + recommendations / solutions 特点：提出 原因与方法建议 Pros and cons : discuss Advantages and disadvantages. Discuss Both views (and your own opinion). 讨论 优缺点、相互对立的两个观点 Others其它
? ? ? ?
Argumentation： do you agree or disagree ? To what extent do you agree or disagree ? Do you think it is a good idea ?
? Discussion & report： ? What do you think are the reasons / causes of this ? ? What solutions / recommendations can you offer / suggest ?
Pros and cons : ? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. ? Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
? Options: ? which do you prefer? ? Which do you think to be the major/better /most / best …..
? 问题类型： To what extent do you agree or disagree ? 例：剑五 1 ? Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. ? To what extent do you agree or disagree?
? 写作方法：五段法 ? 第一段：开场——论题（正反观点）+自己 观点（同意 /不同意) ? 第二段：立论理由一（最大/最重要/最显著 的理由） ? 第三段：立论理由二 （次大的理由） ? 第四段：驳论段——反方观点+反驳理由 ? 第五段：结论----重申论点+结语(可选)
? 写作方法：五段法 ? 第一段：开场——论题（正反观点）+自己 观点(偏重部分同意) ? 第二段：同意理由一（最大/最重要/最显著 的理由） ? 第三段：同意理由二 （次大的理由） ? 第四段：驳论段——但是该观点中哪些地方 不同意，及其理由 ? 第五段：结论----重申论点+结语(可选)
? 写作方法：五段法 ? 第一段：开场——论题（正反观点）+自己观 点(偏重部分不同意) ? 第二段：不同意理由一（最大/最重要/最显著 的理由） ? 第三段：不同意理由二 （次大的理由） ? 第四段：让步段——但是该观点里哪些地方同 意，及其理由 ? 第五段：结论----重申论点+结语(可选)
Discussion & Report
? 问题类型: ? What do you think are the causes of this ? ? 写作结构: 四/五段法 ? 第一段：开场--论题+（原因的概括说明） ? 第二段：最主要、重要原因 ? 第三段：次主要、重要原因 ? 第四段：方法建议（可选、略写）+结语
Discussion & Report
? ? ? ? ? ? ? What solutions can you offer / suggest ? 写作结构: 四/五段法 第一段：开场--论题+（方法建议概括说明） 第二段：原因(可选、略写) 第三段：方法建议1 第四段：方法建议2 第五段：结语
Discussion & Report
? 问题类型：What do you think are the causes of this ? and what solutions can you offer ？ 剑四 4 ? In many countries schools have severe problems with student behavior. What do you think are the causes of this ? and what solutions can you offer ？
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 提示：原因不能略写：可以使用的两种结构。 结构一: 四/五段法 第一段：开场--论题 第二段：最主要、重要原因 第三段：次主要、重要原因 第四段：方法建议 第五段：结语（或合为一段写）
? 第一段：开场--论题 ? 第二段：原因(至少两点) ? 第三段：方法建议（至少两点） ? 第四段：结语
? 注： P 169 考官例文，一个原因
Pros and cons
? 问题类型： Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. 剑五 2 ? In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies. ? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.
? ? ? ? ? 写作方法： 第一段：论题 第二段：优点 第三段：缺点 第四段：总结+自己观点（可选）
Pros and cons
? 问题类型： Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. 剑五 3 ? Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged. Others believe that children who are taught to cooperate rather than compete become more useful adults. ? Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
? 第一段：论题 ? 第二段：一方观点（优缺点/合理不合理之处 /原因结果/例子） ? 第三段：另一方观点（优缺点/合理不合理之 处/原因结果/例子） ? 第四段：自己观点（原因） ? 第五段：总结 ? 问题：此类题目中 自己观点可否折中，或提 出与两者都不同的新观点？注意按照自己的 观点选择论述侧重点。
? 问题类型： Which do you prefer？ ? Which do you think to be the major/better /most / best ….. ? 剑五 4 ? Research indicates that characteristics we are born with have much more influence on our personality and development than any experiences we may have in our life. ? Which do you think to be the major influence ?
写作方法一（二选一）：四段法/五段法 第一段：论题+自己观点（选择） 第二段：原因一：选A的最主要原因 第三段：原因二：选A的次主要原因 第四段：原因三：不选B的原因（可先分析 B的好处再写其缺点） ? 第五段：结尾 ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? 写作方法二（多选一）：四/五段法 第一段：论题+自己观点（选择） 第二段：原因一：选A的最主要原因 第三段：原因二：选A的次主要原因 第四段：原因三：不选BCD的原因（同上） 第五段：结尾
? Children who grow up in families which are short of money are better prepared to deal with the problems of adult life than children who are brought up by wealthy parents. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
? Some feel that the children of low income families are better equipped to deal with difficulties posed by the ?real world? when they grow up and they also believe the privileged children of wealthy families are less fit to deal with these difficulties . In my view ，the implications and veracity of this argument seem selfevident, but in fact require closer examination.
? Nowadays, more and more parents begin to send their children abroad to study. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this.
?It is certainly true to claim that studying overseas has its merits，but it is not without problems.
? 开场要做什么？ ? （1）交代问题、背景（直接点出论题 / 把 论题分为正反两方面叙述）不能照抄原题 ? （2）提出总论点：回答问题 / 做出选择 / 提出自己观点（清晰鲜明性）
? 开头提出论点的方法： ? 强化教材：P 77-79
? 特殊选择类 ? compare the advantages and disadvantages of three of the following as media for communicating information. state which you consider to be the most effective. ? comics ? books ? radio ? television ? film ? theatre
A common opening
? Today, there are so many methods of communicating information, some people prefer comics, some prefer films and theatres. As far as I am concerned, books, radios and televisions are the effective ones, but if I have to choose a most effective one, I would choose the TV.
A better one
? Nowadays, there are a great many methods of communicating information, some people prefer comics because they think it is interesting, some prefer films and theatres because they give you a different feeling. however, when speaking of efficiency, books, radios and televisions become the choice, and if the most effective one has to be chosen, TV would definitely be the option.
? Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Information Age，that’s what we human beings have gone through with the flow of history. Today we live in a world overflowing with all kinds of information. As for the means of communicating information, books, radios and TVs are generally deemed to be the most effective contributors to the spreading of knowledge and data. However, only the television would be qualified to become the diamonds on the crown.
模版一 ? When asked about_______, quite a few people claim that______, but other people consider _____ as_____.
? 剑五 1 ? Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. ? To what extent do you agree or disagree?
?when asked about the issue of gender equality in academic institutions, quite a few people claim that equal numbers of male and female students should be admitted to every subject, but other people
consider such view unpractical.
剑四 test1 模版开头
? Faced with countless media of information age, quite a few people claim that the book should be the most effective tool, but other people consider the radio as the obvious winner. In my view, when it comes to the efficiency of communicating information, nothing beats the television.
What is an introduction ?
1.Provide the reader with the topic and purpose of the essay. 2.Attract the audience?s interest into the topic. 3.Offers a plan for the following argument.
How to write introduction
1 Background information 2 Issue: can be a question or a statement 3 Thesis statement: most important sentence
Examples about the background sentence
1.As one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century _________has a wide application in all aspects of our lives. 物 2. In recent years, an increasing number of people have begun to challenge against the existing practice of ________________. They argue that ______________. 事
1 Along with the steady growth in the country’s economy as well as the people’s living standard, the rhythm of people’s living is speeding up and a lot of changes have taken place in their daily life. 人
2 Along with the steady growth in the country’s economy as well as the people’s living standard, people attach more importance to _____.人，事
Along with the development of society, //increasingly rapid economic globalization and urbanization, more and more problems are brought to our attention,one of which is that____________报告
plays the dual role of
? setting the theme of your essay ? engaging the reader
What is a thesis statement ?
? the main idea of the essay
? Not a factual statement, but a claim that has to be proven throughout the essay
What is a thesis statement ?
1.The structure of a thesis statement? ?debatable ?Sth that can be viewed from more than one angle
1. More than 50% of traffic deaths are alcohol-related Fact? can not be debated 2. I hate the taste of alcohol personal feelings? can not be debated 3. Our country should have a drinking age. ?debatable
Try to be diplomatic
1. Use less words like No, all, always, Never
2. Use more words like: major, main, mainly, at least, probably, it is likely that 3. should ? It is/would be wise for.. to… It is urgent// high time to…
Avoid some Chinese way
1 Any reasonable person would agree that…… 2 Any fool can plainly see… 3 Even a five-year-old child knows… 4 Undoubtedly, or Certainly, 5 It is obvious that…
What is a thesis statement ?
How to introduce your opinion?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I believe… In my opinion,… I would argue that… I tend to maintain that… It seems to me that … although I am no expert, it seems to me that… 6. I propose that… 7. There is plentiful evidence to suggest that…
A good way to write
1. Divide thesis statement into two or three parts. 2. First state the subject and then presents the supports by using: because, for, since, as, due to , in, in that
A. more orderly and manageable. B. Supporting the thought
1. Capital punishment should be abolished. ?Capital punishment should be abolished not only because it deprives another person of life but also because it does not stop crime.
Pollution constitutes a problem to humanity. ?Air and water pollution … serious
1. It makes sense to attend a junior college, for the quality of institution is high and the cost is low.
2. The profession of law demands three important qualities of mind : the ability to analyze ideas, an interest in people, and patience with details.
Examples on expressing opinions
单边倒 1. I would state my objection to this issue after analyzing the following three reasons.
（不同意） 2.But if one has considered the following perspectives, he could most probably agree with the title statement as I do.
More examples on expressing your opinions
侧重一边 1. From my point of view, it is more advisable to choose A than to choose B.侧outweigh
2. Though A has some advantages and it is popular to some extent, B will continue to play a more important role and will not fade out in people’s life.侧重
More examples on expressing your opinions
双方面 1.As to whether it is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different attitudes. （两边） 2.Before giving my opinion, I think it is important to look at the argument on both sides.
How to write introduction
1．对立法 2．现象法 3. 比较法 4．观点法 5．引用法 6, 故事法 7, 问题法
When asked about…., the majority of /many people believe that…. However/but/nevertheless, …. When asked about the biggest problem today, many people say that it is the serious energy crisis. They are afraid that the world will soon run out of oil and run short of food. However, I hold an optimistic view: I just regard it as a natural result of the economic development and believe it will be only solved with further advances in economy and technology.
There is a controversy nowadays about the problem of….Those who object to it believe that……But people who are in favor of…,on the other hand, maintain that… There is a general debate on the campus today over the phenomenon of college students? doing a part-time job. Those who object to it maintain that students should not spend their precious time in this way. But people who advocate it, on the other hand, claim that, by taking a major-related part-time job or summer job, students cannot only improve their academic studies, but gain much experience, which they will never be able to get from the textbooks. For my part, I agree to the latter opinion due to the following three reasons.
? It is commonly believed that….But I doubt it is a satisfactory explanation/solution. ? When it comes to…,the opposition voice point to drawbacks….Supporters, on the other hand, contend that… ? Many people believe that….However, there is little evidence / it is questioned / doubted that…
? ? ? Supporter---opponent Opposition voice---supportive opinion People who advocate/favor---people who oppose to/object to
? There is some agreement nowadays that reading is not as necessary as it once was. Radio and especially television have taken over many of the functions served by print. Admittedly, television serves some of these functions extremely well; the visual communication of news events, for example, has enormous impact. But it may be seriously questioned whether the advent of modern communications media has much enhanced our intellectual skills.
? There are many different opinions on the best way to reduce crime. The traditional solution is to be hard on criminals and put them in prison for a very long time. An opposing view is expressed by people with more modern ideas. They think that education and community work are the longterm solutions to cutting crime. So who is right - the traditionalists or the modernists?
In recent years, many countries/people have faced/seen /troubled with/experienced /witnessed /undergone the serious problem of/(acute shortage of/alarming increase in)…
Drug abuse among young people has become more and more prevalent in recent years, which pose a lethal threat to the well-being of the society and families as a whole. What the reasons are for this and what can be done to combat it have aroused deep concern.
A person living in the twenty-first century has seen many changes take place in almost all areas of human life. Some people are excited by the challenges that these changes offer; others long to return to the simpler, less automated life style of the past. Living in the twenty-first century has certain advantages, such as a higher standard of living, but it also has some disadvantages, such as a polluted environment, the depersonalization of human relationships, and the weakening of spiritual values.
There is a growing tendency (to /in/that)… general belief (in/ that)… nation-wide recognition (of/ that)… general awareness (of/ that)… deep concern (over/for/that)… great demand for… growing enthusiasm for (Nowadays/currently/recently)
There is a growing concern over the heavy burden, both academic and psychological, that our children have to bear.
? A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the wealthy and poor is far too great for any government. In this essay, I will argue that all who can afford it should be insured, but free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so.
? Television is the most popular form of entertainment in many households. People of all ages use this medium to entertain themselves for an average of four hours a day. Thus, television has had a tremendous influence on its viewers, especially children. Scientists now say that children can be adversely affected by constantly watching television. This is due to the fact that they participate less in physical activities, spend less time reading and studying, and see a world of violence that affect their own feelings of security.
? Metropolitan city is full of charm and scenic beauty, so visitors from around the world come to enjoy its famous theaters, museums, countless ethnic restaurants, and scenic wonders. Although metropolitan city seems like a paradise, it is not, for the city has several serious problems: poor public transportation, congested streets, and expensive housing.
For years/until recently….had been (seen /viewed/regarded) as… But (that is changing now/people are taking a fresh look at it). With the (growing)( demand for/interest in/concern over)…, people….
For years, women?s domain have been considered in the kitchen and laundry. But that is changing now. With the growing awareness and constant fighting for equal rights, women are no longer regarded as the “weaker sex”.
? For centuries, people have fantasized that someday machines could have intelligence like mankind and work as faithful servants. Today this dream has come true in many fields thanks to rapid development in artificial intelligence research. Wonderful as this seems, machines have problems.
? Recent advances in the fields of medicine and biotechnology have brought about situations that could scarcely be imagined only a generation ago, such as exact duplicates of animals can be made. While such scientific achievements may ultimately benefit mankind, they have also created complex legal and ethical issues.
? I believe that child-rearing should be the responsibility of both parents and that, whilst the roles within that partnership may be different, they are nevertheless equal in importance. In some societies, it has been made easier over the years for single parents to raise children on their own. However, this does not mean that the traditional family, with both parents providing emotional support and rolemodels for their children, is not the most satisfactory way of bringing up children.
One of the great (men/writers/philosophers/scientists) (said/wrote/remarked) that….
One of the great ancient philosopher said, “give me a fish, and I will eat for a day; teach me to fish, and I will eat for a lifetime.” Such concept is still used by teachers in contemporary society and it convinced me that teachers could not be replaced by computer learning.
Once upon a time there was ….The (tale / story) may be (unbelievable / unreal), but (it still has a realistic significance / its underlying moral has continuing relevance) (today).
Once upon a time there was a girl called Cinderella, poor and disrespected by her stepmother and sisters, turned out to be the princess of the country. The tale may be unreal, but it still has a realistic significance. That is, do not look at a person only from his origin or appearance.
(Should / What)…? Opinions of / attitudes toward …vary widely. Some regard / view it as…, others argue / believe / claim that…. Should a scientist be responsible for his discoveries? Opinions vary widely/greatly. /Opinions are sharply divided./Opinions vary from person to person.To some people, the function of the scientist in society is to supply knowledge and he needn?t concern himself with the uses to which his knowledge or discoveries may be put. But others argue that a scientist has a duty to make sure that his discovery is used for, not against, society.
It is indeed the case that most countries have seen an increase in crime over recent years. The underlying causes of this rise are complex and not easily analyzed. What are some of the factors involved, and what action can governments take to prevent further increase?
? Will the Three Gorges Project prove to be a monumental achievement or nothing more than a giant fiasco? Opposition voices point to drawbacks such as the massive cost of the project, the need to relocate millions of local residents and destruction of the unique natural environment. Supporters, on the other hand, contend that the advantages, like improved flood control, increased power generation capacity, and desirable impact on economic development in related areas, will far outweigh the disadvantages. Time will tell and history will judge the wisdom of the project.
? Should cigarette smoking be prohibited?
Examples of an introduction
As economy and society develop,a ? Should growing number of people are cigarette paying attention to their health, so smoking be many of them deny smoking because prohibited? they believe it is harmful to their health. However, in my opinion, at ?No least two benefits can be gained in cigarette industry.
Examples of an introduction
As economy and society develop, competition has become increasingly fierce, so many people smoke to relieve the pressure from their work. But in my opinion, smoking is harmful at least in three aspects.
Should cigarette smoking be prohibited?