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汽车专业英语(原书作者宋红英)第一~二章PPT课件


Automobile Structure

Unit one

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

/> I. Pre-questions

?Types of Modern Automobiles ?1)cars ?2)passenger cars ?3)trucks ?4)tractors and vehicle combination ?5)special type vehicle ?6)Self-dumping car ?7)farm vehicle ?8) off-road vehicle

Special vehicle car

Passenger Cars

Tractor

Truck

I. Pre-questions 2、with respect to engine arrangement and driving type engine arrangement and driving type front engine 、 front-wheel drive front engine 、 rear-wheel drive Rear engine、 rear-wheel drive diagram

I. Pre-questions

?Do you know who built the first car in the world and when?

?Karl Benz ?In 1886

I. Pre-questions
? How many main parts does the automobile consist of? 1-engine

2-chassis 3-body
4--electrical system

I. Pre-questions

?Which is called the “ heart” of automobile?
?An engine that is used to supply power for an automobile

?What is the chassis composed of?
?driving system, running gear, steering system and brake system.

I. Pre-questions
running gear Steering system

Brake Driving system system

I. Pre-questions

? What is the electrical system composed of? ?The electric system includes the battery, generator, starting system, ignition system, lighting system, horn system, radio and other devices.

I. Pre-questions ?What are the functions of the four systems? ?Driving system works by transmitting engine power to the driving wheels. ?Suspension system?s function is to increase strength and durability of components and to meet customers? requirements for riding comfort and driving safety. ?Steering system is used to control the driving direction of an automobile. ? Brake system is used to retard the motion of the vehicle.

II. Text Explanation

?In other words, any automobile is composed of the sections such as engine, chassis, body and electric system.
?In other words 换句话说 ?be composed of 由….组成 ? 译文:换句话说,任何一辆汽车都是由发动机、 底盘、车身和电器设备组成的。

II. Text Explanation

?In other words
? In other words, they remain relatively constant or static. 换句话说,它们相对的稳定、静止。 ? In other words, we have adhered to scientific socialism. 也就是说,我们坚持了科学社会主义。

?be composed of
? Navy must be composed of surface ship unit and submarine unit. ? 海军一定是由水面舰艇部队和潜艇部队组成。

II. Text Explanation

?The internal combustion engine burns fuel within the cylinders and converts the expanding force of the combustion or “explosion” into rotary force used to propel the vehicle. ?The internal combustion engine 内燃机 ?Convert …..into…..使转变, 转换... ?Propel vt.推进, 驱使 ?译文:内燃机在汽缸内燃烧燃料,然后把燃烧或者 “爆炸”所产生的膨胀力变成旋转力,用以推动车 辆前进。

II. Text Explanation

?Convert …..into….. ?They converted the garage into a theater. 他们将车库改成戏院。 ?convert water into ice. ?将水变成冰 ?converting feet into meters. ?将英尺换算成公尺

II. Text Explanation

? Brake system is a balanced set of mechanical and hydraulic devices used to retard the motion of the vehicle by means of friction. ? Hydraulic [hai?dr??lik] adj. 液压的, 水力的 ? Retard [ri?t??d] vt. 延迟, 使减速,阻碍 ? Friction [ ?frik??n] n.摩擦, 摩擦力
? 译文:制动系统是一套平衡的机械和液压设备, 它可通过摩擦来阻止车辆的运动。

II. Text Explanation
?by means of 用…..方式(方法),依靠
?They succeeded by means of perseverance. ?他们依靠坚忍不拔而获得成功。 ?He always goes to school by means of bike ?他总是骑自行车上学

II. Text Explanation
? In 1956, the No. 1 Auto Plant was established in Changchun, and turned out the first batch of liberation automobiles for our country. ? establish vt.建立, 设立, 确定 ? turned out vt. 生产, 起床, 翻出, 制造, 关掉 ? 译文:在1956年,一汽在长春成立了,并且为我 们国家生产出了第一批解放牌轿车。

II. Text Explanation
?turn out
?A vast crowd turned out to watch the match. ?大群的观众到场观看比赛。 ?If the day turns out wet we may have to change our plans. ?万一下雨的话,我们也许得改变计划。

III. Exercises
? Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? chassis ?底盘 ? driving system ?传动系统 ? internal combustion engine ?内燃机 ? steering system ?转向系统 ? braking system ?制动系统 ? clutch ?离合器 ? gearbox ?变速箱 ? universal joint ?万向节 ? propeller shaft ?驱动轴 ? generator ?发电机

III. Exercises
? Identify the English names of clutch according to the picture.
1 2 3 4

6

5

1-engine; 2-clutch; 3-gearbox; 4-propeller shaft; 5-differential; 6-rear axle

III. Exercises
?The motor vehicle engine is basically a device for converting the internal energy stored in its fuel into mechanical energy. It is classified as an internal combustion engine by virtue of this energy conversion taking place within the engine cylinders . Since the term ”energy” implies the capacity to perform work, the engine is thus able to propel the vehicle along the road and, within limits, overcome unwanted opposition to its motion arising from rolling friction and air drag. To facilitate this process the engine is combined with a transmission system.

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? In effect, the driving system works by transmitting engine power to the driving wheels. ? 实际上,传动系统的作用是将发动机的动力传递到驱动车轮。 ? The electric system supplies lighting and driving power for the automobile. ? 电气系统可为汽车提供照明和驱动的电力。 ? The body styling provides an attractive, colorful, modern appearance for the vehicle. ? 车身的式样为汽车提供了诱人的,多彩的,现代的外观形象。

III. Exercises
II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 汽车主要由四个部分组成,他们是:发动机、底盘、车 身和电气设备。 ? An automobile is generally composed of four sections such as engine,chassis, body and electrical system. ? 传动系由离合器、变速箱、传动轴、后桥、差速器、从 动轮组成。 ? The transmission system consists of clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, rear axle ,differential and the driving road wheels.。

III. Exercises
?气门机构的作用是及时地吸入新鲜的混合气和排 出废气 ?The valve gear provides timely admission of the fresh charge into the cylinders and exhaust of spent gases from them.

Specialized English for Automobile

Main Components of Engine

Unit 2-1

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

Ⅰ.Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions

The heart of automobile

I. Pre-questions

?What impression of the engine?

complicated

power

I. Pre-questions

?What are there types of the engine?
?electric motors, steam engines, and internal combustion engines ?What?s the internal combustion engine? ?burns fuel within the cylinders and converts the expanding force of the combustion into rotary force used to propel the vehicle.

Single-cylinder engine
cylinder piston Intake valve Exhaust valve Piston pin

Connecting rod

Timing gear

crankshaft Oil pipe

Oil pump

I. Pre-questions

?what is the power source of automobile and how to produce? Engine
Power is produced by the linear motion of a piston piston in a cylinder. piston pin The connecting rod connecting rod transmits the up-anddown motion of the piston to the crankshaft, which changes it into rotary motion.
crankshaft

I. Pre-questions

?The engine comprises two mechanism and five systems, what are they ?
? crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism, ? valve gear, ? cooling system, ? lubricating system, ? fuel system, ? starting system, ? ignition system

■ Valve gear

intake valve

exhaust valve

push rod

tappet

■ Connecting rod

timing gears

connecting rod

piston

crankshaft

flywheel

Engine cooling system

Engine lubricating system

Fuel supply system

Valve gear

I. Pre-questions
?What?s the function of the crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism?

? Its function is to convert heat energy into mechanical energy used to drive the vehicles.

II. Text Explanation

?The internal combustion engine, as its name indicates, burns fuel within the cylinders and converts the expanding force of the combustion into rotary force used to propel the vehicle.
?译文:内燃机,顾名思义,就是燃料在气缸内部 燃烧,并且把燃烧时的膨胀力转化为驱动车辆的 旋转力。

II. Text Explanation

? Of all automobile components, an automobile engine is the most complicated assembly with dominant effects on the function of an automobile. ? complicated [?k?mplikeitid] ? adj.复杂的, 难解的 ? dominance [?d?m?n?ns] n.优势, 统治 ? 译文:汽车发动机是一切汽车部件中结构最复杂, 对汽车功能起支配作用的一个总成。

II. Text Explanation

?Its function is to convert heat energy into mechanical energy used to drive the vehicles. ?Convert……into….. 转变;变换
?译文:它的作用就是将热能转换成机械能用来驱 动汽车 。

II. Text Explanation
? Convert…..into…. ? ①转变;变换 ? That building has been converted into a school. ? 那座楼房改成学校了。 ? ②兑换 ? I want to convert some Hong Kong dollars into American dollars. ? 我想把一些港元换成美元。 ? ③改变信仰、党派或意见等 ? She managed to convert him to her opinion. ? 她终于设法说服了他接受她的意见。

II. Text Explanation
?Power is produced by the linear motion of a piston in a cylinder.

? linear [? lini?] adj. 线的, 直线的, 线 性的 ? piston [? pist?n] n.活塞

II. Text Explanation
?The piston attached to the top of a connecting rod by a pin, called a piston pin or wrist pin.
? attach to v. 连接 ?connecting rod 连杆 ? piston pin = wrist pin

活塞销

II. Text Explanation
?The connecting rod transmits the up-anddown motion of the piston to the crankshaft, which changes it into rotary motion.
?transmit…to … 把…传到… ?which changes it into rotary motion 定语从句

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?柴油发动机 diesel engines ?水泵 water pump ?分电器 the ignition distributor ?油底壳 oil pan ?正时齿轮 timing gear crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism ?曲柄连杆机构 ?配气机构 valve gear ?燃油系统 fuel system ?排气管 exhaust pipe ?排气歧管 exhaust manifold

III. Exercises

? 1-cylinder head cover ? 2-piston ? 3-timing toothed belt ? 4-water pump ? 5-oil pan ? 6-oil pump ? 7-crankshaft ? 8-flywheel ? 9-distributor ? 10-valve

III. Exercises
? The crankshaft represents the final link in the conversion of reciprocating motion at the piston to one of rotation at the flywheel. In the cast of the multi-cylinder engine, the crankshaft has to control the relative motions of the pistons, while receiving their own impulses. A one-piece construction is most commonly used for the motor-vehicle crankshaft, which extends the whole length of the engine and must therefore possess considerable rigidity .

III. Exercises
?The timing-drive for the engine valve mechanism is taken from the front end of the crankshaft as is the pulley and belt drive for the engine auxiliaries, such as the cooling fan and the alternator for electrical system. attached to the rear end of the crankshaft is the engine flywheel .

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? 1.Engine is the power source of the automobile. Power is produced by the linear motion of a piston in a cylinder. ? 发动机是汽车的动力源.它通过汽缸内的活塞线性运动产生 的. ? 2.The fuel system works according to the requirements of the engine as it provides an air-fuel mixture which must be in proportion to the speed and load placed on the engine. ? 燃油系统的作用是根据发动机的转速和负荷提供一定比例 的可燃混合气以满足发动机的需求。

III. Exercises
?3.The valve gear provides timely admission of the fresh charge into the cylinders and exhaust of spent gases from them.
?配气机构机构可定时的将新鲜气体充入气缸,并 且将废气排放出去。

III. Exercises
II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.发动机主要有两大机构五大系统组成。 ? An engine is mainly composed of two mechanisms and five systems. ? 2.曲柄连杆机构主要包括机体组,活塞连杆组和曲轴飞 轮组。 ? The crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism mainly consists of the engine crankcase and cylinder block, the piston and connecting rod, the crankshaft and flywheel.

III. Exercises
? 3.水泵工作时,可以将冷却液在发动机水套中和散热器 之间来回流动。

?When revolving, the water pump circulates coolant between the engine water jackets and the radiator.

III. Exercises
? Principle of Four-stroke Engine

1、intake stroke 2、compress stroke 3、power stroke 4、exhaust stroke Intake
valve

Exhaust valve

Specialized English for Automobile

Cylinder Block and
Cylinder Head

Unit 2-2

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

Engine Body
The cylinder gasket cylinder head oil passage and water passage cylinder block crankcase

oil pan cylinder

I. Pre-questions

?What is the engine block comprised of?
?the cylinder section and the crankcase section the cylinder crankcase

I. Pre-questions

?How many types has the engine arrangement, what are they?

In-line

V-type

Horizontally opposed type

I. Pre-questions

?What?s the function and the material of the cylinder head? ?Function: Seal the top the cylinder and form the combustion chamber with the piston and the cylinder
?Material: grey iron or alloy iron aluminum

I. Pre-questions
pad

cylinder cover

to fit spark plug

cylinder head

cylinder gasket

I. Pre-questions

?What types of the combustion chambers are there?

wedge-shaped

basin-shaped

hemispherical

II. Text Explanation
?The engine block is the main supporting structure to which all other parts are attached directly or indirectly.
?attached [?? t? t?t] vt 附上...的 ?directly adv. 直接地 反义词 ?Indirectly adv. 间接地 ?译文:气缸体是主要的支承部件,它可以将其它 部件直接或间接的装配在上面。

II. Text Explanation
? The surfaces are machined to allow the pistons to move with minimum wear and friction. ? ? ? ? allow vt 允许,承认 allow sb. to do sth. allow doing sth. Friction [?frik??n] n. 摩擦, 摩擦力

? 译文:加工出的表面允许活塞在最小磨损和摩擦力下运 动。

II. Text Explanation
?Allow 使…成为可能,允许 ?近义词:permit ?The windfall allowed me to buy a house. ?这意外之财使我得以购置一幢房子。 ?Allow me to introduce myself. ?请允许我自我介绍一下。

II. Text Explanation
?With the increased concern for providing higher output and lower fuel consumption, car manufactures are trying to make the vehicle lighter. ?Concern vt.涉及, 关系到 n.关心, 关注
? concern for 对...的关心/忧虑 ? concern with 和...有关(一般用...+be concerned with...) ? consumption n. 消费, 消费量

?译文:随着对汽车产量和低燃耗的关注度越来越高, 汽车生产厂家尽量把汽车做的轻一些。

II. Text Explanation
? Concern vt. ? 1. (不用被动语态)关于 ? 2. 涉及,关系到;影响到 The letter is chiefly concerned with export commodities. 这封信主要是关于出口商品的。 The news concerns your brother. 这消息与你兄弟有关。 ? 3. 使担心;使不安 (+about/for) ? The boy's poor health concerned his parents. 那男孩健康状况不佳,使他的父母亲忧虑。 He is concerned for her safety. 他担心她的安全。 ? 4. 使关心(+about/with) ? He was very concerned about her. 他对她非常关心。

II. Text Explanation
?It should be paid attention to the direction when fixing. ?to是介词,所以后面接名词以及动名词. ?pay attention to sth. / doing sth.
? Please pay attention to taking care of your baby. ? 请注意照顾好你的小孩. ? 译文:应该注意装配时的方向。

II. Text Explanation Cylinder gasket
Function : fitted between the cylinder block and cylinder head to seal the area between them and prevent leakage of gas, oil and water . Pay attention to the direction when fixing

II. Text Explanation
?In order to make the aluminum stronger and less likely to warp, certain materials are added to the metal or a steel liner placed in the block.
?In order to 为了 ?We started early in order to arrive before dark. ?为了在天黑前到达,我们很早就动身了。

II. Text Explanation
? warp [w?:p] ? n. 弯曲, 歪曲 vt. 弄歪, 使翘曲 vi.变弯, 变歪 ? added to ? incresed(本身)增加 区别 ? added to(别人,别的东西)增加
? 译文:为了使铝制材料强度更高,尽可能的减少 弯曲变形,可加入一定的金属材料或者在缸体内 镶钢缸套。

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? cylinder block cylinder head oil pan cylinder gasket cylinder liner wedge-shaped combustion chamber basin-shaped combustion chamber in-line engines spark plugs injection ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 气缸体 气缸盖 油底壳 气缸垫 缸套 楔形燃烧室 盆形燃烧室 直列发动机 火花塞 喷油器

III. Exercises

1- cylinder head cover; 2-cylinder head; 3- cylinder gasket; 4-cylinder block; 5- oil pan

III. Exercises
?It has long since been established practice to combine the cylinder block and crankcase into a single unit, this generally being termed “monobloc” construction. The historical origins of this form of construction date back to the early 1920s, when there was a general trend towards simplification of the engine structure.

III. Exercises
?Until then the cylinder block and crankcase were produced as separate units, in cast iron and aluminum alloy respectively, and then bolted together . In relation to modern engine design, the monobloc construction provides a very necessary rigid foundation for the engine and reduces manufacturing costs.

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? 1.In order to make the aluminum stronger and less likely to warp, certain materials are added to the metal or a steel liner placed in the block. ? 为了使铝制缸体刚度更强和尽可能的减少磨损,可将一些 材料加入其中或者在缸体中安装缸套。 ? 2.The cylinder gasket?s function is to seal the area between them and prevent leakage of gas, oil and water. ? 气缸垫的作用就是密封缸盖与缸体之间的区域,避免漏气、 漏油和漏水。

III. Exercises
?3.The cylinders of multi-cylinder automotive engines are arranged in one of three ways.

?多缸发动机的气缸排列方式是这三种形式之一。

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.气缸垫安装时,要注意它的方向性。

?It should be paid attention to the direction when fixing the cylinder gasket .
? 2.铝制缸体为了提高它的刚度,常常要在气缸中安装缸 套。

?In order to make the aluminum stronger ,a steel liner often placed in the block. ?3.直列式是发动机中最简单的一种排列方式。 ?In-line engine is the simplest arrangement.

Specialized English for Automobile

Piston and Connecting Rod

Unit 2-3

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions

?what does the piston assembly consist of?
?It mainly consists of piston, piston rings, piston pin, and connecting rod.

I. Pre-questions
piston piston
piston rings rings piston piston pin piston pin

connecting rod connecting rod

Function?

I. Pre-questions

?Function:
?transmit the force of expansion to crankshaft through connecting rod ?Withstanding gas pressure characteristic light rigid

cylindrical shaped hollow

I. Pre-questions

cylindrical shaped hollow

I. Pre-questions

?What is the piston composed of?
?piston head, piston lands, piston skirt and piston pin hole.

I. Pre-questions

Components
piston top

piston head
piston pin hole

piston skirt

I. Pre-questions
? What?s the function of the connecting rod? ?to pass the reciprocating power of the piston to the crankshaft. Small end
Connecting rod bushing Connecting rod

Big end Connecting rod half shells
Connecting rod cap

II. Text Explanation
?To withstand the heat of the combustion chamber, the piston must be strong. ?Withstand vt.抵挡,经受住 ?the combustion chamber 燃烧室 ? ?译文:活塞必须要坚固才能承受燃烧室的热量。

II. Text Explanation
?In some application, a narrow groove is cut into the piston above the top ring to serve as a “heat dam” to reduce the amount of heat reaching the top ring.
?groove [gr??v ] n. 凹槽 ?heat dam 隔热槽 ?译文:在有些结构中,为了减少传到顶部活塞环 的热量,在活塞环的上部切割出一个很窄的环槽, 叫做“隔热槽”。

II. Text Explanation
?cut into v 减少,侵犯, 打断
?Don't cut into the story. ? 不要打断故事。 ?The knife easily cut into the cake. ?刀一下子就切进了蛋糕。 ?The other house got old and shabby, and that cut into the value. ?周围的房子都破旧不堪, 这使得他房子的价值降低了。

II. Text Explanation
?serve as vt. 担任(充当,起...的作用)
?These philosophical views serve as a guide in life. ?这些哲学观点可以作为处世指南。 ?He will serve as mayor. ?他将任市长一职。 ?近义词:act as..... ?区别:serve 为……服务

II. Text Explanation
? It may be flat, concave, and convex or any one of a great variety of shapes to promote turbulence or help control combustion.

? concave [?k?n?keiv] n. 凹, 凹面 ? convex [?k?n?veks] ? adj. 表面弯曲如球的外侧, 凸起的
? 译文:(活塞顶部)形状可以是平顶、凹顶、凸 顶或者其它各种形状,这些形状促进紊流或有助 于控制燃烧。

II. Text Explanation
?a great variety of ?adj.多种,各种,多种多样的 ?We will appeal to a great variety of sources of information. ?我们将求助于多种资料来源。

Classification of piston top
shape
flat

diagram

convex

concave

II. Text Explanation
?To avoid misplacing the rod caps during assembly, the connecting rods and their mating caps are marked on one side with serial numbers, starting with the first rod from the radiator, to identify their location in the engine.
?译文:为了避免装配错误,从散热器的一侧为开 始,在连杆以及与其相配的连杆盖的一侧标注有 序列数以区分它们在发动机中的位置。

II. Text Explanation
? avoid vt. 避免[(n./+v-ing)]
? They all avoided mentioning that name. 他们都避免提及那名字。 She braked suddenly and avoided an accident. 她紧急刹车,避免了一场车祸。 ? the radiator n. 散热器 ? misplace [mis?pleis] vt. 放错地方

III. Exercises
? Translate the following expressions into Chinese.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?活塞环 piston ring ?活塞销 piston pin ?连杆 connecting rod ?膨胀力 expansion force ?汽缸壁 cylinder wall ?在槽的底部 in the bottom of the grooves ?传递活塞的往复动力 pass the reciprocating power of the piston ?连杆小头 connecting rod small end ?连杆盖 connecting rod cap ?连杆轴瓦 connecting rod bearing half shells

III. Exercises
compression rings oil rings

piston pin piston connecting rod connecting rod bolt

crank bearing half shell connecting rod cap

III. Exercises
? Piston rings are of two basic types, that is, compression rings and oil-control rings. They perform important functions as follows: the upper compression rings must maintain an effective seal against combustion gases leaking past the pistons into the crankcase . The lower oil-control rings serve to control and effectively distribute the lubricating oil thrown on to the cylinder walls, consistent with maintaining good lubrication and an acceptable oil consumption . These rings also provide a means by which surplus heat is transmitted from the piston to the cylinder wall and then to the cooling jacket.

III. Exercises

?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? 1.The piston converts the potential energy of the fuel into kinetic energy that turns the crankshaft. ? 活塞将燃料燃烧的能量转换成驱动曲轴旋转的动能。 ? 2.The piston and rod assembly transmits the power from combustion chamber to the crankshaft. ? 活塞连杆组将燃烧室的能量传递给曲轴。 ? 3.Shank of the connecting rod is provided with an Icross section to give the rod maximum rigidity with the minimum of weight. ? 为了使连杆得到最大的刚度和最小的重量,连杆杆身部分加工 为工形结构。

III. Exercises

?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1. 活塞销装在活塞的环形的孔里。活塞销把活塞和连杆连接 起来。用来支撑活塞销的活塞厚的部分称为活塞销凸台。 ? A piston pin fits into a round hole in the piston. The piston pin joins the piston to the connecting rod. The thick part of the piston that holds the piston pin is the pin boss. ? 2.活塞销贯穿活塞,把连杆小头与活塞连在一起,并将连杆 保持在活塞中心的适当位置处。 ? The piston pin fits through one side of the piston, through the small end of the rod, and then through the other side of the piston. It holds the rod firmly in place in the center of the piston.

III. Exercises
? 3.顶部的两道保证活塞与气缸壁间密封的环叫做气环。 底下的一道防止机油飞溅到缸筒从而窜入燃烧室的环叫做 油环。 ? The top two rings are to keep the gases in the cylinder and are called compression rings. The lower one prevents the oil splashed onto the cylinder bore from entering the combustion chamber, and is called an oil ring.

III. Exercises

?variable compression ratio 缩写VCR
?可变压缩比 ?Function: ?Satisfying high compression for starting and lower compression under load

Specialized English for Automobile

Crankshaft and Flywheel

Unit 2-4

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions
What?s the crankshaft assembly composed of?
flywheel

timing gear belt pulley

crankshaft

bearing s

I. Pre-questions
?What is regarded as the “backbone” of the engine and why?

?Crankshaft, because it can change the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion and handle the entire power output.

I. Pre-questions

Components:
crankshaft journal rod journal front end balanced weight

rear end

crank

I. Pre-questions
?What?s the function of the flywheel?
?helping the engine to run smoothly by absorbing some of the energy during the power stroke and releasing it during the other strokes; ?carrying the clutch, which transmits the drive to the gearbox; ?has the starter ring gear around its circumference.

I. Pre-questions
?Where is the flywheel in the engine?
?the rear of the crankshaft.

the starter ring gear

II. Text Explanation
? The periodic gas and inertia forces taken by the crankshaft may cause it to suffer wear and bending or distortion.
? ? ? ? ? bending [?bendi?] n. 弯曲(度), 挠度 distortion [dis?t????n] n. 扭曲, 变形, 曲解, 失真 译文:周期性的气体作用力和惯性力作用于曲轴, 会使曲轴遭受磨损、弯曲或扭曲变形。

II. Text Explanation
?Periodic [,pi?ri'?dik] adj.
?周期的,周期性的;定期的 ?时而发生的;间歇(性)的 ?the periodic motion of a planet ?行星的周期运动 ?be taken by ?对...很喜爱, 被...迷住, 被...吸引

II. Text Explanation
?Inertia [in'?:?i?] n.

?1. 惯性;惯量;惰性 Inertia carried the train past the station. 惯性使火车驶过了车站。 ?2. 不活动;迟钝;懒惰 I get a feeling of inertia on a hot summer day. 在盛夏我有一种懒洋洋的感觉。

II. Text Explanation
?In order to reduce or eliminate such vibration, it must be provided with counter balanced weights that extend radically from the crankshaft centerline in the opposite direction of the crank arms. ?译文:为了减少或消除振动,它必须装有平衡重, 而且平衡重应径向地从曲轴中心线向曲柄相对的 方向延伸安装。

II. Text Explanation
? eliminate [i?limineit] vt. 排除, 消除
? vibration [vai?brei??n] ? n. 振动, 颤动, 摇动, 摆动 ? counter balanced weight ? crank arm 曲柄 平衡重

II. Text Explanation
?be provided with 为......提供…..装备 ?provide sb with sth=provide sth for sb ?为某人提供什么
?Sheep provide us with wool. ?羊供给我们羊毛。 ?They are ill provided with food. ?他们的食品不足。

II. Text Explanation
?As well as its function is to help the engine to run smoothly by absorbing some of the energy during the power stroke and releasing it during the other strokes;

?译文:(飞轮)的作用是通过吸收作功行程的能 量和在其它行程释放能量,促使发动机平稳运转;

II. Text Explanation
?the power stroke 作功行程
?As well as 和,也,还 (连接词 and)
? The boss provided lunch as well as breakfast. ? 老板提供午餐还有早餐。 ? She sings as well as playing the piano. ? 她不但会弹钢琴,而且会唱歌。 ? I as well as they am ready to help you. ? 不仅他们愿意帮助你,我也愿意帮助你。

II. Text Explanation
?The rod journals are hollow in order to reduce the crankshaft inertia.

?The rod journals 连杆轴颈

?译文:为了减少曲轴的惯性,连杆轴颈是中空的。

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? main bearing journal rod journal crank arm counter balanced weight timing gear front and rear seals top dead center multi-cylinder engine bearing cap belt pulley ? 主轴颈 ? 连杆轴颈 ? 曲柄 ? 平衡重 ? 正时齿轮 ? 前后油封 ? 上止点 ? 多缸发动机 ? 轴承 ? 皮带轮

III. Exercises
belt pulley timing gear flywheel

tortional vibration damper

cranking claw

crankshaft

flywheel bolt

main bearing

III. Exercises
?The crankshaft , regarded as the “backbone ” of the engine, serves to change the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion and handles the entire power output. The crankshaft is actually made up of various parts such as main bearing journal, rod journal, crank arm, counterbalanced weight and flywheel. The connecting rod links its large end to the crankshaft and its small end to the piston .

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? 1.The crankshaft, regarded as the “backbone” of the engine, serves to change the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion and handles the entire power output. ? 曲轴作为发动机的支柱,可将活塞的往复运动转换成旋转 运动,并且将整个能量输出。 ? 2.The crankshaft is either forged from high quality steel or cast in high-strong iron. ? 曲轴或者是用高质量的钢整体铸造而成,或者是用高强度 的铁铸成。

III. Exercises
? 3.The number of bearings used usually depends on the number of cylinders in the engine, and the design of the engine.

? 曲轴主轴承的数量常常取决于发动机缸体的数量和发动机 的设计。

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.曲轴的作用是把往复动力变为旋转动力。 ? The crankshaft serves to change the reciprocating power into rotary power. ? 2.飞轮由碳钢制成。它安装在曲轴的后面。 ? The flywheel is made from carbon steel. It fits onto the rear of the crankshaft. ? 3.飞轮可通过离合器,将动力传给变速箱。 ? The flywheel can carry the clutch, which transmits the drive to the gearbox.

III. Exercises
?The main bearings are designed as two-piece friction-type. Half the bearing is placed into the block. The other half is placed in the bearing cap.
?主轴承被设计为两部分组成,一半装在缸体上, 另一半装在轴承盖上。

Specialized English for Automobile

Valve Gear

Unit 2-5

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions

engine produce

Expansion power

combustion

Valve Gear

timing

Intake and exhaust

I. Pre-questions
? What is the function of the valve gear in an internal combustion engine?
? Open the intake valve in time and let the airfuel mixture into the cylinders in intake stroke. ? Open the exhaust valve in time and let the exhaust gases out of the cylinder in exhaust stroke.

I. Pre-questions
? What does the valve gear of an internal combustion engine consist of?
spring rocks

valves
push rods

tappets
camshaft

I. Pre-questions
? Which component drives the camshaft? ? crankshaft tooth synchro-belt
camshaft timing gear

tension mechanism

crankshaft timing gear

I. Pre-questions
? What is the function of the valve spring?
? The valve spring provides the force necessary to close the valve and hold it tightly against its seat.

camshaft

camshaft

spring

piston

II. Text Explanation
? In an internal combustion engine, the valve gear provides timely admission of the fresh charge into the cylinders and exhaust of spent gases from them.
? 译文:在内燃机中,配气机构能定时地将新鲜的 混合气充入气缸,并且将废气从气缸中排出。

II. Text Explanation
? internal combustion engine 内燃机
? valve train 配气机构 ? timely adj 及时的,适时的 ? fresh charge 新鲜混合气

II. Text Explanation
? Camshaft?s function is to open the engine valves positively and timely, in a definite sequence, and to control their closing against the return action of the valve springs.
? 译文:凸轮轴的功用是按特定的顺序准确适时地 打开气门并通过气门弹簧的回位作用控制气门的 关闭。

II. Text Explanation
?Positively 断然地,肯定地,明确的
?He said quite positively that he would come. ?他很明确地说他会来的。 ?"Do you believe him?" "Positively." "你相信他吗?""当然。" ?in a definite sequence ?以一定的次序,以一定的顺序

II. Text Explanation
?The valve gear is composed of timing gears, a camshaft, tappets, push rods, rocks, valves, valve seats, spring with fasteners and valve guides.
? ? ? ? be composed of 由……组成 tappet 挺杆 ? fastener 紧固件 valve guide 气门导管

II. Text Explanation
?The timing gears in most engines are housed in a special case fitted at the front end of the engine.
?The timing gears 正时齿轮

?译文:在多数发动机中,正时齿轮都是用特殊的 方式安装在发动机的前端。

II. Text Explanation ?fit
? 1.(衣服)合...身;与...相称 ? This dress doesn't fit me. ? 这件衣服不适合我穿。 ? 2. 适合于;使适合(+for) ? Her training fits her for the job. ? 她所受的训练使她能胜任这项工作。 ? 3. 安装 Can you fit the electric fire for me? 你能替我装上电炉吗?

II. Text Explanation
? The valve head has a narrow chamfer of 45°or 30°referred to as valve face. ? The valve head 气门头部
? 译文:气门头部有45°或 30°的气门锥角窄斜 面作为气门密封面。

II. Text Explanation
?be referred to as 被称作/当作…….
?The teacher refers to the poor child as his own son. ?老师把这个穷孩子当成自己的孩子来看待。

Valve
Function

II. Text Explanation

Open a passage when moving in one direction and to close it when moving in the opposite direction.

stem

valve head

II. Text Explanation

Valve seat angle

III. Exercises
Translate the following expressions into Chinese.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? eccentric wheel timing gear tappet push rod valve spring valve clearance valve stem valve seat valve guide oil pump ?偏心轮 ?正时齿轮 ?挺柱 ?推杆 ?气门弹簧 ?气门间隙 ?气门杆 ?气门座 ?气门导管 ?油泵

III. Exercises
?1-rocks ?2-valve spring ?3-valve guide ?4-valve ?5-valve seat ?6-camshaft ?7-tappet ?8-push rod

III. Exercises
? In the past, most engines had two valves for each cylinder, one is for the intake and the other for the exhaust . Nowadays, however , many smaller and high performance engines use two intake valves and two exhaust valves per cylinder. This design makes smaller engines more powerful . The exhaust valves are usually smaller in diameter than the intake ones. The valves are located within the cylinder head on most engines designed today. The valve guide is the hole that supports the valve in the cylinder head. It helps to hold and center the valve so that correct seating can be obtained.

III. Exercises
? I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. ? 1.There is the valve clearance between the rocker contact pad and the valve stem tip, so that the valve will be tightly pressed against its seat when hot. ? 当受热时,为了保证气门与气门座紧密压紧,在摇臂接触 处与气门杆顶部之间留有气门间隙。 ? 2.Rocker arms are designed to change the direction of the cam lifting force and provide a certain mechanical advantage during valve lifting. ? 摇臂可用来改变凸轮提举力的方向并且当气门升起时可提 供一些机械的(省力)优势。

III. Exercises
? 3.Valve guide supports the valve stem and guides its movement so that the valve face remains perfectly concentric with the valve seat and fits it without any skewing. ? 气门导管可支承气门杆部并且对气门的运动起导向作用, 因此气门与气门座要毫无偏差的同心配合。

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.气门由头部和杆部组成。 ? A valve consists of a head and stem. ? 2.配气机构由正时齿轮、凸轮轴、挺杆、气门、带有锁紧 装置的气门弹簧和气门导管组成。 ? The valve gear is composed of timing gears, a camshaft, tappets, valves, spring with fasteners and valve guides.

III. Exercises
? 3.摇臂的一端安装调整螺钉用来调节摇臂与气门杆尾端 之间的气门间隙。 ? The valve clearance can be adjusted by adjusting screw of the rocker arm.

III. Exercises

Valve clearance
Valve clearance rocker

valve stem

Specialized English for Automobile

Cooling System

Unit 2-6

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions
?What is the function of the cooling system?
?Keeping the engine temperature in suitable operating scope and making the engine work most effectively.

Classification
–Water-cooling system

–Air-cooling system

I. Pre-questions
?What does the water-cooling system consist of?

?the engine water jacket, thermostat, water pump, shutter, radiator, radiator cap, fan, fan drive belt and necessary hoses.

I. Pre-questions

shutter

radiator

fan

water pump water pipe

thermostat

I. Pre-questions
?How does the coolant circulate when the thermostat opens?

the cylinder head the radiator Cylinder block

a thermostat water pump

I. Pre-questions

?What is the function of the radiator?

?Function : dissipate the heat which the coolant has absorbed from the engine.

I. Pre-questions
radiator pressure cap

upper tank

fin lower tank

I. Pre-questions

?Classification of radiator core

The fin and tube type

The ribbon cellular type

I. Pre-questions

?Where is the fan usually mounted ?
?on an extension of the water pump shaft and is driven by a V-belt from a pulley mounted on the front end of the crankshaft.

I. Pre-questions
fan
alternator

belt

crankshaft

II. Text Explanation
?This means that the engine can work effectively only when the heat energy is equally handled so as to keep the engine temperature in balance.
?effectively [i'fektivli]adv.有效地 有力地 ?译文:这意味着只有均等地处理热能以保持发动 机温度的均衡,发动机才能有效地工作。

II. Text Explanation
? The radiator cap served not only to prevent the coolant from splashing out the filler opening, but also to prevent evaporation of the coolant.
? ? ? ? The radiator cap 散热器盖 splash n .vt.喷,飞溅 Evaporation [i?v?p??rei??n] n. 蒸发 译文:散热器盖不仅可以防止冷却液溢出,而且 还可防止冷却液蒸发。

II. Text Explanation
?Water pumps are of many designs, but most are the centrifugal type. ?Water pumps 水泵 ?Centrifugal [sen?trifju???] adj. 离心的 ?译文:水泵有很多种形式,但是多数都采用离心 式水泵。

II. Text Explanation
?As long as the coolant temperature remains low, the thermostat stays closed.

?As long as 只要 ?the thermostat 节温器 ?译文:只要冷却液的温度仍很低,节温器就会维 持关闭的状态。

II. Text Explanation
? Usually the same belt drives the alternator, and belt tension is adjusted by swinging the alternator on its mounting.
? the alternator 发电机 ? swing [swi?] v. 摇摆, 摆动 n. 摇摆, 摆动 ? 译文:通常同一根皮带还要驱动发电机,并且皮 带的张紧度可通过摆动装在上面的发电机来调整。

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese.
? 1.radiator ? 2.water-cooling system ? 3.air-cooling system ? 4.coolant ? 5.antifreeze ? 6.water jacket ? 7.thermostat ? 8.water pump ? 9.radiator cap ? 10.centrifugal pump ?散热器 ?水冷系统 ?风冷系统 ?冷却液 ?防冻液 ?水套 ?节温器 ?水泵 ?散热器盖 ?离心式水泵

III. Exercises

Centrifugal water pump
Water pump housing

impeller Outlet water pipe

Inlet water pipe

III. Exercises Function Alternating the circuit of cooling water according to the load of the engine and the temperature of water and then controlling the water flow. Wax-element Thermostat
push rod
main valve

spring thermostat cover

wax rubber pipe

III. Exercises

To radiator

Form engine To Simple circulating
Low temperature

Form engine

High temperature

III. Exercises

?It is a common experience that heat always flows from a hotter substance to a colder substance, and a physical principle that the greater the temperature difference between them the more rapidly is the heat transferred. With air cooling, the forced circulation of air around the engine is generally provided by a centrifugal fan or impeller, which rotates in a spiral-shaped housing.

III. Exercises

?This type of fan is capable of overcoming the appreciable resistance offered to the air as it flows around the ducted and finned cylinders and cylinder heads. The fan is driven by a V-belt and pulley system from the engine.

III. Exercises ?Ⅰ. Translate the following expressions into Chinese.
? The purpose of the cooling system is to keep the engine at its most efficient operating temperature at all speeds under all driving conditions. ? 冷却系统的作用是在任何行驶条件下的任何转速中,发动 机都能维持最有效的工作温度。 ? As fuel is burned in the engine, about one-third of the heat energy in the fuel is converted into power. ? 发动机中的燃料燃烧时,大约有三分之一的热能被转化成 了动能。 ? The thermostat is closed when the engine is cold to allow the engine to warm up more rapidly. ? 当发动机温度低时,节温器关闭使发动机能快速预热。

III. Exercises ?II. Identify the English names of automobile assemblies according to the picture.
? 水冷系是以水作为冷却介质用以在发动机中循环的。 ? The water cooling system means that water is used as a cooling agent to circulate through the engine. ? 温度太高或太低都会对发动机的正常运转有直接的影响。 ? The engine temperatures, either too high or too low, would have direct effects on the normal operation of the engine. ? 如果用水冷却,发动机所产生的热量由冷却水带至散热器 散发。 ? With a water cooling system, the heat produced by an engine is carried by cooling water to the radiator for dissipation.

Specialized English for Automobile

Lubrication System

Unit 2-6

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions

?What is the function of lubricating oil?
?reducing friction and minimizing wear. ?absorbing and carrying the heat away from the engine parts ? washing off dirt away from the engine parts ? absorbing shocks ?forming a good seal between piston rings and cylinder walls

I. Pre-questions

Principle of lubricating

Lubricating oil

bearing

shaft

I. Pre-questions
?What else does the lubrication system contain, apart from the lubricating oil?

?Oil pan, oil pump, oil filters, oil pressure regulators, oil coolers and oil sensors

I. Pre-questions
oil gallery

main oil gallery

oil filter

oil pan oil pump

I. Pre-questions
?How is the oil supplied for the moving parts of the engine?

Oil pan

Oil pump

Oil filter

the main oil gallery the moving parts of the engine

I. Pre-questions

main oil line

oil pump

rough filter
suction filter oil pan EQ-6100 Oil Line of Lubricating System

fine filter

I. Pre-questions

Oil filter

appearance

interior structure

I. Pre-questions
Oil dipstick (oil lever stick)

I. Pre-questions

Oil cooler
Function
keeping the oil at its most efficient temperature.

I. Pre-questions
?lubricating systems are divided into two types ,what are they?

?splash lubricating

? pressure lubricating

II. Text Explanation
? first of all, the oil forms a protective coating on the metal surface and prevents a metal to metal contact, thus reducing friction and minimizing wear.

? 译文:首先,(润滑)油可在金属表面形成一层 保护膜避免金属与金属的直接接触,因此降低了 摩擦和减少了磨损。

II. Text Explanation
?first of all 第一,首先 ?protective coating ?friction [?frik??n] 保护膜 n. 摩擦, 摩擦力

II. Text Explanation
?There are several types of pumps, such as gear pump and rotor pump. ?gear pump 齿轮泵 ?rotor pump 转子泵 ?译文:有许多类型的机油泵,如齿轮泵,转子泵。

Gear-type oil pump
Driving gear Inlet port

Outlet port

Driven gear

housing

Rotary oil pump
inlet port housing inner rotor

external rotor outlet port Oil

II. Text Explanation
?Many automobiles have two kinds of oil filters, those named suction filter and rough filter or oil filter.

?suction filter 集滤器 ?rough filter 粗滤器 ?oil filter 机油滤清器

II. Text Explanation
? Thirdly, as the oil circulates through the moving parts of the engine, it tends to wash off dirt away from the engine parts.
? ? ? ? Circulate [?s?:kjuleit] vt.vi 循环流动,(使)流通 wash off 冲洗,洗去 译文:第三,当润滑油在发动机的运动部件中流 动时,便于冲洗走发动机部件上的污垢。

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? gear pump rotor pump bypass valve suction filter rough filter oil pressure sensors lubrication system oil filter splash lubricating pressure lubricating ?齿轮泵 ?转子泵 ?旁通阀 ?集滤器 ?粗滤器 ?机油压力传感器 ?润滑系统 ?机油滤清器 ?飞溅润滑 ?压力润滑

III. Exercises

?1-oil filter ?2-drain cock ?3-suction filter ?4-oil pan ?5-oil line

III. Exercises ?A-bypass valve ?B-housing ?C-Paper filter element ?D-inlet port ?E-outlet port

III. Exercises
?In modern practice, positive displacement pumps of the rotary type are used to deliver oil and develop pressure in the engine lubrication system. The term “positive displacement” is used in hydraulic engineering to describe any pump that displaces a define volume of fluid with each revolution of its drive shaft, regardless of pressure conditions in the circuit it supplies.

III. Exercises
?In other words, the pressure developed by the oil pump depends entirely upon the resistance offered to the flow of oil in the rest of the lubrication circuit. The principal advantage of using this type of pump is that compact in design.

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? The lubrication system is composed of oil pan, oil pump, oil filters, oil pressure regulators, oil coolers and oil sensors. ? 润滑系统主要有油底壳、油泵、机油滤清器、机油压力调 节器、机油冷却器、机油传感器组成。 ? To remove mechanical impurities from the oil circulating through the engine lubrication system, the oil filter is used. ? 在发动机润滑系统中,为了将机械杂质从循环流动的润滑 油中清除,采用了机油滤清器。

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.发动机润滑系通常有压力润滑和飞溅润滑两种方式。 ? Engine lubricating systems are usually divided into two types: splash, pressure feed. ? 2.机油在活塞环和汽缸壁之间形成密封油膜。 ? The oil forms a good seal film between piston rings and cylinder walls. ? 3. 机油进入气缸盖,通过油道流入凸轮轴轴瓦和配气机构。 ? The oil is sent to the cylinder head , then flows into the camshaft bearings and valve gear through drilled oil passages.

Specialized English for Automobile

Electronic Fuel Injection System

Unit 2-8

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions

?What is the EFI system consist of?

?the fuel delivery system ?air induction system ?the electronic control system.

I. Pre-questions
?What is the fuel delivery system composed of?

?the fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel filter, ?fuel delivery pipe (fuel rail), fuel injector, fuel pressure regulator, and fuel return pipe . ? Some engines also have pulsation damper.

the fuel delivery system
fuel 输油管 delivery pipe Fuel pressure regulator 冷起动喷油器 fuel pressure regulator 油压调节器

油箱 fuel tank 燃油滤清 fuel pump 器

喷油器 fuel injector

油压脉动 pulsation damper 衰减器

I. Pre-questions
?What does the air induction system consist of ?

? the air cleaner, air flow meter, throttle valve, air intake chamber, intake manifold runner, and intake valve.

Air supply system
Air cleaner Air flow meter throttle

ECU

Idle speed control valve

I. Pre-questions
?How does EFI system operate?
Fuel pressure regulator
Fuel tank Fuel pump Filter Input pipe injector

Intake Air Temperature Sensor Coolant Temperature sensor

ECU
Engine speed sensor

Throttle position sensor Air flow sensor

II. Text Explanation
?The air induction system consists of the air cleaner, air flow meter, throttle valve, air intake chamber, intake manifold runner, and intake valve. ?The air induction system 进气系统 ?air flow meter 空气流量计 ?throttle valve 节气门 ?intake manifold 进气歧管 ?译文:进气系统由空气滤清器、空气流量计、节 气门、空气进气室、进气歧管管道和进气门组成。

II. Text Explanation
?The actuators contains fuel pump relay, injector, Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL), EVAP canister purge solenoid valve, air conditioner relay, cooling fan relays, idle control valve, etc. ?The actuators 执行器 ?fuel pump relay 燃油泵继电器 ?Malfunction Indicator Light 故障指示灯

II. Text Explanation

?EVAP canister purge solenoid valve ?燃油蒸发炭罐净化电磁阀 ?idle control valve 怠速控制阀

?译文:执行器包括燃油泵继电器,故障指示灯, 燃油蒸发炭罐净化电磁阀,空调继电器,冷却风 扇继电器,怠速控制阀等。

II. Text Explanation
? When the injector is turned on, it opens, spraying atomized fuel at the back side of the intake valve.
? atomize ['?t?maiz] v. 将…喷成雾状 ? turned on 被闭合 ? 译文:当喷油器线路闭合,喷口打开,将雾状的 燃油喷射到进气门的后方。

II. Text Explanation
? The ECU signals the injector to deliver just enough fuel to achieve an ideal air/fuel ratio of 14.7:1, often referred to as stoichiometry.
? an ideal air/fuel ratio 空燃比 ? referred to 查阅, 提到, 谈到, 打听 ? stoichiometry [ 7st??k???m?tr?] n. 化学计量法 ? 译文:ECU常常参照化学计量法向喷油器发出信 号输送足够的燃油以达到14.7的空燃比。

II. Text Explanation
?The basic function of the ECU is to control the pulse width of the injector.

?the pulse width 脉冲宽度 ?译文:发动机控制单元的基本功能是控制喷油器 的脉冲宽度。

II. Text Explanation
? The ECU monitors variables such as coolant temperature, engine speed, throttle angle and exhaust oxygen content and makes injection corrections which determine final injection quantity.
? ? ? ? monitor [?m?n?tE] n. 班长, 监听器, 监视器, 监控器 vt.监控 coolant temperature 冷却液温度

II. Text Explanation

?throttle [?Wr?t?] n.节气门 ?oxygen [??ks?dVEn] n.氧气 ?译文:ECU监控的变量有冷却液温度,发动机转 速,节气门开度,废气中的含氧量,根据这些, ECU可对喷射的燃油做出修正以确定最终的喷油 量。

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? mass airflow sensor throttle position sensor intake air temperature sensor crankshaft position sensor exhaust gas oxygen sensor fuel pressure regulator air/fuel ratio L type EFI system pulsation damper idle control valve ? 空气流量传感器 ? 节气门位置传感器 ? 进气温度传感器 ? 曲轴位置传感器 ? 氧传感器 ? 油压调节器 ? 空燃比 ? L型电喷系统 ? 脉动衰减器 ? 怠速控制阀

III. Exercises
?1- the air cleaner ?2- air flow meter ?3- throttle valve ?4- idle speed control valve ?5- intake manifold ?6-intake valve ?7- injector ?8- air intake chamber

III. Exercises

? A-cold start injector, B- pulsation damper; C-fuel filter; Dfuel tank; E-fuel pump; F- fuel pressure regulator ;Ginjector

III. Exercises
?The engine intake air first passes through an air cleaner and is then measured for quantity by an air flow meter. This incorporates a spring-returned rotatable flap in its air passage. As the air flows through the meter it deflects the flap, until a condition of equilibrium is maintained between the air pressure and the closing torque on the flap.

III. Exercises
?The angle through which the flap is rotated is electronically monitored , so that the EFI control unit can compute the quantity of fuel to be injected. As the flap of the air flow meter is rotated a complementary damper plate, working within a close-clearance air chamber, ensures that the flap is not disturbed by pulsations in the intake manifold.

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. ?1.the engine ECU calculates the optimum fuel injection volume, and causes the injectors to inject the fuel. ?发动机ECU计算出最适宜的燃油喷射量,然后 使喷油器喷射燃油。 ?(见Text Explanation )

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.ECU可根据传感器信号计算最佳喷油持续期。 ? The ECU calculates the optimum fuel injection volume in accordance with the signals from these sensors. ? 2.曲轴位置传感器用于检测曲轴转角和发动机速度。 ? The crankshaft position sensor is used to detect the crankshaft angle and engine speed. ? 3.发动机怠速运转所需要的空气可以来自怠速控制阀。 ? The air needed for a engine idle can come from an idle control valve.

Specialized English for Automobile

Emission Control System

Unit 2-9

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions
?What is the function of the emission control system? ?To limit the pollution caused by the harmful products of storing and burning fuel.

I. Pre-questions
?What are the emissions control system?

?Positive crankcase ventilation system
?Evaporative Emission Controls ?Exhaust Emission Controls

I. Pre-questions
?What is the Positive crankcase ventilation system consist of? 1-crankcase; 2-intake manifold; 3-PCV; 4-ventilation pipe; 5- ventilation outlet filter;

6-cylinder head cover

I. Pre-questions

?What is the function of EGR?
?To reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides ?What is the meaning of EGR? ?exhaust gas recirculation

I. Pre-questions

? Where are the Catalytic converters located? ? They are located in the exhaust system between the engine and the muffler.

I. Pre-questions

?What is the function of the Catalytic converters ?

?to convert harmful pollutants such as HC, CO, and NOx into harmless gases.

II. Text Explanation

?Usually the fuel tank, exhaust gases, crankcase area produce the majority of pollution in the automobile.
?majority 是名词,通常用法:the majority of .. ?most是形容词或副词 ?区别: majority只能修饰可数名词, most可数不 可数均可

?译文:通常汽车中油箱、废气、曲轴箱区 域产生的污染物占大多数。

II. Text Explanation

?These emissions are easily controlled by the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system.

?译文:这些排放物利用曲轴箱强制通风系 统是很容易控制的。

II. Text Explanation

?Emission 排放物
?the positive crankcase ventilation ?曲轴箱强制通风 ?缩写 PCV

II. Text Explanation
?The method used to reduce oxides of nitrogen is to cool down the combustion process by using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve.

?译文:用来降低氮氧化物产生的方法就是利用废 气再循环阀来使燃烧过程中的温度降低。

II. Text Explanation

? nitrogen
? oxygen

[?naitrEdVEn]
[??ks?dVEn]

n. 氮
n. 氧

? oxides of nitrogen 氮氧化物
? exhaust gas recirculation (valve)

? 废气再循环(阀)
? 缩写 PCV

II. Text Explanation
? In addition, air injection system can be used to reduce the amount of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust is by forcing fresh air into the exhaust system after combustion. ? hydrocarbon [haidrEu?k???En] ? n. 烃, 碳氢化合物 ? carbon monoxide 一氧化碳 ? 译文:除此之外,空气喷射系统也能降低废气中 HC和CO的数量,它是将新鲜的空气充入到燃烧 后的排气系统中。

II. Text Explanation
? Catalytic converters are located in the exhaust system between the engine and the muffler.
? ? ? ? be located in/on/at 位于…. Catalytic converters 催化转化器 muffler [?m?flE] n. 消声器 译文:催化转化器在排气系统中位于发动机和排 气消声器之间。

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? fuel tank ? 油箱 ? EGR valve ? 废气再循环阀 ? muffler ? 消声器 ? activated charcoal ? 活性炭 ? evaporative Emission Controls ? 蒸汽回收控制 ? exhaust gas recirculation system ? 废气再循环系统 ? carbon canister ? 炭罐 ? positive crankcase ventilation ? 曲轴箱强制通风 ? catalytic converters ? 催化转换器 ? Emission Control System ? 排放控制系统

III. Exercises
? 1-Vacuum solenoid valve ? 2-throttle ? 3-Catalytic converters ? 4-oxygen sensor ? 5- coolant temperature sensor ? 6-EGR valve

6

III. Exercises

?A-fuel tank; B-vapor ventilation pipe; ?C-Canister control solenoid valve; D-intake manifold; E-Carbon canister

III. Exercises
?Many pollution control devices are designed to reduce emissions from the exhaust system. This is done by using many new systems and modifying others. These modifications include design changes to the ignition system, carburetor, intake manifold, combustion chamber and camshaft. Other changes include using a higher temperature thermostat and lowering comperssion ratios. This results in lower combustion temperatures and therefore reduces NOx.

III. Exercises
? I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. ? 1.In operation, part of the exhaust gas (usually less than 10%) is sent back through the intake manifold. ? 在工作中,废气中有一部分气体(常常是低于10%)通过 进气歧管返回。 ? 2.When combustion temperature is in certain high degrees, nitrogen mixes with oxygen and produces oxides of nitrogen. ? 当燃烧的温度达到一定高度时,氮气和氧气混合产生氮氧 化物。

III. Exercises
? 3.These vapors are drawn up through a vacuum-andspring-controlled ventilating valve and into the intake manifold.

? 这些被吸出的蒸汽通过真空和弹簧控制的通风阀进入进气 歧管。

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.
? 1.催化转化器提供了另一种废气处理的装置。 ? Catalytic converters provide another method of treating exhaust gases. ? 2.炭罐是蒸汽回收控制系统中用来减少污染物排放的一个重 要装置。 ? Carbon canister is an important device of which are being used to reduce these emissions. ? 3.汽油车的排放物通常有以下四个来源:油箱、燃油喷射系 统、曲轴箱通风、排气系统。 ? Emissions from a gasoline driven motor vehicle usually come from 4 sources : the fuel tank, fuel injection system, the crankcase, and the exhaust system.

Specialized English for Automobile

Intake and Exhaust Systems

Unit 2-10

Specialized English for Automobile

Contents

I. Pre-questions

II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

I. Pre-questions

?What are the air intake and exhaust systems used to do? ?to clean the air coming in and reduce the noise coming out

I. Pre-questions

?What does the intake system consist of?

?air filter, intake ducting, intake manifolds, and intake air temperature sensor. ?Some engines have supercharger in the intake system.

I. Pre-questions

air filter
intake manifolds

intake ducting

I. Pre-questions
?intake manifolds

I. Pre-questions

?What does the exhaust system include?
?an exhaust manifold, ?exhaust pipe, ?catalytic converters, ?muffler, ? and tailpipe.

I. Pre-questions

I. Pre-questions

?What is the purpose of the air filters?

?To trap contaminants, ?To provide a free flow of air into the engine

I. Pre-questions
?Air filter

II. Text Explanation

? For an engine to operate correctly, air must flow into and out of the engine without restriction.
? restriction [ris?trik?En] n. 限制, 约束

? 译文:为了使发动机正常工作,空气必须 要不受任何限制的流进或流出发动机。

II. Text Explanation

?Catalytic converters are emission control devices that contain chemically treated substances that convert harmful emissions into harmless carbon dioxide and water vapor. ?译文:三元催化转化器是一种排放控制装 置,它可以通过内部的化学物质将有害的 排放物转化成无害的二氧化碳和水蒸气。

II. Text Explanation

Catalytic converter

II. Text Explanation
?Catalytic converter

II. Text Explanation

? The muffler is employed to reduce the exhaust sound of the engine. ? muffler [?m?flE] n. 消声器

? employ vt.使[采、利]用,雇用,使忙于, 使从事于

? 译文:消声器是用来降低发动机中排气噪 声的装置。

II. Text Explanation

? A turbocharger is a device used to supercharge an engine. ? turbocharger [?tE??E?7t???dVE] n. 涡轮 增压器 ? supercharge [?sju?pEt???dV] ? vt. 增压 ? 译文:涡轮增压器是一套用来为发动机增 压的设备。

II. Text Explanation

II. Text Explanation

?1-compressor; 2-turbine; 3-fresh air in; ?4-intake ducting; 5-piston; 6-exhaust ducting.

III. Exercises
?Translate the following expressions into Chinese. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? air filter intake ducting intake air temperature sensor supercharger turbocharger tailpipe compressor muffler exhaust manifold paper element ? 空气滤清器 ? 进气管 ? 进气温度传感器 ? 增压器 ? 涡轮增压器 ? 排气管 ? 压缩机
? 消声器

? 排气歧管 ? 纸质滤芯

III. Exercises

intake manifolds

muffler

Catalytic converters

III. Exercises
?The exhaust pipe is the connecting pipe between the exhaust manifold and the muffler or catalytic converter. Catalytic converters are emission control devices that contain chemically treated substances that convert harmful emissions into harmless carbon dioxide and water vapor. The catalytic converter is installed to reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrous oxides (NOx). The catalytic converter does this by operating at high temperature, which burns the unwanted byproducts of combustion.

III. Exercises
?I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
? 1.The straight pipe reduces exhaust back pressure, but it does not reduce the sound as much as the baffle type. ? 直管可减少排气的阻力,但是它减少的噪音没有带障碍板类型 的多。 ? 2.High-velocity exhaust gases pass out of the exhaust ports and then through a turbine. ? 高速的废气通过排气装置,然后穿过涡轮。 ? 3.The air filter is used on engine to trap contaminants, yet provide a free flow of air into the engine. ? 空气滤清器可用来阻止杂质进入,从而保障空气自由地流入发 动机中。

III. Exercises
?II. Translate the following sentences into English.

? 1.发动机进排气系统可以净化流入的空气,降低流出气体的 噪声。 ? The engine intake and exhaust systems are designed to clean the air coming in and reduce the noise coming out. ? 2.排气歧管用螺栓固定在发动机缸盖上。 ? The exhaust manifold is bolted to the cylinder head of the engine. ? 3.废气先经过催化器转换,再通过消声器系统排到外部环境。 ? It takes the exhaust gases away through the catalytic converter, then through the muffler system to the outside environment.

Specialized English for Automobile


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