Unit 4 Pygmalion
As I was having breakfast this morning, I ①happened to be listening to Robert Schuller and thought I'd pass on to you his
closing illustration. To t
he best of
my recollection(记忆), it went something like this：
“I recently met a professor in physics who told me
that he taught at a university where he was told he needed to flunk 50% of his students each year. And each year,
that's exactly what happened—50% of his students failed.
Then he started attending a church where the pastor(牧师) kept preaching (布道) on being positive and believing in the best about others. The next fall, he began his class with the following statement, ?Class, in previous—years，50%
of the students have failed this course. But this year，I
have②a feeling that this year is going to be different. I've checked your records and you are a special group of students. So this year, I'm confident that none of you are
going to fail. And to that end, I'm going to help you succeed.?”
“At the end of that semester”， Schuller said, “not one student failed. One got a C＋ ，another one got a B－，but the
rest of his students got Bs and As—and the professor
concluded with this statement, ?And I didn't change my grading criteria one iota(一点点)．?” Incredible! You know that the intellectual capacity of students didn't change. You know that the content didn't
really change. And you know that the grading didn't change.
There was only one thing that changed. And that one thing was the attitude of the professor towards his students. Just by raising his expectations from failure to success, 50% of the
students who would have failed in previous years didn't. That is simply incredible. But it happens all the time. The most famous experiment about this in education happened in the 1960's in San
Francisco and you can read about it in “Pygmalion in the
Classroom”. In that study, a normal distribution (正态分布) of students increased their IQs by 15 to 30 points in one year simply because the teachers believed they were the best teachers and that they were given the best students(neither
of which was true)．Expectations drive so much③of what
happens around us. So please, never underestimate the power of your
expectations—on the people around you—or on yourself! In
fact, why don't you raise them right now？You just might be
surprised by the difference! Ⅰ.阅读短文，判断正(T)误(F) 1．The students improve so much because the professor raised his expectations from failure to success. ( )
2. 50% of Schuller's students failed in previous exams. (
3．If you underestimate yourself, that means you don't think you are able to succeed according to the last paragraph.
4．The passage is written to tell us how the professor encouraged his students to succeed. 答案 1.T 2. F 3. T 4.F
I________ ________ ________out that day.
2．他告诉了我们他从单车上摔下来这一真相。 He told us________ ________ ________he fell down from his bike this afternoon. 3．这本新书是关于天宫一号号航天飞船是如何升入太空 的。 The new book is________ ________Tiangong I spaceship was sent up into space.
1.happened to be
2.the truth that
Period 1 Warming Up,Pre-reading & Reading
1．________v. to decide what group something belongs to 2．________n. something that you say when you express an opinion or say what you have noticed 3．________v. to say very strongly that you do not approve of something or someone 4．________adj. old and often valuable 5．________v. to pause before saying or doing something
because you are nervous or not sure
6．________adj. very bright and strong, extremely clever or
skilful 7．________v. to be disloyal to someone who trusts you or your country, company etc. 8．________adj. better, more powerful, more effective etc. than a similar person or thing. 9．________v. to steal money or property from a person, bank etc.
10．________adj. of excellent quality, being attractive in a
simple traditional way 答案 1.classify 2.remark 3.condemn 4.antique
5．hesitate 6.brilliant 7.betray
3．____________(把某人)改变或冒充成…… 4．____________就……来说；从……角度 5．____________震惊；惊讶 6．make one's acquaintance____________ 7．in disguise____________ 8．take... for____________ 9．take down____________
3.pass...off as 9.写下，记下
4．in terms of
1．While watching，he makes notes. [信息提取] 略句。 [例句仿写] 过马路时，小心过路车辆。 ________ ________the street，look out for cars passing by. 2．Will that be of any use to you? while watching...为while he was watching的省
be of any use...有用处。be of＋抽象名词＝be＋
抽象名词的同源形容词。 ________ ________ ________ ________ ________for college students to master a foreign language.
3．What if I was ? [信息提取] what if... 为省略句。原句为：What if l was born in...？意为“如果……又怎么样？”
2.It is of great importance
3．What if he doesn't agree?
Ⅳ.预读理解 1. Fast Reading: Scan the text and choose the best answers according to the text
(1)This text is mainly about the first experience of Eliza
meeting with________． A．Professor Higgins
C．Professor Higgins and Colonel Pickering D．a gentleman
(2)Eliza greeted to the gentleman in order to________．
A．ask him to buy some flowers from her B．talk with him
C．ask him to teach her
D．beg some money from him (3)Why Eliza began to cry？Because________． A．she thought Professor Higgins would arrest him B．the gentleman didn't give her some money
C．Pickering beat and scolded her
D．there was no reason
(4)Professor Higgins believed that he could judge a person
A．his appearance C．his conversation B．his action D．his manners
(5)From the text, we can infer that Professor Higgins is a man described below EXCEPT________．
A．he doesn't care about money
B．he is an expert in phonetics C．he is proud
D．he is greedy 答案 (1)C (2)A (3)A
2．Careful Reading: Read the text carefully and answer the following questions Character Position in society Evidence in the play
Behaviour：(1)________to people of higher class Lower class Language: calls gentleman “sir” and “(2)________”(or captain) which is a compliment”
Behaviour：(3)________to lower class；(4)________to same or upper class Language: calls Eliza“(5)________” and Pickering“(6)____”
续表 Behaviour: generally confident and(7)________； but(8)________ Eliza Upper Language: prepared to begin a(9) class ________with Henry, whom he does not know; generous with praise to him
(5)you silly girl (9)conversation
(6)my dear man
This is a new adaptation for radio of Jane Austen's well－
known novel. 这是一本专为电台播出新改写的简· 奥斯汀的著名小说。 The play is original; not an adaptation. 这部剧是原创的，不是改编的。 His quick adaptation to the new environment is admirable. 他迅速适应新环境的能力令人钦佩。
(2)adapt v. adapt to adapt from adapt oneself to
使适应；改编 适应 根据……改编/改写 使自己适应……
adapt sth for sth
Gradually they adapted to a university study. 他们逐渐地适应了大学的学习。 The opera was mainly adapted from local music. 这部歌剧主要根据当地音乐改编。 She found it difficult to adapt herself to the life in a foreign country.她感到难以适应国外的生活。 Do you need someone who is friendly，outgoing，
adaptable，hardworking and dedicated?
①I suggested she should learn________ ________ ________ ________her new campus life. 我建议她要学会很快适应新的校园生活。 ②I bought my son________ ________for children of a play by
我给我儿子买了为儿童改编的莎士比亚剧本。 ③That article________ ________ ________a song. 这篇文章是从一首歌改写而成的。 ④Everybody has to________ ________a difficult situation in his life. 每个人一生中都必须适应困难的局面。
①to adapt herself to
③is adapted from
He recommended me a classic book on Buddhism. 他向我推荐了一本有关佛教的经典名著。 The temple has been considered an example of classic design.人们认为这座神庙是古典式设计的范例。 He likes pop; he doesn't care for classic music. 他喜欢流行歌曲，不喜欢古典音乐。 (2)n.古典作品，杰作；第一流艺术家 The football match was a classic. 那场(足球)比赛堪称典范。 Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities is a literary classic. 狄更斯的《双城记》是文学名著。
①War and Peace is a literary classic.
art. ③She has a taste for classic music. 答案 ①名著 ②最优秀的 ③古典的
②The museum is showing many classic works of
3．hesitate vt. &vi. (1) 犹豫；踌躇 He did not hesitate to ask her to sit beside him. 他毫不犹豫地请她坐在他身旁。 Even in the face of death he didn't hesitate. 纵然面临死亡，他依然毫不犹豫。 The shy girl hesitated before she told the handsome boy
that she liked him.
(2)不愿；不欲 She hesitated to hurt the child's feelings.
I always hesitate to advise my friends on what to read. 我总是不大愿意指点我的朋友们该看些什么书。 If you have any questions，don't hesitate to ask me. 如果你有什么问题，尽管问我。
(1)hesitate to do sth
hesitate about/at/in/ over doing sth
(2) hesitation n. have no hesitation in… without hesitation
犹豫；踌躇 在……毫不犹豫 毫不犹豫地
Do you still hesitate about buying a car? 对于买车的事你还犹豫不决吗？ I have no hesitation in my account number and password to Xiao Yuer. 我毫不犹豫的把我的帐号和密码给了小鱼儿。 She accepted this job offer without hesitation. 她毫不犹豫地接受了这份工作。
①We________ ________ ________ ________accepting your
most generous offer. 我们十分乐意接受最慷慨的捐赠。 ②He gave the correct answer________ ________． 他不假思索地给出了正确答案。 ③She did not________ ________ ________ ________． 他毫不迟疑地采取了行动。 ④I________ ________taking his side until I know the whole story. 我在知道这事以前犹豫是否支持他。 答案 ①have no hesitation in ②without hesitation
③hesitate to take action
The ancients were mistaken in their belief that the earth
was flat.古代人错误地认为地球是扁平的。 I always took him for an honest man，but it appears that I was mistaken in him. 我总把他当老实人，但看来我看错了人。
If I'm not mistaken，she's a French.
(1)be mistaken in(doing) sth
be mistaken about...
(2)mistake n. by mistake make a mistake
错误 vt.弄错，误会mistake ... for… 把……错当成…… 错误地；弄错地 犯错误
make a mistake about
He is mistaken about the film time.
他弄错电影时间了。 We often mistake her for her twin sister. 我们常常误以为她是她的双胞胎姐姐。 Who took my bag away by mistake?
No one wants a pilot to make a mistake. 没人希望飞行员犯错误。
【单项填空】 ① Betty advised me to label our luggage carefully in case it gets________in transit.
免运输中放错位置。mislay意为“把……放错地方”； misuse意为“错用滥用”； mishandle意为“瞎弄， 胡乱操
②The statue would be perfect but for a few small________
in its base. A．mistakes B．weakness
flaw“缺陷， 瑕疵， 裂痕”。 mistake和error强调的 C
③I hope you will never fall into that________．
“失误，(行为，信仰的)错误”，fall into error意为“误入歧 途”；mistake意为“错误，过失；误解”；fault 意为“缺
5．classify vt.分类；归类；编排 Biologists classify animals and plants into groups. 生物学家把动植物归入不同的群体。 For convenience, we may classify the students into four groups.
We usually classify types of character as good or bad. 我们通常把(人的)性格之类型分为善与恶。
classify...as (2)classified adj. classification n.
把……归类为 分类的，分等级的 分类，分级
classify sth by/according to 根据……分类
Workers in the post office classify letters according to the zip code. 邮局里的工作人员根据邮政编码将信件分类。 I'm looking for the classified section. Have you seen it? 我正在找分类广告栏，你见到了吗？
①Generally speaking, ceramics product can________ ________ ________two categories: practical and artistic.
品。 ②The books in the library________ ________ ________ subject. 图书馆的书是按科目分类的。
①be classified into
②are classified by
It would be rude to remark on her appearance. 谈论她的容貌是不礼貌的。 The editor remarked that that article was well written. 编者评论说那篇文章写得很好。 I remarked the tense atmosphere as soon as I entered the room.我一走进房间，就觉察到了紧张的气氛。 (2)n. 评论；短评 They made rude remarks about her appearance. 他们对她的外表横加粗暴的评论。 I didn't see the point of his last remark.
remark that... make a remark on/upon/about...
make the remark that...
You might engage in small talk and make a remark about the weather，your job or current events.
【完成句子】 ①Every time I________ ________ ________，you get upset.
②Everyone________ ________his absence loudly. 人人都在高声谈论他的缺席。
①make a remark
7．betray vt. 背叛(某人)；出卖(国家，朋友)；给……泄露秘 密 As long as you don't betray me, I'll do whatever you ask
me to (do).
只要你不出卖我，要我做什么我都愿意。 People often say the right words，but their eyes betray their true feelings.人们通常嘴里说着好听的话，可眼睛里 透露出真实的感受。
Her red face betrayed her nervousness.
(1)betray...to．.. betray oneself (2)betrayer n. betrayal n. an act of betrayal
出卖(国家，朋友)给…… 无意中露出本性 背叛者，告密者 背叛，卖国 背叛行为
He shouldn't betray his country to the enemy. 他不该投敌叛国。 The officer betrayed the secret to his friends. 那军官把秘密向朋友泄露了。 When the time is right，the betrayer will become the betrayed. 当时机到来，背叛者将成为被背叛的人。
①He would suffer death rather than betray the secret. ________
②That man is capable of betraying his friends.________
③Asking questions would betray my ignorance.________ ④We don't need no betrayers. 答案 ①泄露 ②出卖 ③暴露 ④背叛者 ________
8．condemn vt. 责难；责备；谴责某人；判处……有罪 If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn others. 批评中长大的孩子，责难他人。 We condemn his foolish behaviour.
His bad leg condemned him to a wheelchair. 他的残腿迫使坐在轮椅上。
(1)condemn sb/sth as
condemn sb to sth
condemn sb for condemn sb to do sth
因……而谴责某人 使某人注定做某事，判 处某人做某事
be condemned/sentenced to death 被判处死刑 (2)condemnation n. 责难；判罪
We don't condemn it as immature and underdeveloped. 我们并不指责它不够成熟，长得不够快。
I condemn you to hell!
我判你下地狱！ The judge condemned the criminal to ten years in prison. 法官判处罪犯十年徒刑。
①The criminal________ ________ ________ ________. 那个罪犯被判处死刑。
②We________ ________ ________his bad conduct.
我们因为他行为不良而责备他。 ③This decision________ ________ ________years of regret. 这个决定使她后悔了好几年。
①was condemned to death
②condemned him for
③condemned her to
9．acquaintance n．[U]相识；熟悉；熟知 n．[C]相识的 人，熟人 I made his acquaintance at a party.
I have some acquaintance with French，but I do not know it well.
She is not my friend，but only an acquaintance. 她并不算是我朋友，只是相识而已。
make one's acquaintance＝ make the acquaintance of sb 结识某人 have no acquaintance with gain acquaintance with 不熟悉；不了解 得以熟知
cut/drop one's acquaintance with
have a nodding/bowing acquaintance with
I'm fortunate enough today to have made the acquaintance of a wellknown teacher. 今天我有幸拜认了一位名师。
I have only a nodding acquaintance with him. He and I are
only nodding acquaintances. 我和他只是点头之交。
①I________ ________ ________ ________Russian.
我懂一点俄语。 ②I'm pleased________ ________ ________ ________． 我非常高兴结识你。 答案 ①have some acquaintance with ②to make your
10. fortune n. [U]命运；运气；机会； [C]财产；财富
These two brothers decided to go to America to try their
fortunes.这兄弟俩决定去美国碰碰运气。 She made a fortune，selling her paintings. 她把自己的画卖了，发了一笔财。 The man's fortune will be equally divided for his four
(1)try one?s fortune make a fortune seek one's fortune
碰运气 发财 外出找出路
be fortunate to do sth/in doing sth 幸运做某事
用 unfortunately，fortunately，fortune或 fortunate填空
①The next morning I was to start for the West to make my________．
②I've been________enough to have such a wonderful family.
③________，when I fell in the river，I didn't have the camera along. ④________，the engine is beyond repair and requires a replacement.
⑤I wish grandpa a peaceful life in his late years，and a
good________． 答案 ①fortune ②fortunate ⑤fortune
1. hand over移交；让与；交给某人照料 When you move out of the room，you should hand over
the door key to me.
你搬出房间时，要把房间钥匙交给我。 She resigned and handed over to one of her younger colleagues.她辞职了，由一位比她年轻的同事接任。 He wants to hand over his business to his daughter when he gets old.他想老了以后把生意交给女儿。
hand on hands up
We should hand down the good tradition from generation
to generation. 我们应当把优良传统一代代传下去。 We shall hand out these written statements to the reporters.
The government has taken measures to________the high prices of daily goods to keep the market stable. (2011· 湖北，29) A．take down B．bring down
以保持市场稳定。take down写下，记下；bring down降 低，减少；hand down把……传下去；宣布；tear down拆 除。根据句意可知应选B项。 答案 B
介、副词填空 ①Hand________the pencils to everyone in the class.
②The captain was unwilling to hand________the
command of his ship. ③I'll hand________the book from the top shelf to you. ④Hands________before you answer. ⑤Please hand________the magazine to your friends. 答案 ①out ②over ③down ④up ⑤on
2．pass...off as装作，假装，改变成，冒充成 The actress was nearly 50，but she could pass herself off
as only 40.
那位女演员将近50岁了，但她可以冒充成40岁。 He escaped by passing himself off as a guard. 他冒充警卫逃走了。 He passed the glass off as diamonds and passed himself off as a doctor.他以玻璃冒充钻石并且自己冒充一个医生。
pass sth to sb
pass down/on... pass...on to pass by pass through
把……传给后世 把……传递给…… 走过；经过 通过；穿过
The house came to him when his parents passed away.
父母过世后，房子就归他了。 I pass by the post office every day on my way to school.
①I happened to pass________the grand theater and see
the poster. ②I was sorry to learn that his mother had passed________． ③She passed________a difficult period after her marriage
④They bought up pieces of old furniture and passed them________valuable antiques.
⑤Pass the book________me when you've finished it.
答案 ① by ②away ③through ④off as ⑤on to
Generally speaking, boys are more active than girls.
一般说来，男孩比女孩更活跃。 Generally speaking, one cannot administrate oneself. 一般来说，人不善于管理自己。
exactly speaking honestly speaking roadly speaking loosely speaking
确切地说 坦白说 广义地说 笼统地说
technically speaking strictly speaking comparatively speaking
从技术上来说 严格地说 相对地说
Exactly speaking, this room is three times the size of that one.准确地说，这个房间是那个房间的三倍大。 Strictly speaking, he is not a professional athlete.
①________，those who pay attention to physical exercise are in good health.
A．Generally speaking C．Strictly speaking 解析 B．Honestly speaking D．Exactly speaking
generally speaking一般来说；honestly speaking坦白说； strictly speaking严格说来；exactly speaking确切地说。 答案 A
②________，the plane will take off at 4：45 this afternoon. A．Generally speaking B．Honestly speaking
飞。 generally speaking一般来说；honestly speaking坦白
说；loosely speaking笼统地说；exactly speaking确切地
说。 答案 D
4．in terms of谈及，就……而言，在……方面，以……的 观点 In terms of money, he's quite rich, but not in terms of
就钱来说他很富有，但就幸福来说就不然了。 The job is great in terms of salary，but it has its disadvantages.就薪金而言，这个工作还是挺不错的，但 也有一些不利之处。 The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage/in percentage terms. 那些数字是以百分数表示的。
in need of in charge of in search of in hope of
需要 负责 搜寻 希望
in honor of
in favor of in spite of in case of in place of
有利于；赞成，支持 尽管 以防；万一 代替
in want of
The factory is in need of experienced workers. 这个工厂需要熟练工人。 Women marry men，in hope of changing them by time.
The students were in favor of reform. 学生们都赞成改革。
You aren't in charge of the whole universe but in charge of
【完成句子】 ①The building was________ ________ ________repair. 这座大楼需要维修了。
②We use chopsticks________ ________ ________knives
and forks. 我们用筷子代替刀叉。
③It is difficult to express it________ ________
________science. 要用科学的字眼来表达它是很困难的。 ④I am________ ________ ________stopping work now. 我赞成现在停止工作。
⑤________ ________ ________rain，the football match
will be put off. 如果下雨，足球比赛推迟举行。 答案 ①in need of ②in place of ③in terms of ④in favor of ⑤In case of
1．Will that be of any use to you？这点钱对你有用么？ be of any use...有用处。be of＋抽象名词＝be＋抽象名词 的同源形容词，“具有……特征/属性”，主要说明主语的
any，no，much等，of不能省略。be of use＝be useful。 I don't think the new book is of any use to me. 我觉得这本新书对我没有用处。 We hope this information may be of use to you.
be of great/little/no use
be of great /little/no value 非常有价值/几乎没有价值/没有 be of great /little/no importance
The suggestion given by him is of great/no use to us. 他提出的建议对我们很有用/没有用处。 The young man is of great importance in deciding the
future of his family.
I do think the old vase is very valuable to us. ＝I do think the old vase________ ________ ________
答案 is of great value
2．What if I was？如果我是又怎样呢？ what if... 为省略句。原句为：What if l was born in...？意 为“如果……又怎么样？”what if要是……又怎样；如 果……将会怎么样；如果……又怎样。
的情况。 What if the car breaks down? 如果汽车坏了怎么办？ What if we never see him again?
What if he comes back now? 如果他现在回来怎么办？
(2) 用于提建议。 What if I call tomorrow around ten? 明天我十点钟左右打电话怎么样？ What if we go and see a film tomorrow night?
what of it 那又怎么样呢
what for what?s up how come ... so what
为何目的；为什么 发生什么事了 为什么会， 怎么会呢 那又怎么样，那又有什么关系呢
Even if I miss the meeting，what of it?
How come they didn't buy the house? 他们为什么没买那套房子？ What about a trip to Lijiang tomorrow? 明天去丽江旅行怎么样？
①如果这是真的又该如何呢？ _______________________________________________ ②借点钱给我如何？ _______________________________________________
_______________________________________________ 答案 ①What if it is true? ②What about lending me some money? ③How come you look so tired?