阅读下列四篇短文，从每小题后所给的 A,B,C 或 D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项。
The 2012 London Olympics had enough problems to worry about. But one more has just been added—a communications blackout caused by solar st
After a period of calm within the Sun,scientists have detected the signs of a fresh cycle of sunspots that could peak in 2012,just in time for the arrival of the Olympic torch in London.
Now scientists believe that this peak could result in vast solar explosions that could throw billions of tons of charged matter towards the Earth,causing strong solar storms that could jam the telecommunications satellites and internet links sending live Olympic broadcast from London.
“The Sun’s activity has a strong influence on the Earth. The Olympics could be in the middle of the next solar maximum which could affect the functions of communications satellites,“ said Professor Richard Harrison,head of space physics at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire. At the peak of the cycle,violent outbursts calledcoronal mass ejections(日冕物质抛射) occur in the Sun’s atmosphere,throwing out great quantities of electrically-charged matter. “A coronal mass ejection can carry a billion tons of solar material into space at over a million kilometres per hour. Such events can expose astronauts to a deadly amount,can disable satellites,cause power failures on Earth and disturb communications,” Professor Harrison added. The risk is greatest during a solar maximum when there is the greatest number of sunspots.
Next week in America,NASA is scheduled to launch a satellite for monitoring solar activity called the Solar Dynamics Observatory(SDO),which will take images of the Sun that are 10 times clearer than the most advanced televisions available.
The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory helped to make the high-tech cameras that will capture images of thesolar flares(太阳耀斑) and explosions as they occur.
Professor Richard Holdaway,the lab’s director,said that the SDO should be able to provide early warning of a solar flare or explosion big enough to affect satellite communications on Earth. “If we have advance warning,we’ll be able to reduce the damage. What you don’t want is things switching
off for a week with no idea of what’s caused the problem,” he said.
1. The phrase “communications blackout” in Paragraph 1 most probably refers to 2012 Olympics.
A. the extinguishing of the Olympic torch
B. the collapse of broadcasting systems
C. the transportation breakdown in London
D. the destruction of weather satellites
2. What can be inferred about the solar activity described in the passage?
A. The most fatal matter from the corona falls onto Earth.
B. The solar storm peak occurs in the middle of each cycle.
C. It takes several seconds for the charged matter to reach Earth.
D. The number of sunspots declines after coronal mass ejections.
3. According to the passage,NASA will launch a satellite to
A. take images of the solar system
B. provide early warning of thunderstorms
C. keep track of solar activities
D. improve the communications on Earth
4. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
A. Solar Storms: An Invisible Killer
B. Solar Storms: Earth Environment in Danger
C. Solar Storms: Threatening the Human Race
D. Solar Storms: Human Activities to Be Troubled 【参考答案】1—4、BDCD
人物传记型阅读理解 专题导读 人物传记是记叙文体的一种，主要描写某人的生平事迹、趣闻轶事、生活背景、 个性特征、成长和奋斗历程等，包含记叙文的时间、地点、人物、事件等要素。 其特点是以时间的先后或事件的发展为主线，空间或逻辑线索贯穿文章始终，脉 络清楚，可读性较强。这类文章常采用倒叙的写作方法，即首先用几句话来简单 介绍这个人，接着介绍这个人的出生、成长过程，然后再记述他(她)一两件主要的 事情或业绩，来反映他(她)的思想、品德和情操，最后作者会对他(她)进行评论， 从而表达作者对他(她)的情感。 人物传记类文章一般较长，而且该类命题的题量也较多。文章中往往会出现关于 该人物的大量细节信息，有些细节很直接，只需理解字面意思即可；有些则很间 接，需要综合、归纳、推理才能得出。因此，该类命题既注重考查对特定细节理 解的准确性，又注重考查推理判断能力。 另外，虽然人物传记类文章的时间、空间或逻辑线索较清晰，但是为了提高难度， 命题者往往使用倒叙、插叙或补叙等手段故意打乱故事的陈述次序，使行文的跳 跃性增强，情节也更复杂化。 真题典例 【2011· 山东卷】Arthur Miller(1915－2005)is universally recognized as one of the greatest dramatists of the 20th century.Miller’s father had moved to the USA from Austria-Hungary， drawn like so many others by the “Great American Dream”． However, he experienced severe financial hardship when his family business was ruined in the
Great Depression of the early 1930s. Miller’s most famous play, Death of a Salesman, is a powerful attack on the American system，with its aggressive way of doing business and its insistence on money and social status as indicators of worth.In Willy Loman, the hero of the play, we see a man who has got into trouble with this system.Willy is “burnt out” and in the cruel world of business there is no room for sentiment: if he can’t do the work, then he is no good to his employer, the Wagner Company, and he must go.Willy is painfully aware of this, and at a loss as to what to do with his lack of success.He refuses to face the fact that he has failed and kills himself in the end. When it was first staged in 1949， the play was greeted with enthusiastic reviews， and it won the Tony Award for Best Play，the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award，and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.It was the first play to win all three of these major awards. Miller died of heart failure at his home in Roxbury，Connecticut，on the evening of February 10,2005，the 56th anniversary of the first performance of Death of a Salesman on Broadway. ( )1.Why did Arthur Miller’s father move to the USA?
A．He suffered from severe hunger in his home country. B．He was attracted by the “Great American Dream． ” C．He hoped to make his son a dramatist. D．His family business failed. ( )2.The play Death of a Salesman________.
A．exposes the cruelty of the American business world B．discusses the ways to get promoted in a company C．talks about the business career of Arthur Miller
D．focuses on the skills in doing business ( )3.What can we learn about Willy Loman?
A．He treats his employer badly. B．He runs the Wagner Company. C．He is a victim of the American system. D．He is regarded as a hero by his colleagues. ( )4.After it was first staged，Death of a Salesman ________.
A．achieved huge success B．won the first Tony Award C．was warmly welcomed by salesmen D．was severely attacked by dramatists ( )5.What is the text mainly about?
A．Arthur Miller and his family. B．The awards Arthur Miller won. C．The hardship Arthur Miller experienced. D．Arthur Miller and his best-known play.
【解析】亚瑟·米勒是二十世纪最伟大的剧作家之一。 《推销员之死》是他最有名的 一部作品，曾获得年度最佳百老汇戏剧托尼奖、普利策戏剧奖和纽约戏剧评论奖。 这是第一部获得所有三项大奖的作品。 1．B 细节理解题。由第一段“...drawn like so many others by the ‘Great American Dream’ ． ”可知应选 B。 2．A 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句话可知， 《推销员之死》是对美国制度
的有力的抨击，后面又告诉我们在这金钱至上的制度中，主人公因迷茫、失败最 终自杀，即暴露了美国商业世界的残酷。故正确答案是 A。 3．C 推理判断题。根据第二段对剧中主角 Willy 的介绍，尤其是“got into trouble、 ” “burnt out” 、 “painfully” 、 “at a loss”以及“kills himself”等关键词可以告诉我们 Willy 是美 国制度的牺牲品，故选 C。 4．A 细节理解题。根据第三段第一句话“When it was first staged in 1949，the
play was greeted with enthusiastic reviews...”可知答案为 A。 5．D 主旨大意题。从全文判断，文章主要介绍了亚瑟·米勒的家庭背景和他
最有名的作品《推销员之死》 ，因此 D 为正确答案。
阅读理解 The 2010 Eustace Tilley Contest This marks our third annual contest soliciting(征求) readers' opinions on Eustace Tilley, the magazine's iconic dandy(花花公子), who appeared on the cover of the first issue of The New Yorker and on almost every anniversary issue since. In celebration of our upcoming 85th anniversary, we invite you to create your own version of The New Yorker's dandy. Entries to our third annual Eustace Tilley contest will be accepted from December 17th through January 18th. Winners will be featured on Newyorker. com. Visit newyorker.com/go/tilley2010 to enter and for complete contest rules Open to legal US and Canada residents (except Quebec) age 18 and over.
Video Conversations with James Surowiecki Watch the author of The Financial Pagse column in discussion with policymakers, business leaders, and economists. This month, James Surowiecki speaks with Dan Vasella, the chairman and CEO of
Novartis, about drug prices, healthcare, reform, and the appearance of China in the pharmaceutical(制药的) industry. Visit www.newyorker. com/go/vasella today.
The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Program The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Program brings joy and laughter to young patients in seven New York City pediatric(儿科的) facilities, and 11 more across the country. 90 specially trained professional “clown doctors” visit nearly 250 000 bedsides a year, interacting with the children, family members and staff. The Clown Care Program is a part of the healing process for children who come to New York Presbyterian. The clown unit provides a unique way to reduce the stress associated with being in a hospital. Being able to bring a smile to the face of a sick child clearly complements(辅助) the excellent care provided by our doctors and nurses. We are thrilled to include The Clown Care Program as part of our team. Please help continue this important work by making a financial contribution today at bigapplecircus. org. 9. Whose entry will be accepted by The New Yorker? A. Richard, a postgraduate from Quebec, Canada, who sent his design on Dec.20. B. Amy, a 28yearold AsianAmerican teacher, who sent her design on Jan. 20. C. Jessie, a 16yearold student from New York, who sent her design on Dec. 29. D. John, a 68yearold retired engineer from San Francisco, who sent his design on Jan. 10. 10. Which of the following is NO T true about James Surowiecki? A. James Surowiecki is the author of The Financial Page column. B. James Surowiecki usually has discussions with people from different fields. C. James Surowiecki speaks with a chairman about issues of medicine this month. D. Visiting newyorker. com/go/vasella, you can watch the conversation of this month between James and an economist. 11. ________ can be provided by The Big Apple Circus Care Program for sick children. A. Excellent treatment and care B. Trained professional doctors and nurses D. Special pediatric facilities C. Unique methods to relieve stress
12. Which of the following can be used by The Big Apple Circus Clown Care
Program to promote itself? A. We help all children live happy lives. B. Our doctors jump through rings to cure the blues. C. Every life deserves world class care. D. Work together for a healthier world. 【参考答案】9—10、DD
阅读理解-----------D Lots of people have hobbies. Some people collect old coins or foreign stamps; some do needlework; others spend most of their spare time on a particular sport. A lot of people enjoy reading. But reading tastes differ widely. Some people only read newspapers or comics, some like reading novels, while others prefer books on astronomy, wildlife, or technological discoveries. If I happen to be interested in horses or precious stones, I cannot expect everyone else to share my enthusiasm. If I watch all the sports programs on TV with great pleasure, I must put up with the fact that other people find sports boring. Is there nothing that interests us all? Is there nothing that concerns everyone—no matter who they are or where they live in the world? Yes, dear Sophie, there are questions that certainly should interest everyone. They are precisely the questions this course is about. What is the most important thing in life? If we ask someone living on the edge of starvation, the answer is food. If we ask someone dying of cold, the answer is warmth. If we put the same question to someone who feels lonely and isolated, the answer will probably be the company of other people. But when these basic needs have been satisfied—will there still be something that everybody needs? Philosophers think so. They believe that man cannot live by bread alone. Of course everyone needs food. And everyone needs love and care. But there is something else—apart from that—which everyone needs, and that is to figure out who we are and why we are here. Being interested in why we are here is not a “casual” interest like collecting stamps.
People who ask such questions are taking part in a debate that has gone on as long as man has lived on this planet. How the universe, the earth, and life came into being is a bigger and more important question than who won the most gold medals in the last Olympics. 13. This text is most probably taken from ________. A. a research paper C. a personal letter B. a course schedule D. a book review
14. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? A. Philosophical questions are as interesting as collecting stamps. B. Thinking about philosophical questions is a serious interest. C. Figuring out who we are and why we are here is man's basic needs. D. Philosophy has universal appeal and concerns everybody in nature. 15. The author believes that ________. A. no existing subject can interest everyone in the world B. different people may have different interests and concerns C. everyone has to figure out who we are and why we are here D. people in modern society pay more attention to philosophical questions 【参考答案】13—15、CDC